Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: blockchain; Internet of Things (IoT); bryptography; security; communication
Online: 28 May 2019 (17:44:06 CEST)
Blockchain (BC) in the Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel technology that acts with decentralized, distributed, public and real-time ledger to store transactions among IoT nodes. A blockchain is a series of blocks, each block is linked to its previous blocks. Every block has the cryptographic hash code, previous block hash, and its data. The transactions in BC are the basic units that are used to transfer data between IoT nodes. The IoT nodes are different kind of physical but smart devices with embedded sensors, actuators, programs and able to communicate with other IoT nodes. The role of BC in IoT is to provide a procedure to process secured records of data through IoT nodes. BC is a secured technology that can be used publicly and openly. IoT requires this kind of technology to allow secure communication among IoT nodes in heterogeneous environment. The transactions in BC could be traced and explored through anyone who are authenticated to communicate within the IoT. The BC in IoT may help to improve the communication security. In this paper, I explored this approach, its opportunities and challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2205.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Indoor Air Quality (IAQ); Energy efficiency; Smart buildings; Learning factory
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:35:52 CEST)
Advances towards smart ecosystems showcases Internet of Things (IoT) as a transversal strategy to improve energy efficiency in buildings, to enhance their comfort and environmental conditions, and to grow knowledge about building behavior, its relationships with the users and the interconnections among themselves and with the environmental and ecological context. EU estimates that 75% of the building stock is inefficient and aged with +40 years old. Although many buildings have some kind of system for regulating their indoor temperature, only a small subset provides integrated Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems; within that subset, only a low percentage includes smart sensors, and only a minimum of that percentage integrates those sensors into IoT ecosystems. This work proposes several contributions. On the one hand, to understand the built environment as a set of interconnected systems that constitute a complex framework where IoT ecosystems are key enabling technologies to improve energy efficiency and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) by filling the gap between theoretical simulations and real measurements. On the other hand, to understand IoT ecosystems as cost-effective solutions where: acquire data through connected sensors, analyze information in real-time, and build knowledge to make data-driven decisions. Furthermore, data set is public for third-party use to contribute scientific community to their research studies. Thus, this paper also contributes with a detailed functional scheme of IoT ecosystem deployed in 3 buildings of University of Zaragoza (Spain) with +200 geolocated wireless sensors with +100 representative spaces. The obtained results, through real installations with IoT as learning factory, show several learned lessons (about building complexity; energy consumption, costs and savings; and IAQ and health improvement) and contribute, as a proof-of-concept, with a proposal of prediction of building performance based on both correlations (between CO2 and occupancy) and neural networks (applied to CO2 and temperature). In summary, in a real context of economic restrictions, complexity, higher energy costs, social vulnerability and climate change, IoT-based strategies, as proposed in this work, highlight as an open, modular and interoperable approach to move towards smart communities (buildings, cities, regions, etc.) by improving energy efficiency and environmental quality (indoor and outdoor) with low cost, quick implementation, and low impact on users within great challenges for growth, interconnection, climate change and sustainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0087.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Internet of Things; cyber-attacks; anomalies; machine learning; deep learning; IoT data analytics; intelligent decision-making; security intelligence
Online: 7 March 2022 (02:39:58 CET)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the most widely used technologies today, and it has a significant effect on our lives in a variety of ways, including social, commercial, and economic aspects. In terms of automation, productivity, and comfort for consumers across a wide range of application areas, from education to smart cities, the present and future IoT technologies hold great promise for improving the overall quality of human life. However, cyber-attacks and threats greatly affect smart applications in the environment of IoT. The traditional IoT security techniques are insufficient with the recent security challenges considering the advanced booming of different kinds of attacks and threats. Utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) expertise, especially machine and deep learning solutions, is the key to delivering a dynamically enhanced and up-to-date security system for the next-generation IoT system. Throughout this article, we present a comprehensive picture on IoT security intelligence, which is built on machine and deep learning technologies that extract insights from raw data to intelligently protect IoT devices against a variety of cyber-attacks. Finally, based on our study, we highlight the associated research issues and future directions within the scope of our study. Overall, this article aspires to serve as a reference point and guide, particularly from a technical standpoint, for cybersecurity experts and researchers working in the context of IoT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0312.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Cyber Security; Internet of Things
Online: 21 October 2021 (14:01:19 CEST)
Nowadays, people live amidst the smart home domain, business opportunities in the industrial smart city and health care, though, along with concerns about security. Security is central for IoT systems to protect sensitive data and infrastructure, whilst security issues become increasingly expensive, in particular in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) domains. Nonetheless, there are some key challenges for dealing with those security issues in IoT domains: Applications operate in distributed environments such as Blockchain, varied smart objects are used, and sensors are limited in what comes to machine resources. In this way, traditional security does not fit in IoT systems. In this vein, the issue of cyber security has become paramount to the Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) in mitigating cyber security risk for organizations and end users. New cyber security technologies / applications present improvements for IoT security management. Nevertheless, there is a gap on the effectiveness of IoT cyber risk solutions. This review article discusses the, trends around opportunities and threats in cyber security for IIoT.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0164.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Blockchain, Internet of Things, Security, Privacy, Wireless Communication.
