ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0265.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: poly-PR/GR; neurodegenerative disease; LLPS; p53; intrinsically disordered domains; membraneless organelles
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:43:48 CEST)
Abstract: The most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the presence of poly-PR/GR dipeptide repeats which are encoded by the C9orf72 gene. Recently, it was shown that poly-PR/GR alters chromatin accessibility which results in stabilization and enhancement of transcriptional activity of the tumor suppressor p53 in several neurodegenerative disease models. Reduction of p53 protein levels in cell and model organisms protects against neurotoxicity of poly-PR, and partially protects against neurotoxicity of poly-GR. Here, we aimed to study the detailed molecular mechanisms how p53 contributes to poly-PR/GR mediated neurodegeneration. Using a combination of biophysical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, fluorescence polarization, turbidity assays and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, we found that p53 physically interacts with poly-PR/GR and triggers liquid-liquid phase separation of p53. We identified p53 transactivation domain 2 (TAD2) as the main binding site for PR25/GR25 and show that binding of poly-PR/GR to p53 is mediated by a network of electrostatic and/or hydrophobic interactions. Our findings might help to understand the mechanistic role of p53 in poly-PR/GR - associated neurodegeneration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0510.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: disease-associated mutation; IDR; intrinsically disordered region; LLPS; phase separation; PTM; Ahr; AhRR; SIM1; SIM2; Hif-2α; NPAS4; ARNT2; BMAL1; disorder prediction; LLPS prediction; cancer; HuVarBase; catGranule prediction
Online: 26 October 2020 (10:30:47 CET)
The bHLH-PAS proteins are a family of transcription factors regulating expression of a wide range of genes involved in different functions, from differentiation and development control, by oxygen and toxins sensing to circadian clock setting. In addition to the well-preserved DNA-binding bHLH and PAS domains, bHLH-PAS proteins contain long intrinsically disordered C-terminal regions, responsible for their activity regulation. Our aim was to analyse the potential connection between disordered regions of the bHLH-PAS transcription factors with posttranscriptional modifications and liquid-liquid phase separation in the context of the disease-associated missense mutations. Highly flexible disordered regions, enriched in short more ordered motives, are responsible for wide spectrum of interactions with transcriptional co-regulators. Based on our in silico analysis and taking into account fact that transcription factors functions can be modulated by posttranslational modifications and spontaneous phase separation, we assume that the location of missense mutations inducing disease states, is clearly related to sequences directly undergoing these processes or to sequences responsible for their activity regulation.