ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0274.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rockfall impact; impact resistance; hollow thin-walled bridge pier; response surface model; dura-bility assessment
Online: 20 September 2022 (04:04:48 CEST)
Continuous rigid frame bridges across valleys are often at the risk of rockfalls caused by heavy rainfalls, earthquakes and debris flows in a mountainous country. Hollow thin-walled bridge piers (HTWBP) in valleys are exposed to the threat of the impact of accidental rockfalls. In the current research, ANSYS/LS-DYNA is used to establish a high-precision rockfall-HTWBP model. The rockfall-HTWBP model is verified against a scaled impact test of a previous research. A mesh independence test is also performed to obtained an appropriate mesh size. Based on the rockfall-HTWBP model, the impact force, damage and dynamic response characteristics of HTWBP under the rockfall impact are studied. In addition, a damage assessment criteria is proposed based on the response surface model combined with Central Composite Design method and Box-Behnken Design method. The main conclusions are as follows: 1）The impact force of rockfall has a substantial impulse characteristic, and the duration of the impulse load is approximately 0.01s. 2）The impacted surface of the pier is dominated by the final elliptic damage with the conical and strip damage areas as the symmetry axis. The cross-sectional damage mode is compression failure in the impact area and shear failure at the corner. 3）The maximum displacement occurs in the middle height of the pier. The maximum displacement increases with impact height, impact velocity and rockfall diameter and decreases with the uniaxial compressive strength of the concrete. 4) The initial impact velocity and diameter of the rockfall are the most significant parameters affecting the damage indices. In addition, a damage assessment method with a damage zoning diagram based on the response surface method is established for the fast assessment of the damage level of impacted HTWBP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1430.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: prefabricated ECC/RC combined shear wall; parameters affecting seismic energy dissipation; best use regions of ECC; optimization design; seismic energy dissipation
Online: 23 October 2023 (15:20:25 CEST)
The prefabricated ECC/RC combined shear wall structure is an innovative prefabricated composite structure with better seismic performance by using ECC materials with better ductility in the main force and energy consumption regions of the prefabricated reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structure. The key factors controlling the seismic energy dissipation capacity of this kind of structure are the use regions of ECC in composite coupling beams, use regions of ECC in shear walls, strength of ECC, stirrup ratio of coupling beams, strength of longitudinal reinforcement and so on. The parameters affecting seismic energy consumption are quantified by the finite element analysis method. By comparing and analyzing the load-displacement curves, hysteresis curves, energy dissipation capacity and stiffness degradation of the prefabricated ECC/RC combined shear wall structure specimen under these parameters, it is proposed that the best use regions of ECC is the cast-in-situ zone of the coupling beams with the scope of no more than400 mm at the shear walls’ bottom. The strength grade, the strength grade of longitudinal reinforcement, and the stirrup ratio of coupling beams are suggested design as E40, HRB400 and 0.5%, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: major depressive disorder; mass spectrometry; metabolomics; biomarkers
Online: 4 October 2023 (11:46:28 CEST)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious mental illness with a heavy social burden, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics is providing new insights into the heterogeneous pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of MDD by revealing multi-parametric biomarker signatures at the metabolite level. In this comprehensive review, recent developments of MS-based metabolomics in MDD research are summarized from the perspective of analytical platforms (liquid chromatography-MS, gas chromatography-MS, supercritical fluid chromatography-MS, etc.), strategies (untargeted, targeted, and pseudotargeted metabolomics), key metabolite changes (monoamine neurotransmitters, amino acids, lipids, etc.), and antidepressant treatments (both western and traditional Chinese medicines). Depression sub-phenotypes, comorbid depression, and multi-omics approaches are also highlighted to stimulate further advances in MS-based metabolomics in the field of MDD research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0072.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: interface structure; molecular dynamics; diffusion coefficient; uniaxial tension; orientation
Online: 9 January 2018 (03:27:22 CET)