Online: 7 June 2021 (10:50:54 CEST)
In the age of next-generation computer, the role of the cloud, the internet and smart devices will become stronger. These days we all know the word smart well. This word is often used in our daily lives. The Internet of Things (IoT) will generate a variety of information from a variety of resources. It can store big data in the cloud. Fog computing acts as a signal between cloud and IoT. Fog extensions in this framework apply to material under IoT. IoT devices are called Fog nodes, which can be accessed anywhere within the network range. A blockchain is a novel way of recording in a secure sequence. Creating a new framework in the development of Internet of Things is one of the critical problems of wireless communication where solving such a problem can lead to continued growth in the use and popularity of IoT. Proposed research creates a framework for providing a framework for middleware on the internet of smart devices network for the internet of things using blockchains technology. Our great offering connects new research that integrates blockchains into the Internet of Things and provides secure Internet connection for smart devices. Blockchain (BC) Internet of Things (IoT) is a new technology that works with low-level, distributed, public and real-time leaders to maintain transactions between IoT sites. A blockchain is a series of blocks, each block being linked to its previous blocks. All blocks have cryptographic hash code, previous block hash, and its data. Transactions in BC are the basic components used to transfer data between IoT nodes. IoT nodes are a variety of portable but smart devices with embedded sensors, actuators, systems and the ability to communicate with other IoT nodes. The role of BC in IoT is to provide a process for processing secure data records using IoT nodes. BC is a protected technology that can be used publicly and openly. IoT requires this type of technology to allow secure communication between IoT nodes in different environments. Events in BC can be tracked and monitored by anyone who is certified to communicate within IoT.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Brain-Computer Interfaces; Internet of Things; Smart Home
Online: 17 September 2018 (09:47:11 CEST)
A brain-computer interface for controlling elements commonly used at home is presented in this paper. It includes the electroencephalography device needed to acquire signals associated to the brain activity, the algorithms for artefact reduction and event classification, and the communication protocol.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1781.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Internet of Things; Software Defined Networking; Cybersecurity.
