ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: CRPNR; COVID-19 pandemic; hospital admission; GP visit; Hungary; interaction effect; Roma; specialist care
Online: 27 December 2021 (11:05:43 CET)
Background: Although, negative repercussions of inadequate health service use on the health outcomes has been presumably exacerbated by COVID-19, the impact of the pandemic measures has been not evaluated properly yet. Objective: Our study aimed to quantify the COVID-19 pandemic measures’ effect on the general practitioner (GP) visit, specialist care, hospitalization and cost-related prescription nonredemption (CRPNR) among adults in Hungary, and to identify the social strata susceptible to the pandemic effect. Methods: This community-based cross-sectional study based on nationally representative data of 6,611 (Nprepandemic=5,603 and Npandemic=1,008) subjects aged 18 years and above. Data were obtained from the European Health Interview Survey 2019 (EHIS) and International Social Survey Program 2021 (ISSP) for prepandemic and pandemic, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models were applied to determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors influencing the health care use by odds ratios (OR) along with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). To identify the social strata susceptible to pandemic effect, the interaction of the time of data collection with level of education, marital status, and ethnicity, was also tested. Results: While, the CRPNR did not changed, the frequency of GP visit, specialist care and hospitalization rate were remarkably reduced by 22.2%, 26.4%, and 6.7%, respectively, during the pandemic in Hungary. Roma proved to be not specifically affected by the pandemic in any studied respect. The pandemic restructuring of health care impacted the social subgroups evenly with respect to hospital care. However, the pandemic effect was weaker among primary educated adults (ORhigh-school vs primary-education =0.434; 95% CI 0.243-0.776, ORhigh-school vs primary-education =0.598; 95% CI 0.364-0.985), and among widows (ORwidowed vs married =2.284; 95% CI 1.043-4.998, ORwidowed vs married=1.915; 95% CI 1.157-3.168) on the frequency of GP visit and specialist visit; and the prepandemic CRPNR inequality by level of education was increased (ORhigh-school vs primary-education =0.236; 95% CI 0.075-0.743). Conclusion: Primary educated and widowed did not follow the general trend, and their prepandemic limited health care use was not reduced further during pandemic, resulting in an inequality reduction. The vulnerability of primary educated to CRPNR was the only gap widened in the pandemic period. This shows that although the management of pandemic health care use restrictions was implemented by increasing the social inequality in Hungary, the prevention of inequity in drug availability for primary educated individuals could require more support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0428.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Roma minority, legal constrains, health care utilization, health status, geographical inequality
Online: 23 July 2018 (14:27:34 CEST)
Roma is the largest ethnic minority of Europe with poor health status, which is poorly explored due to legal constrains of ethnicity assessment. We aimed to elaborate health-indicators for adults living in segregated Roma settlements (SRS) representing the most vulnerable Roma subpopulation. SRSs were mapped in a study area populated by 54682 adults. Records of all adults living in the study area were processed in the National Institute of Health Insurance Fund Management. Aggregated, age-sex standardized SRS-specific and non-SRS-specific indicators on healthcare utilization and premature death along with the ratio of them (RR) were computed with 95% confidence intervals. The rate of GP appointments was significantly higher among SRS inhabitants (RR=1.152, 95%CI: 1.136–1.167). The proportion of subjects hospitalized (RR=1.286, 1.177–1.405), and the reimbursement for inpatient care (RR=1.060, 1.057–1.064) were elevated for SRS. Premature mortality was significantly higher in SRSs (RR=1.711, 1.085-2.696). Our study demonstrated that it is possible to compute the SRS-specific version of the routine healthcare indicators without violating the protection of personal data by converting a sensitive ethical issue to a non-sensitive small area geographical analysis; there is an SRS-specific healthcare utilization pattern, which is associated with elevated costs and increased risk of premature death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0433.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: primary health care; workforce crisis; general practitioner vacancy; aging of general practitioners; premature mortality
Online: 30 May 2018 (05:47:53 CEST)
The workforce crisis of primary care is reflected in the increasing number of general medical practices (GMP) with vacant general practitioner (GP) position, and the GPs’ ageing. Our study aimed to describe the association between this crisis and premature mortality. Age-sex-standardized mortality for 18-64 years old adults were calculated for all Hungarian GMPs annually in the period from 2006 to 2014. The relationship of premature mortality with GPs’ age and vacant GP position were evaluated by standardized linear regression controlled for list size, urbanization, geographical location, clients’ education, and type of the GMP. The clients’ education was the strongest protective factor (beta=-0175; p<0.001), followed by urban residence (beta=-0.149; p<0.001), and the bigger list size (beta1601-2000=-0.054; p<0.001; beta2001-X=-0.096; p<0.001). The geographical localization influenced significantly also the risk. Although, GMP with a GP aged older than 65 years (beta=0; p=0.995) did not affected the risk, GP vacancy was associated with higher risk (beta=0.010; p=0.033), but the corresponding number of attributable cases was 23.54 for 9 years. The vacant GP position is associated with significant but hardly detectable increased risk of premature mortality without considerable public health importance. Nevertheless, employment of GPs aged more than 65 does not impose premature mortality risk elevation.