In this paper, the nanoscale dissipative mechanisms of a Cu pad in a Ball Grid Array (BGA) packaging structure during isothermal ageing and uniaxial tension were investigated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method and experiments. From the result of the isothermal ageing test, a nonuniform consumption of Cu and large amount of Kirkendall voids were observed at the interface of Cu and Cu3Sn. To study the effect of pressure and orientation on this phenomenon, MD simulations were conducted on four types of Cu-Cu3Sn interface structures with different orientations of Cu. By comparing the diffusion coefficients of atoms in those cases, it was found that the tensile stress would inhibit the diffusion of atoms, whereas compressive stress would accelerate it, and this would be more significant under a larger magnitude of stress and temperature. Note that, in the model with the (101) surface Cu at the interface, both Cu and Cu3Sn have a higher diffusion coefficient compared with the model with (001) surface Cu. Thus, the orientation of Cu will also contribute to the uniform consumption of the pad. Uniaxial tension simulation combined with DXA and CSP analyses on those models also shows the model with (001) surface Cu has a greater mechanical reliability in our simulations and related experiments.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: dephosphorization; distribution ratio of phosphorus; low temperature; low basicity; Fe2O3 addition amount; hot metal
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:38:30 CET)
The influence of the Fe2O3 addition amount on the dephosphorization of hot metal at 1623 K with the slag of the low basicity (CaO/SiO2) of about 1.5 was investigated by using high-temperature laboratorial experiments. With increasing the Fe2O3 addition amount, the contents of [C], [Si], [Mn] and [P] in hot metal at the end of dephosphorization decrease, and the corresponding removal ratios increase. The P2O5 content in slag increases, and the CaO and SiO2 contents in slag decrease. The phosphorus mainly exists in the form of the nCa2SiO4-Ca3(PO4)2 solid solution in the phosphorus-rich phase and the value of coefficient n decreases from 20 to 1 with increasing the Fe2O3 addition amount from 5 g to 30 g. With increasing the Fe2O3 addition amount, the oxygen potential and activity at the interface between the slag and hot metal increase. When the oxygen potential and the oxygen activity at the interface are greater than 0.72×10-12 and 7.1×10-3, respectively, the dephosphorization ratio begins to increase rapidly. With increasing the Fe2O3 addition amount to 30 g, the ratio of the Fe2O3 addition amount to theoretical calculation consumption is around 175%, and the dephosphorization ratio reaches the highest value of 83.3%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0035.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: CNN; hybrid classical-quantum neural networks; transfer learning; variational quantum circuit
Online: 4 July 2023 (02:02:34 CEST)
Deep learning is improving by leaps and bounds in remote sensing images (RSIs) analysis, pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown remarkable performance in remote sensing image scene classification (RSISC). Nonetheless, pre-trained CNNs require massive annotated data as samples for data training. When labeled samples are not sufficient, the most common solution is to the pre-trained CNNs using a great deal of natural image dataset (e.g. ImageNet). However, these pre-trained CNNs require a large quantity of labelled data for training, which is often not feasible in RSISC, especially when the target RSIs have different imaging mechanisms from RGB natural images. In this paper, we proposed an improved hybrid classical-quantum transfer learning CNNs composed of classical and quantum elements to classify open-source RSI dataset. The classical part of the model is made up of a ResNet network which extracts useful features from RSI datasets. To further refine the network performance, a tensor quantum circuit is subsequently employed by tuning parameters on near-term quantum processors. We tested our models on open-source RSI dataset. In our comparative study, we have concluded that the hybrid classical-quantum transferring CNN has achieved better performance than other pre-trained CNNs based RSISC methods with small training samples. Moreover, it has been proved that the proposed algorithm improves the classification accuracy while greatly decreasing sum of model parameters and sum of training data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0553.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: air kerma meter; flyback converter; high-voltage power supply; Royer converter
Online: 29 December 2022 (04:05:03 CET)
The general circuit topology and principles of low-noise high-voltage power supply are investigated to meet the requirements of the high-voltage bias application in air kerma meters. Two topologies, flyback converter and Royer converter are simulated using SPICE simulation program. The simulation results indicate that the circuit structure of the Royer converter is more complex, but it obtains lower output high voltage noise. While we develop an adjustable high-voltage power supply according to the circuit structure of the Royer converter, and tested it to ensure the design requirements for continuously adjustable output high-voltage linearity. The test results show that the linear adjustment rate is not more than ±0.0025%, the load regulation rate is less than ±0.1%, and the output ripple noise voltage percentage is less than 0.01%. These tested performance make it more suitable for accurate nuclear measurements.