Online: 26 July 2023 (10:32:41 CEST)
Security in IoT systems is extremely important, as an intrusion into an IoT device or network can affect not only our domestic lives, but also industrial assets, with the potential to cause enormous damage. We discuss IoT security issues as defined by the OWASP Foundation, focusing on network related aspects. After a brief description of SDN in general and OpenFlow in particular, we discuss how SDN technologies can greatly help in designing and deploying more secure IoT networks by enhancing the cryptographic capabilities of devices, isolating devices or networks, blocking access to unwanted services, redirecting traffic to deep inspection systems, monitoring packet flows and devices, etc. These capabilities can be implemented using open-source OpenFlow controllers such as Faucet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; Micro Mart model; Goal-Oriented Approach; transformation roadmap; Cyber risk regulations; empirical analysis; cyber risk self-assessment; cyber risk target state
Online: 6 March 2019 (11:47:04 CET)
The Internet-of-Things (IoT) enables enterprises to obtain profits from data but triggers data protection questions and new types of cyber risk. Cyber risk regulations for the IoT however do not exist. The IoT risk is not included in the cyber security assessment standards, hence, often not visible to cyber security experts. This is concerning, because companies integrating IoT devices and services need to perform a self-assessment of its IoT cyber security posture. The outcome of such self-assessment needs to define a current and target state, prior to creating a transformation roadmap outlining tasks to achieve the stated target state. In this article, a comparative empirical analysis is performed of multiple cyber risk assessment approaches, to define a high-level potential target state for company integrating IoT devices and/or services. Defining a high-level potential target state represent is followed by a high-level transformation roadmap, describing how company can achieve their target state, based on their current state. The transformation roadmap is used to adapt IoT risk impact assessment with a Goal-Oriented Approach and the Internet of Things Micro Mart model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0063.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: 5G wireless, Distributed Cloud, Internet of Things
Online: 5 March 2019 (12:15:16 CET)
This article will provide an overview on internet of things (IoT), 5G communication System and Distributed Clouds. The basic concepts and benefits will be briefly presented, along with current standardization activities. In a nutshell, but the research will focus on relating internet of things, 5G and Distributed Cloud Computing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0461.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber-attacks; honeypots; internet of things; IoT; scada
Online: 28 September 2021 (10:21:26 CEST)
In recent years, due to their frequent use and widespread use, IoT (Internet of Things) devices have become an attractive target for hackers. As a result of their limited network resources and complex operating systems, they are vulnerable to attacks. Using a honeypot can, therefore, be a very effective way of detecting malicious requests and capturing samples of exploits. The purpose of this article is to introduce honeypots, the rise of IoT devices, and how they can be exploited by attackers. Various honeypot ecosystems will be investigated further for capturing and analyzing information from attacks against these IoT devices. As well as how to leverage proactive strategies in terms of IoT security, it will provide insights on the attack vectors present in most IoT systems, along with understanding attack patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0163.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Service Computing; Internet of Things; Situation Response; Services in Internet of Things
Online: 6 August 2021 (13:12:33 CEST)
A large number of smart devices (things) are being deployed with the swift development of Inter- net of Things (IOT). These devices, owned by different organizations, have a wide variety of services to offer over the web. During a natural disaster or emergency (i.e., a situation), for example, relevant IOT services can be found and put to use. However, appropriate service matching methods are required to find the relevant services. Organizations that manage situation responses and organizations that provide IOT services are likely to be independent of each other, and therefore it is difficult for them to adopt a common ontological model to facilitate the service matching. Moreover, there exists a large conceptual gap between the domain of discourse for situations and the domain of discourse for services, which cannot be adequately bridged by existing techniques. In this paper, we address these issues and propose a new method, WikiServe, to identify IOT services that are functionally relevant to a given situation. Using concepts (terms) from situation and service descriptions, WikiServe employs Wikipedia as a knowledge source to bridge the conceptual gap between situation and service descriptions and match functionally relevant IOT services for a situation. It uses situation terms to retrieve situation related articles from Wikipedia. Then it creates a ranked list of services for the situation using the weighted occurrences of service terms in weighted situation articles. WikiServe performs better than a commonly used baseline method in terms of Precision, Recall and F measure for service matching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0177.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Sensor; Smart machine; Internet of Things (IoT); Arrhythmia; Arrhythmic Signs; Biosensor
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:51:22 CET)
