CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0618.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Dengue; Flavivirus; serotype-1; primary infection; dengue warning signs
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:21:00 CEST)
Dengue is an overlooked tropical disease for which billions of people are at risk. The disease, caused by a Flavivirus with four distinct serotypes, is transmitted primarily by urbanized Aedes mosquito species. The infection leads to a spectrum of clinical manifestations, with the majority being asymptomatic. Primary dengue and, to a greater extent, subsequent infection, mainly secondary dengue infection, are associated with increased severity. Increased global travel and recreational tourism expose naïve individuals to dengue, the most common arboviral infections in travelers. We describe a cluster of possible primary acute dengue infections in a group of 12 individuals who presented to Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases in 2017. Infection was confirmed by dengue NS1 antigen and multiplex real-time RT-PCR. Nine individuals required hospitalization, and four developed dengue warning signs. The mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in the group with dengue warning signs. The period from the day of arrival in Thailand and the first day of symptoms was significantly shorter in adolescents with warning signs. Leukocytes, neutrophils, and platelets declined significantly at defervescence and were negatively correlated with day of illness. Six clinical isolates were identified as dengue serotype-1, with identical sequences suggesting that these patients were infected with the same virus.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0680.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Acute febrile illness; Alphavirus; chikungunya virus; post-chikungunya musculoskeletal disorder; post-chikungunya chronic inflammatory rheumatism
Online: 29 March 2021 (10:56:13 CEST)
Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus. Outbreaks are unpredictable and explosive in nature. Fever, arthralgia, and rash are common symptoms during the acute phase. Diagnostic tests are required to differentiate chikungunya virus from other co-circulating arboviruses, as symptoms can overlap, causing a dilemma for clinicians. Arthritis is observed during the sub-acute and chronic phases, which can flare up, resulting in increased morbidity that adversely affects activities of daily living. During the 2019 chikungunya epidemic in Thailand, cases surged in Bangkok in the last quarter of the year. Here, we demonstrate the chronic sequelae of post-chikungunya arthritis in one of our patients 1 year after the initial infection. An inflammatory process involving edema, erythema, and tenderness to palpation of her fingers' flexor surfaces was observed, with positive chikungunya IgG and negative IgM tests and antigen. The condition produced stiffness in the patient’s fingers and limited their range of motion, adversely affecting daily living activities. Resolution of symptoms was observed with a short course of an anti-inflammatory agent. More research is required to determine whether sanctuaries enable chikungunya virus to evade the host immune response and remain latent, flaring up months later and triggering an inflammatory response that causes post-chikungunya arthritis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0778.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Alphavirus; chikungunya virus; East Central South African lineage; Indian Ocean sub-lineage; acute febrile illness; viremia; arthritides
Online: 31 December 2020 (09:22:52 CET)
Chikungunya virus is an Alphavirus belonging to the family Togaviridae that is transmitted to humans by an infected Aedes mosquito. Patients develop fever, inflammatory arthritis, and rash during the acute stage of infection. Although the illness is self-limiting, atypical and severe cases are not uncommon, and 60% may develop chronic symptoms that persist for months or even for longer durations. Having a distinct periodical epidemiologic outbreak pattern, chikungunya virus reappeared in Thailand in December 2018. Here, we describe a cohort of acute chikungunya patients who had presented to the Bangkok Hospital for Tropical Diseases during October 2019. Infection was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR using serum collected at presentation to the Fever Clinic. Other possible acute febrile illnesses such as influenza, dengue, and malaria were excluded. We explored the sequence of clinical manifestations at presentation during the acute phase and associated the viral load with the clinical findings. Most of the patients were healthy individuals in their forties. Fever and arthralgia were the predominant clinical manifestations found in this patient cohort, with a small proportion of patients with systemic symptoms. Higher viral loads were associated with arthralgia, and arthralgia with the involvement of the large joints was more common in female patients