REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0458.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: probiotic bacteria; oxalate-degrading; variables; in vivo; in vitro; oxaluria
Online: 29 July 2022 (10:00:53 CEST)
Oxalate, a compound produced by many edible plants and as a terminal metabolite in the liver of mammals, is a toxin that has a detrimental role to human health. Humans and other mam-mals do produce the enzymatic machinery to degrade oxalate. However, numerous oxa-late-degrading bacteria reside in the mammalian gut and thus provide an important function for hosts. The current review focuses on the environmental factors that influence the efficacy of pro-biotic oxalate-degrading bacteria, relative to oxalate metabolism. We describe the mechanism of oxalate catabolism and its consumption by obligate and facultative anaerobic oxalate-degrading bacteria, in both in vitro and in vivo environments. We also explore the environmental variables that impact oxalate degradation. Studies on single species degrade oxalate have not shown a strong impact on oxalate metabolism especially in high oxalate conditions such as consumption of foods high in oxalate (such as coffee and chocolate for humans or halogeton in animal feed). Considering effective variables which enhance oxalate degradation could be used in application of effective probiotic as a therapeutic tool in individuals with hyperoxaluria. This study indicates probiotics can be considered a good source of naturally occurring oxalate degrading agent in human colon
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: coronaviruses; plants metabolites; polyphenols; antiviral-effect
Online: 18 May 2020 (04:09:48 CEST)
Coronaviruses such as SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome), and newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, also called 2019-nCoV and COVID 19, have caused worldwide outbreaks in different time periods. There are many studies about chemical and natural drugs to treat these coronaviruses by inhibiting their proteases or their protein receptors through binding to amino acid residues. Plants secondary and primary metabolites are considered as potential drugs to inhibit various types of coronaviruses. IC50 value (the concentration in which there is 50% loss in enzyme activity) and molecular docking score and binding energy are parameters to understand the metabolites ability to inhibit the specific virus. In this study we did review on more than 110 papers on plant metabolites effect on different coronaviruses. Secondary plant metabolites such as polyphenols (flavonoids, coumarins, stilbenes), alkaloids, terpenoids, organosulfur compounds saponins, saikosaponins, lectins, essential oils, nicotianamine and primary metabolites such as vitamins.