It is important to increase the quality of health and medicine. A wearable system for continuous monitoring of the patient is important to overcome this issue. Thus a patient with Arrhythmia due to its low cost and success in saving the life of the patient was the right option for the care partner. In addition, the device will provide a consumer with a smart smartphone application with accurate pulse beat and body temperature data in real time. MAX 30100 and LM35 are primarily used for the detection of human heart and temperature. The performance of these sensors is generated by an arrhythmia algorithm in the esp32 segment.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things(IoTs); Challenges; Test Strategies; Quality Assurance; Suggestion; Interoperability; Security
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:15:13 CET)
Immense challenges arise in the Quality Assurance area due to contemporary development in Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Current issues are mainly related to test coverage, test diversity, IoT Stability, Use of Cellular Networks in IoTs, IoT Devices updates, Security, Data Integration, and interoperability. In this paper, we present all those issues with suggestions for tackling those issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0362.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Poisoning Attacks; Internet of Things; Smart Farming
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:25:02 CEST)
Smart farming, as a branch of the Internet of Things (IoT), combines the recognition of agricultural economic competencies, the progress of data and information collected from connected devices with statistical analysis to characterize the essentials of the assimilated information, allowing farmers to make intelligent conclusions that will maximize the harvest benefit. However, the integration of advanced technologies requires the adoption of high-tech security approaches. In this paper, we present a framework that promises to enhance the security and privacy of smart farms by leveraging the decentralized nature of blockchain technology. The framework stores and manages data acquired from IoT devices installed in smart farms using a distributed ledger architecture, which provides secure and tamper-proof data storage and ensures the integrity and validity of the data. The study uses the AWS cloud, ESP32, the smart farm security monitoring framework, and the Ethereum Rinkeby smart contract mechanism, which enables automated execution of pre-defined rules and regulations. As a result of a proof-of-concept implementation, the system can detect and respond to security threats in real time, and the results illustrate its usefulness in improving the security of smart farms.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0341.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; Sensors; Real-Time; Edge Computing
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:30:54 CET)
Rapid growth of IoT applications and their interference in our daily lives led to many different IoT devices which generates enormous data. The IoT devices’ resources are very limited, so storing and processing IoT data in the devices is very inefficient. Several resources of cloud-computing are efficiently used to handle some IoT resources issues. While using resources in the cloud centers cause some other issues, like latency in the IoT applications, which are time-critical. Thus, the technology of edge cloud has evolved recently. This technology permits storage and data processing at the network edge. This paper studies edge computing in-depth for timeless sensitive devices in IoT. In-depth, cutting-edge IoT computing systems (ECAs-IoT) are evaluated and characterized in this paper according to numerous criteria, such as information placement, improvisation facilities, reliability, and data visualization. Moreover, according to distinctive properties, the paper aims at comparing each structure in detail. The paper also highlights the significant limitations of the new ECAs-IoT and recommends solutions to them. The studies also introduce and propose solutions to some of the most important restrictions of the current ECAs-IoT. Consequently, in the edge computing domain, this survey outlines the IoT implementations. Lastly, with the use of IoT implementations for ECAs-IoT, the paper suggests four distinct scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0359.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Internet of things; healthcare; ethics; data privacy
Online: 30 January 2020 (10:51:54 CET)
Implications of the novel usage adoption of the internet of things in various sectors of works and life are researched and documented at pace. This is related to the overall high rate at which new technologies are adopted in modern society. Healthcare is a vital aspect of everyday activities and as such overlaps with the increasingly important role played by use of the internet and associated technologies. The purpose of this review article is to draw attention to the potential social, ethical, legal and professional limitations to using IoT in the context of healthcare. The social and ethical aspects in particular, focus on IoT usage in care of the elderly with relevant case studies as reference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0417.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: tangible interfaces; Internet of Things tangibles; children with hearing impairment
Online: 31 December 2019 (16:48:04 CET)
A Tangible User Interface (TUI) is a new interaction option that uses nontraditional input and output elements. A tangible interface thus allows the manipulation of physical objects using digital information. The exploration and manipulation of physical objects is a factor to be considered in learning in children, especially those with some kind of disability such as hearing, who maximize the use of other senses such as vision and touch. In a tangible interface, three elements are related - physical, digital and social. The potential of IoT for children is growing. This technology IoT integrated with TUI, can help for that parents or teachers can monitoring activities of the child. Also to identify behavior patterns in the child with hearing impairment. This article shows four case studies, where had been designed different products of Internet of Things Tangible applied a several contexts and with products of low cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0188.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things; security protocol; authentication; authorization; networks
