ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; SLM technology; porosity research; microhardness research
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:09:54 CEST)
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique. It allows to produce elements with very complex geometry using metallic powders. A geometry of manufacturing elements bases only on 3D CAD data. The metal powder is melt selectively layer by layer using ytterbium laser. The paper contains results of porosity and microhardness analysis made on specimens which were manufactured during specially prepared process. Final analysis helped to discover connections between changing hatching distance, exposure speed and porosity. There was no significant differences in microhardness and porosity measurement results in the planes: perpendicular and parallel to the machine building platform surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; wear analysis; mechanical properties; H13 tool steel
Online: 3 February 2022 (16:18:57 CET)
The paper contains the results of the 100-hour test campaign of the Additive Manufactured (AM) spare part (retainer – slipper) dedicated for an exact axial piston pump. The material of the retainer-slipper has been identified by using energy dispersive spectroscopy and replaced by other – with similar material properties as the original one. The obtained spare part had been subjected to only one postprocessing type (sandblasting) to analyze the influence of the rough part after the AM process. The whole test campaign has been divided into stages, where after each stage microscopic measurements have been made. During microscopical investigation roughness and geometrical measurements were conducted. The results revealed that it is possible to replace parts in hydraulic pumps with the use of AM. 100-hour test campaign caused about 500% increase in the surface roughness of the pump’s original part which was cooperated with the AM spare retainer-slipper, without any damages to the test system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0492.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 316L steel; fatigue cracking; selective laser melting
Online: 21 July 2020 (13:34:49 CEST)
The effects of build orientation and heat treatment on the crack growth behavior of 316L stainless steel (SS) fabricated via a selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process were investigated. Significant growth of available research results of additively manufactured metallic parts still needs to be improved. The most important issue connected with properties after additive manufacturing is properties high anisotropy, especially from the fatigue point of view. The research included crack growth behavior of additively manufactured 316L in comparison to conventionally made reference material. Both groups of samples were obtained using precipitation heat treatment. Different build orientation in additively manufactured samples and rolling direction in reference samples were taken into account as well. Precipitation heat treatment of additively manufactured parts allowed to reach similar microstructure and tensile properties to elements conventionally made. The heat treatment positively affected fatigue properties. Additionally, precipitation heat treatment of additively manufactured elements significantly affected the reduction of fatigue cracking velocity and changed the fatigue cracking mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 316L austenitic steel; selective laser melting; powder bed fusion; technological parameters; mechanical property characterization
Online: 1 March 2020 (15:36:32 CET)
The main aim of this study is to investigate the optimization of the technological process for selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing. The group of process parameters considered was selected from the first-stage parameters identified in preliminary research. Samples manufactured using three different sets of parameter values were subjected to static tensile and compression tests. The samples were also subjected to dynamic Split–Hopkinson tests. To verify the microstructural changes after the dynamic tests, microstructural analyses were conducted. Additionally, the element deformation during the tensile tests was analyzed using digital image correlation (DIC). To analyze the influence of the selected parameters and verify the layered structure of the manufactured elements, sclerometer scratch hardness tests were carried out on each sample. Basing on the research results it was possible to observe the porosity growth mechanism and its influence on the material strength (including static and dynamic tests). Parameters modifications that caused 20% lower energy density, elongation of the elements during tensile testing decreased twice, which was strictly connected with porosity growth. An increase of energy density by almost three times caused a significant reduction of force fluctuations differences between both tested surfaces (parallel and perpendicular to the building platform) during sclerometer hardness testing. That kind of phenomenon had been taken into account in the microstructure investigations before and after dynamic testing where it had been spotted a positive impact on material deformations based on fused material grains formation after SLM processing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0320.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 316L austenitic steel; selective laser melting; hot isostatic pressing; microscopic investigation; residual stresses
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:11:29 CEST)
Industries that rely on additive manufacturing of metallic elements, especially biomedical companies, require material science-based knowledge of how process parameters and methods affect element properties, but such phenomena are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the influence of selective laser melting (SLM) process parameters and additional heat treatment on mechanical properties. The research included structural analysis of residual stress, microstructure, and scleronomic hardness in low-depth measurements. Tensile tests with element deformation analysis using digital image correlation (DIC) were performed as well. Experiment results showed it was possible to observe the porosity growth mechanism and its influence on material strength. Elements manufactured with 20% lower energy density had almost half the elongation, which was directly connected with porosity growth during energy density reduction. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatment allowed for a significant reduction of porosity and helped achieve properties similar to elements manufactured using different levels of energy density.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; FFF technology; Laser amplified ultrasonography; Tensile testing
Online: 30 January 2020 (11:05:28 CET)
The paper is focused on the examination of the internal quality of joints created in a multi-material - additive manufacturing process. The main part of the work focuses on experimental production and non-destructive testing of restrained joints of modified PLA (polylactic acid) and ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) 3Dprinted on RepRap 3D device that works on the "open source" principle. The article presents the outcomes of non-destructive materials test in the form of the data from the Laser Amplified Ultrasonography, microscopic observations of the joints area and tensile tests of the specially designed samples. The samples with designed joints were additively manufactured of two materials: specially blended PLA (Market name – PLA Tough) and conventionally made ABS. The tests are mainly focused on the determination of the quality of material connection in the joints area. Based on the results obtained, the samples made of two materials were compared in the end to establish which produced material joint is stronger and have a lower amount of defects.