ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Autism, Mate Crime, Relationships, Friendships
Online: 14 March 2019 (12:26:19 CET)
Mate crime is a specific subset of hate crime in which the perpetrator is known to the victim. To date, there is very little research into the perception and experience of mate crime in autism. The aim of the current study was to examine perceptions of friendship and mate crime in autistic adults, using semi-structured interviews. Five adults were interviewed about their experiences of social interactions, friendships and mate crime. Participants described distancing themselves from the ‘disability’ label whilst growing up to avoid condescension and being perceived as vulnerable, whilst learning to camouflage their social difficulties. Feelings of anxiety were associated with socialising, and participants valued relationships that did not place too many overwhelming demands on their time or energy. Finally, all participants had prior experiences of bullying. They understood the concept of mate crime but were unsure as to whether they would be able to identify it in their own lives if it occurred. However they could identify potential support networks in close friends and family. Results highlight the importance of further research into positive and negative aspects of social relationships in autistic adults, and the need to provide support to those who are socially vulnerable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0344.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: PLA; cellulose; yerba mate; kombucha; food packaging.
Online: 20 December 2022 (01:46:15 CET)
Yerba mate waste (YMW) were used to produce kombucha beverage, and the obtained microbial cellulose produced as by product (KMW) was used to reinforce mechanically recycled poly(lactic acid) (r-PLA) matrix. Microbial cellulosic particles were also produced in pristine yerba mate for comparison (KMN). To simulate the revalorization of industrial PLA products rejected during the production line, PLA was subjected to three extrusion cycles and the resultant pellets (r3-PLA) were then plasticized with 15 wt.% of acetyl tributyl citrate ester (ATBC) to obtain optically transparent and flexible films by solvent casting method. The plasticized r3-PLA-ATBC matrix was then loaded with KMW and KMN in 1 and 3 wt.%. The use of plasticizer allowed a good dispersion of microbial cellulose particles into the r3-PLA matrix, allowing to obtain flexible and transparent films which showed good structural and mechanical performance. Additionally, the obtained films showed antioxidant properties, as it was proven by release analyses conducted in direct contact with a fatty food simulant. The results suggest the potential interest of these recycled and biobased materials that are obtained from the revalorization of food waste for their industrial application in food packaging or agricultural films.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0532.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: MDR transporters; MATE family; NorM; MD simulation; loops; sodium ions
Online: 30 August 2018 (14:43:53 CEST)
The multidrug resistance transporter NorM is an important drug resistance pump and plays a critical role in multidrug resistance in bacteria and mammals. In this study we carried out molecular dynamics simulation to study the mechanism of Na+ binding and dynamical structures of two long loops in the substrate-releasing process in substrate binding NorM. Our simulation study identified several key residues (D41, E261 D377) along the Na+ binding pathway and a multi-state ion-binding mechanism is proposed based on the simulation study. In this proposed model, the transport of Na+ is a multi-stage process with D41 being the first station for binding to Na+, followed by Na+ binding to the second station E262 and finally to the cation-binding site of E262 and D377. During the transport of Na+, the transmembrane components TM1, TM7 and TM2 are rearranged to facilitate the ion transport as well conformational changes of NorM to a closed state. Further, substrate-bound simulation revealed that Loop3-4 and Loop9-10 control the substrate-releasing process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: animal personality; swimming activity; male mate choice; mating preferences; Poecilia reticulata
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:58:42 CET)
Mate choice that is based on behavioural traits is a common feature in the animal kingdom. Using the Trinidadian guppy, a species with mutual mate choice, we investigated whether males use female swimming activity – a behavioural trait known to differ consistently among individuals in many species – as a trait relevant for their mate choice. In a first experiment, we assessed male and female activity in an open field test alone (two repeated measures) and afterwards in heterosexual pairs (two repeated measures). In these pairs, we simultaneously assessed males’ mating efforts by counting number of sexual behaviours (courtship displays and copulation). Male and female guppies showed consistent individual differences in their swimming activity when tested both alone and in a pair, and these differences were maintained across both test situations. When controlling for male swimming behaviour and both male and female body size, males performed more courtship displays towards females with higher swimming activity. In a second experiment, we tested for a directional male preference for swimming activity by presenting males video animations of low and high active females in a dichotomous choice test. In congruence with experiment 1, we found males to spend significantly more time in association with the high active female stimulus. Both experiments thus point towards a directional male preference for higher activity levels in females. We discuss the adaptive significance of this preference as activity patterns might indicate individual female quality, health or reproductive state while, mechanistically, females that are more active might be more detectable to males as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0508.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: sexual selection, sexual conflicts, contemporary evolution, mate choice, mating systems, mating strategies.