Online: 10 August 2022 (04:11:00 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) has become one of the most attractive domains nowadays. It works by creating a special network between physical devices such as vehicles, home equipment, and other items. In recent days, the common technologies of communication such as Wi-Fi and 2G/3G/4G cellular are insufficient for the IoT networks because they are designed to serve appliances with immense processing capabilities such as laptops and PCs. Moreover, most of these technologies are centralized and use an existing infrastructure. Currently, the new communication technologies such as Z-Wave, 6LowPAN, and Thread are dedicated to the IoT and have been developed to meet its requirements. These technologies can handle many factors such as range, data requirements, security, power demands, and battery life. Nevertheless, the security issues in IoT systems have major concerns and matters because vulnerabilities in such systems may result in fatal catastrophes. In this paper, an enhanced IoT security framework for authentication and authorization is proposed and implemented to protect the IoT protocols from different types of attacks such as man-in-the-middle attack, reply attack, and brute force attack. The proposed framework combines an enhanced token authentication that has identity verification capabilities and a new sender verification mechanism on the IoT device side based on time stamp, which in turn can mitigate the need for local identity verification methods in IoT devices. The proposed IoT security framework is tested using security analysis with different types of attacks compared with previous related frameworks. The analysis shows the high capability of the proposed framework to protect IoT networks against many types of attacks compared with current available security frameworks. Finally, the proposed framework is developed using Windows application to simulate the framework phases, check its validity through the real network, and calculate the payload time is adds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0097.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: IoT (Internet of Things); bot; botnet; propagation; nodes; sensor; infectious; mitigation
Online: 7 December 2019 (17:03:34 CET)
Nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized particularly by their limited power and memory capabilities. Limited memory is an important parameter as it defines the size of the operating system and the processing code. As established previously, energy and memory efficiency is the most important evaluation factors of WSNs as they are directly related to data loss and network lifetime. However, based on our simulation results, memory efficiency determines the selection or abandon of nodes by the botmaster for the propagation of bots in an IoT infrastructure. Consequently, the node’s memory efficiency determined the spread of bots in the network and provides defense actors with an insight of the botmaster behavior for mitigation of the attack. Conventional botnet propagation and mitigation models did not consider the impact of node’s memory efficiency in the IoT platform. To address this gap, we build IoT-SIEF, a novel propagation model with forensic capability that will analyze command and control propagation behavior based on the perspective of the node’s memory efficiency. IoT-SIEF model used to explore the dynamics of propagation using numerical simulation with more than 50% outperform other models in mitigating the number of secondary bots. Consequently, it can serve as a basis for assisting the planning, design, and defense of such networks from the investigator's point of view.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: IoT; Smart Cities; Internet-of-Medical-Things; Sensors; Security
Online: 1 June 2023 (02:27:23 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) technology and devices constitute an exciting field in computer science that is rapidly emerging worldwide. IoT devices function by connecting real-world objects to the internet, resulting in a higher number of interconnected devices than ever witnessed in history. Through internet connectivity, these devices can be utilized in various ways, such as monitoring and tracking. Their prevalence is increasing exponentially, coinciding with advancements in wireless networking technologies. The internet’s enhanced connectivity has played a vital role in fostering the proliferation of IoT devices. Presently, almost any everyday object can be network-connected. The demand for automation and efficiency has also been a contributing factor to the advancements in this technology. This paper aims to review the emergence of IoT devices, analyze their common applications, and explore the future prospects in this promising field of computer science. The examined applications encompass healthcare, agriculture, and smart cities. Although IoT technology exhibits similar deployment trends, this paper will explore different fields to discern the subtle nuances that exist among them. IoT technology can be applied to nearly any domain, and each use case has unique requirements. To comprehend the future of IoT, it is essential to comprehend the driving forces behind its advancements in various industries. By gaining a better understanding of the emergence of IoT devices, readers will develop insights into the factors that have propelled their growth and the conditions that led to technological advancements. Moreover, a comprehensive understanding of the prevalent methodologies will enable readers to distinguish between current practices and future methods. Given the rapid rate at which IoT technology is advancing, this paper aims to provide researchers with an understanding of the factors that have brought us to this point and the ongoing efforts to shape the future of IoT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Blockchain; Internet of thing; · Public key cryptography; hash function; smart home; smart health
