REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0405.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: caffeine; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; impulsivity; ADHD; animal models
Online: 24 December 2021 (11:34:52 CET)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Neurobiologically, ADHD impairments arise from abnormalities in different circuits involving the prefrontal cortex. In face of high rates of diagnosis, alternative/complementary pharmacological therapeutic approaches for ADHD are needed. Although the number of publications that study the potential effects of caf-feine consumption on ADHD treatment have been accumulating over the last years, and caffeine has recently been used in ADHD research in the context of animal models, an updated evi-dence-based systematic review on the effects of caffeine on ADHD-like symptoms in animal stud-ies is missing. To provide insight and value at the preclinical level, a systematic review based on PRISMA guidelines was performed for all publications available up to September 1, 2021. Caffeine treatment increases attention, improves learning, memory and olfactory discrimination, without altering blood pressure and body weight. These results are supported at the neuronal level. Nonetheless, the implication of caffeine in modulating ADHD-like symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity is contradictory, raising discrepancies that require further clarification. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that caffeine cognitive effects found in animal models could be trans-lated to human ADHD, particularly during adolescence.