CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; atherosclerosis
Online: 16 February 2023 (02:18:09 CET)
Patients with COVID-19 demonstrate higher rates of cardiovascular complications, including thromboses and thromboembolism. One may suppose that the action of SARS-CoV-2 transforms stable atherosclerotic plaques into unstable status. Cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 may be caused by progressive viral alteration the blood vessels, including vasa vasorum. A lethal case of ischemic brain disease caused by cerebral atherosclerosis and exacerbated with a stroke during COVID-19 infection is briefly described. The results of autopsy showed perivascular lymphocytic infiltration and signs of vasa vasorum vasculitis with thrombi of adventitial microvasculature. The data discussed in the article are interpreted in context of the concept giving the important role in atherogenesis to vasa vasorum.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0147.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antineuronal autoantibodies; autoimmune diseases; autoimmune encephalitis; food antigens; kynurenine pathway; microbiota; prolactin; cytokines; schizophrenia; stress
Online: 3 November 2020 (12:53:38 CET)
The review analyzes a possible role of autoimmune processes in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and evolution of concepts on this issue from its origin to present. Risks of autoimmune processes causing schizophrenia are associated with several factors: an impaired functioning of dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems in the brain, kynurenine pathway disorder with overproduction of quinolinic, anthranilic and kynurenic acids (possibly altering both neurons and T-regulators), increased intestinal permeability, as well as food antigens’ effects, stress and infections with various pathogens at different stages of ontogenesis. An increase in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines as well as a decrease in the levels of anti-inflammatory ones also may contribute to schizophrenia risks. Schizophrenia often occurs in those patients having various autoimmune diseases and their first-degree relatives. Cases of schizophrenia resulted from autoimmune pathogenesis (including autoimmune encephalitis caused by autoantibodies against various neuronal antigens) are characterized by quite severe cognitive and psychotic symptoms and less favorable prognosis. This severe course may result from the chronic immune damage of the neuronal receptors such as NMDA, GABA, and others and depend on hyperprolactinemia, induced by antipsychotics, but aggravating autoimmune processes [with 2 tables, 4 figures, bibliography: 99 references].