Online: 14 November 2019 (11:32:38 CET)
Internet of things security will be a big challenge for the enterprises working behind the build-up of the internet of things, and it’s application. With IoT, another buzzword is blockchain-based cryptocurrency bitcoin. Blockchain technology has proven itself as one of the most secured existing technology. In this paper, we have discussed the signiﬁcant challenges that will come up in identity management due to the heterogeneity of devices. We have proposed a solution for privacy preservation using secure identity management and possible communication methodology by using public key-based cryptography used in the blockchain. We have taken the ecosystem of smart home management and smart health management. At last, we have concluded with the discussion of futuristic applications of blockchain in other applications of the internet of things.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Quality Assurance; Testing; Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Online: 9 December 2019 (07:39:47 CET)
IoT is a fast growing technology that has Promising potential for shaping our future. In this fast growing world of IoT, IoT systems are released without proper testing which effect its quality and does not guarantee user satisfaction. Different testing methodologies are carried out to ensure Quality assurance of IoT before releasing it to the market. In this paper we have reviewed different testing techniques using AI and different tools to ensure Quality of IoT. In this paper we have also reviewed different IoT challenges related to its quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: precision agriculture, electronic insect traps, internet of things
Online: 29 May 2017 (10:02:26 CEST)
Τhe concept of remote insect surveillance at large spatial scales for a number of serious insect pests of agricultural and medical importance is introduced in a series of our papers. We augment typical, low-cost plastic traps for many insect pests with the necessary optoelectronic sensors to guard the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and –in relevant cases- identify the species of the incoming insect from their wingbeat. For every important crop pest there are monitoring protocols to be followed in order to decide when to initiate a treatment procedure before a serious infestation occurs. Monitoring protocols are mainly based on specifically designed insect traps. Traditional insect monitoring suffers in that the scope of such monitoring: is curtailed by its cost, requires intensive labor, is time consuming, an expert is often needed for sufficient accuracy and can sometimes raise safety issues for humans. These disadvantages reduce the extent to which manual insect monitoring is applied and therefore its accuracy, which finally results in significant crop loss due to damage caused by pests. With the term ‘surveillance’ we intend to push the monitoring idea to unprecedented levels of information extraction regarding the presence, time-stamping detection events, species identification and population density of targeted insect pests. Insect counts as well as environmental parameters that correlate with insect’s population development are wirelessly transmitted to the central monitoring agency in real time, are visualized and streamed to statistical methods to assist enforcement of security control to insect pests. In this work we emphasize on how the traps can be self-organized in networks that collectively report data at local, regional, country, continental, and global scales using the emerging technology of the Internet of Things (IoT). This research is necessarily interdisciplinary and falls at the intersection of entomology, optoelectronic engineering, data-science and crop science and encompasses the design and implementation of low-cost, low-power technology to help reduce the extent of quantitative and qualitative crop losses by many the most significant agricultural pests. We argue that smart traps communicating through IoT to report in real-time the level of the pest population from the field straight to a human controlled agency can, in the very near future, have a profound impact on the decision making process in crop protection and will be disruptive of existing manual practices. In the present study, three cases are investigated : monitoring Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using a) Picusan and b) Lindgren trap, and c) monitoring various stored grain beetle pests using the pitfall trap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0., Internet of Things, case study, cyber security framework
Online: 8 March 2019 (15:27:11 CET)
This research article reports the results of a qualitative case study that correlates academic literature with five Industry 4.0 cyber trends, seven cyber risk frameworks and two cyber risk models. While there is a strong interest in industry and academia to standardise existing cyber risk frameworks, models and methodologies, an attempt to combine these approaches has not been done until present. We apply the grounded theory approach to derive with integration criteria for the reviewed frameworks, models and methodologies. Then, we propose a new architecture for the integration of the reviewed frameworks, models and methodologies. We therefore advance the efforts of integrating standards and governance into Industry 4.0 and offer a better understanding of a holistic economic impact assessment model for IoT cyber risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: monitoring; SfM-MVS; photogrammetry; internet of things; M3C2
