ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0049.v1
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:48:57 CEST)
In this paper, bikeshare data in Chicago on weather-friendly days in 2019 and 2020 were analyzed to investigate the variation in bikeshare travel before and during the pandemic. Our results show that bikeshare trips during the pandemic were much longer than prior to the pandemic. The increased rate of bikeshare usage was unbalanced spatially and varied significantly for different user types. Specifically, bikeshare was used significantly more by casual users than by subscribers, and the increase occurred much more in the outskirts of the city. The increase in bikeshare travel was associated with a reduction in travel by ride-hailing and public transit, especially in the urban periphery. The correlation of bikeshare use with the bus system was much less significant than with the rail system. Bike lanes/facilities had a mixed effect on bikeshare travel. Weekend bike trips increased in areas where there was no bike lane. Weekday trips, on the contrary, increased in the vicinity of bike greenways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0753.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: public transit; utility; replacement; ride hailing; ridesharing; Uber; Lyft
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:50:53 CEST)
Existing literature on the relationship between ride-hailing (RH) and transit services is limited to empirical studies that lack real-time spatial contexts. To fill this gap, we took a novel real-time geospatial analysis approach. With source data on ride-hailing trips in Chicago, Illinois, we computed real-time transit-equivalent trips for all 7,949,902 ride-hailing trips in June 2019; the sheer size of our sample is incomparable to the samples studied in existing literature. An existing Multinomial Nested Logit Model was used to determine the probability of a ride-hailer selecting a transit alternative to serve the specific O-D pair, P(Transit|CTA). We find that 31% of ride-hailing trips are replaceable, whereas 61% of trips are not replaceable. The remaining 8% lie within a buffer zone. We measured the robustness of this probability using a parametric sensitivity analysis and performed a two-tailed t-test. Our results indicate that of the four sensitivity parameters, the probability was most sensitive to the total travel time of a transit trip. The main contribution of our research is our thorough approach and fine-tuned series of real-time spatiotemporal analyses that investigate the replaceability of ride-hailing trips for public transit. The results and discussion intend to provide perspective derived from real trips and we anticipate that this paper will demonstrate the research benefits associated with the recording and release of ride-hailing data.  This value defines the replaceability of the trip, where a value ranging from 0 to 0.45 is considered not-replaceable (NR), and a value ranging from 0.55 to 1.0 is considered replaceable (R).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: V2X; Connected Vehicles; Communication; Environmental; Safety; Transportation
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:08:32 CET)
With the rapid development of communication technology, connected vehicles (CV) have the potential, through the sharing of data, to enhance vehicle safety and reduce vehicle energy consumption and emissions. Numerous research efforts have been conducted to quantify the impacts of CV applications, assuming instant and accurate communication among vehicles, devices, pedestrians, infrastructure, the network, the cloud, and the grid, collectively known as V2X (vehicle-to-everything). The use of cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X), to share data is emerging as an efficient means to achieve this objective. C-V2X releases 14 and 15 utilize the 4G LTE technology and release 16 utilizes the new 5G new radio (NR) technology. C-V2X can function without network infrastructure coverage and has a better communication range, improved latency, and greater data rates compared to older technologies. Such highly efficient interchange of information among all participating parts in a CV environment will not only provide timely data to enhance the capacity of the transportation system but can also be used to develop applications that enhance vehicle safety and minimize negative environmental impacts. However, before the full benefits of CV can be achieved, there is a need to thoroughly investigate the effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of different CV applications, the communication protocols, the varied results with different CV market penetration rates (MPRs), the interaction of CVs and human driven vehicles, the integration of multiple applications, and the errors and latencies associated with data communication. This paper reviews existing literature on the environmental, mobility and safety impacts of CV applications, identifies the gaps in our current research of CVs and recommends future research directions. The results of this paper will help shape the future research direction for CV applications to realize their full potential benefits.