Online: 29 August 2018 (16:19:12 CEST)
The study of eco-evolutionary feedbacks is in clear recent expansion. However, most studies concern predator-prey and host-parasite interactions, while the analysis of eco-evolutionary feedbacks involving sexual interactions is lagging behind. This is at odds with the potential of these interactions to engage in such processes. Indeed, there is now ample evidence that sexual selection is affected by ecological change. There is also evidence that sexual selection traits evolve rapidly, which may modify the ecological context of species, and thus the selection pressures they will be exposed to. Here, we first set a clear distinction between processes in which ecology drives evolution and those in which the contemporary evolution of populations may change their ecology, depending on which traits act as drivers and objects of change. We then review evidence for these processes and discuss examples of closed eco-evolutionary feedbacks in an attempt to understand how we can tear this loop apart. We suggest that a better understanding of eco-evolutionary feedbacks of sexual selection may help us understand the effects of sexual selection on the rate of adaptation, speciation, and extinction, and thus foster future research in this area.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0124.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: anthocyanins; proanthocyanidins; flavonols; flavones; flavonoid transport; flavonoid biosynthesis; flavonoid accumulation; ligandin; MATE; ABCC
Online: 28 March 2022 (17:03:39 CEST)
Flavonoids are a biochemically diverse group of specialized metabolites in plants that are derived from phenylalanine. While the biosynthesis of the flavonoid aglycone is highly conserved across species and well characterized, numerous species-specific decoration steps and their relevance remained largely unexplored. The flavonoid biosynthesis takes place at the cytosolic site of the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), but accumulation of various flavonoids was observed in the central vacuole. A universal explanation for the subcellular transport of flavonoids has eluded researchers for decades. Current knowledge suggests that a glutathione S-transferase-like protein (ligandin) protects anthocyanins and potentially proanthocyanidin precursors during the transport to the central vacuole. ABCC transporters and to a lower extend MATE transporters sequester anthocyanins into the vacuole. Glycosides of specific proanthocyanidin precursors are sequestered through MATE transporters. A P-ATPase in the tonoplast and potentially other proteins generate the proton gradient that is required for the MATE-mediated antiport. Vesicle-mediated transport of flavonoids from the ER to the vacuole is considered as an alternative or additional route.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0310.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Sex-recognition; mate-recognition; sexual orientation; puberty; vomeronasal-organ; VNO; learning sexual behavior; Medial-geniculate-nucleus; MGN; MASH
Online: 24 February 2022 (10:06:07 CET)
A large part of our understanding of the biological substrates of sex-recognition and mate-recognition is derived by studying animal models. In performing those tasks, rodents rely mostly of pheromones and other olfactory cues, whereas humans rely mostly on visual cues. That may hinder the translation of rodents’ biology to humans’ biology, especially at the neural-networks level, where those cues traverse different networks in humans and rodents brains. That may be called the “pheromonal-visual gap”. A theoretical model presented here addresses those issues. The model merges observations from humans and model-animals, as reported in specific scientific reports, and general biological principles that are accepted by the scientific community. The model suggests that the voices of men and women are the innate cues based on which humans learn to use visual cues in sex-recognition and mate-recognition. Children learn the two tasks in associative learning mechanisms, by being immersed in their community, and observing adult role-models in innocuous, non-sexual scenarios. The model proposes that the human medial-geniculate-nucleus (MGN) is the analog of the rodents’ accessory-olfactory-bulb (AOB) and the main-olfactory-bulb (MOB), and that the human MASH pathway (MGN, amygdala, bnST, hypothalamus) is the analog of the rodents’ VNOP (Vomeronasal-organ-pathway). Considering the differences in the pathways should facilitate the translation from rodents’ brain nuclei and tracks to humans’. Also, the model hypothesizes that innate direct and indirect connections between auditory centers, e.g., MGN, and sex-control centers, e.g., hypothalamus, vary across three groups of children, and those variations determine the individual’s mate-recognition that emerges at puberty.