ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0211.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: advanced vehicle safety; standard airbag; nanobag; frontal sled test
Online: 13 December 2021 (15:57:43 CET)
Objective: The future mobility challenges leads to considering new safety systems to protect vehicle passengers in non-standard and complex seating configurations. The objective of this study is to assess the performance of a brand new safety system called nanobag and to compare it to the traditional airbag performance in the frontal sled test scenario. Methods: The nanobag technology is assessed in the frontal crash test scenario and compared with the standard airbag by numerical simulation. The previously identified material model is used to assemble the nanobag numerical model. The paper exploits an existing validated human body model to assess the performance of the nanobag safety system. Using both the new nanobag and the standard airbag, the sled test numerical simulations with the variation of human bodies are performed in 30 km/h and 50 km/h frontal impacts. Results: The sled test results for both the nanobag and the standard airbag based on injury criteria shows a good and acceptable performance of the nanobag safety system compared to the traditional airbag. Conclusion: The results show that the nanobag system has its performance compared to the standard airbag, which means that thanks to the design, the nanobag safety system has a high potential and extended application for multi-directional protection against impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: human body; anthropometric dimensions; personalization; subject-specific model; biofidelity
Online: 20 September 2021 (14:15:24 CEST)
Virtual human body models contribute to designing safe and user-friendly products through virtual prototyping. Anthropometric biomechanical models address different physiques using average dimensions. In designing personal protective equipment, biomechanical models with the correct geometry and shape shall play a role. The presented study shows the variations of subject-specific anthropometric dimensions from the average for the different population groups in the Czech Republic and China as a background for the need for personalized human body models. The study measures a set of clothing industry dimensions of Czech children, Czech teens, Czech adults and Chinese adults and compares them to the corresponding age average, which is represented by a scaled anthropometric human body model. The cumulative variation of clothing industry dimensions increases the farer is the population group from the average. It is smallest for the Czech adults 7.54% ± 6.63%, Czech teens report 7.93% ± 6.25% and Czech children differ 9.52% ± 6.08%. Chinese adults report 10.86% ± 11.11%. As the variations of the particular clothing industry dimensions from the average prove the necessity of having personalized subject-specific models, the personalization of particular body segments using the measured clothing industry dimensions leading to a subject-specific virtual model is addressed. The developed personalization algorithm results in the continuous body surface desired for contact applications for assessing body behavior and injury risk under impact loading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0589.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: LLDPE; quasi-static and dynamic experimental tests, impact energy absorption; material parameter identification; constitutive material model; validation; simulation
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:38:40 CET)
Current industrial trends bring new challenges in energy absorbing systems. Polymer materials as the traditional packaging material seem to be promising due to their low weight, structure and production price. Based on the review, the linear low-density polyethylene material was identified as the most promising material for absorbing impact energy. The current paper addresses the identification of the material parameters and the development of a Constitutive material model to be used in future design by virtual prototyping. The paper deals with the experimental measurement of the stress-strain relations of the linear low-density polyethylene under static and dynamic loading. The quasi-static measurement is realized in two perpendicular principal directions and is supplemented by a test measurement in the 45 degrees direction, i.e. exactly between the principal directions. The quasi-static stress-strain curves are analyzed as an initial step for dynamic strain rate dependent material behavior. The dynamic response is tested in the drop tower using a spherical impactor hitting the flat material multi-layered specimen at two different energy levels. The strain rate dependent material model is identified by optimizing the static material response obtained in the dynamic experiments. The material model is validated by the virtual reconstruction of the experiments and by comparing the numerical results to the experimental ones.