REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0255.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; biofilm; efflux pump inhibitors; antibiotic potentiation; eskapee pathogens; gram-negative bacteria
Online: 22 October 2019 (10:22:56 CEST)
Antibiotic resistance represents a significant threat to the modern healthcare provision. The ESKAPEE pathogens, in particular, have proven to be especially challenging to treat, due to their intrinsic and acquired ability to rapidly develop resistance mechanisms in response to environmental threats. The development of biofilm has been characterised as an essential contributing factor towards antimicrobial-resistance and tolerance. Several studies have implicated the involvement of efflux pumps in antibiotic resistance, both directly, via drug extrusion and indirectly, through the formation of biofilm. As a result, the underlying mechanism of these pumps has attracted considerable interest due to the potential of targeting these protein structures and developing novel adjunct therapies. Subsequent investigations have revealed the ability of efflux pump-inhibitors (EPIs) to block drug-extrusion and disrupt biofilm formation, thereby, potentiating antibiotics and reversing resistance of pathogen towards them. This review will discuss the potential of EPIs as a possible solution to antimicrobial resistance, examining different challenges to the design of these compounds, with an emphasis on Gram-negative ESKAPEE pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0296.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; broad-spectrum antibiotics; antibacterial drug discovery; gram-negative bacteria; pyrrolobenzodiazepines
Online: 16 November 2022 (04:20:55 CET)
It is urgent to find new antibiotic classes to replenish the empty development pipeline of antibiotics. Recently, pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) with a C8-linked aliphatic-heterocycle have been identified as a new broad spectrum antibiotic class with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. The active imine moiety of the reported lead pyrrolobenzodiazepine compounds was replaced with amide to obtain the non-DNA binding and non-cytotoxic dilactam analogues to further understand the structure activity relationship and improve the safety potential of this class. The synthesized compounds were tested against panels of multidrug resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including WHO priority pathogens. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for the dilactam analogues ranged from 4 – 32 mg/L for MDR Gram-positive bacteria, compared to 0.03 to 2 mg/L for the corresponding imine analogues while they were found to be inactive against MDR Gram-negative bacteria, with an MIC >32 mg/L, compared to an MIC of 0.5 to 32 mg/L. A molecular modelling study suggests the lack of imine functionality also affects the interaction of PBDs with DNA gyrase. This study suggests the presence of N10-C11 imine moiety is crucial for broad spectrum activity of pyrrolobenzodiazepines.