Online: 4 April 2018 (04:53:34 CEST)
Multi-view stereo (MVS) employs multi-point photography for image point positioning and three-dimensional reconstruction technology. Recently, this technology has been introduced into the monitoring of road slopes due to advances in photography and computing technology. In general, the various phases of post-image processing procedures are applied to various photographic data. In this study a novel, automated image-monitoring system is proposed to improve the ability of automatic processing. First, an Internet of things (IoT)-based digital photography system architecture was constructed to provide automatic control of camera photography and real-time transmission of image data. In addition, a visual SfM-MVS 3D reconstruction technique was used to develop related software and hardware interfaces based on the built-in Python computing framework of Photoscan Pro. The software integrates fully automatic photography, image transmission, monitoring of data processing and product release programs. The experimental results show that the system architecture can be applied to fully automatic three-dimensional monitoring of road slopes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; Cyber Physical Systems; Digital Economy; Industrial Internet of Things; Industry 4.0; empirical analysis; cyber risk assessment; cyber risk target state
Online: 7 March 2019 (12:25:15 CET)
The world is currently experiencing the fourth industrial revolution driven by the newest wave of digitisation in the manufacturing sector. The term Industry 4.0 (I4.0) represents at the same time: a paradigm shift in industrial production, a generic designation for sets of strategic initiatives to boost national industries, a technical term to relate to new emerging business assets, processes and services, and a brand to mark a very particular historical and social period. I4.0 is also referred to as Industrie 4.0 the New Industrial France, the Industrial Internet, the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the digital economy. These terms are used interchangeably in this text. The aim of this article is to discuss major developments in this space in relation to the integration of new developments of IoT and cyber physical systems in the digital economy, to better understand cyber risks and economic value and risk impact. The objective of the paper is to map the current evolution and its associated cyber risks for the digital economy sector and to discuss the future developments in the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0237.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: internet of things (IoT); security; quality of service; energy; cognitive packet network; SerIoT
Online: 14 August 2018 (03:25:34 CEST)
SerIoT is a Research and Innovation Project funded by the European Commission to demonstrate secure networks for the Internet of Things (IoT). This paper presents an overview of the design for smart and secure network infrastructures for the IoT, based on Software Defined Networks (SDN), named the SerCPN system, whose main component is a smart SDN-Controller with online cognitive security surveillance and reporting, which establishes and dynamically modifies paths that enhance security for IoT devices and end users, and offers a high quality of service (QoS) with required security constraints. This online cognitive surveillance and path management is based on the Cognitive Packet Network (CPN) principle and uses Random Neural Networks (RNN) for decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0031.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: SensorThings API; INSPIRE; download services; spatio-temporal data interoperability; Internet of Things
Online: 2 May 2018 (12:06:28 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0112.v1
Online: 22 December 2016 (09:48:05 CET)
This paper advances privacy theory through examination of online shaming, focusing in particular on persecution by internet mobs. While shaming is nothing new, the technology used for modern shaming is new and evolving, making it a revealing lens through which to analyze points of analytical friction within and between traditional conceptions of privacy. To that end, this paper first explores the narrative and structure of online shaming, identifying broad categories of shaming of vigilantism, bullying, bigotry and gossiping, which are then used throughout the paper to evaluate different angles to the privacy problems raised. Second, this paper examines shaming through three dominant debates concerning privacy - privacy’s link with dignity, the right to privacy in public places and the social dimension of privacy. Certain themes emerged from this analysis. A common feature of online shaming is public humiliation. A challenge is to differentiate between a humbling (rightly knocking someone down a peg for a social transgression) and a humiliation that is an affront to dignity (wrongly knocking someone down a peg). In addition, the privacy concern of shamed individuals is not necessarily about intrusion on seclusion or revelation of embarrassing information, but rather about the disruption in their ability to continue to participate in online spaces free from attack. The privacy interest therefore becomes more about enabling participation in social spaces, enabling connections and relationships to form, and about enabling identity-making. Public humiliation through shaming can disrupt all of these inviting closer scrutiny concerning how law can be used as an enabling rather than secluding tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0134.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: data aggregation methods; learning automata; RPL; routing; internet of thing (IoT)
Online: 15 May 2019 (12:28:23 CEST)
As a novel concept in technology and communication world, “Internet of Things (IoT)” has been emerged. In such modern technology, the capability to transmit data through data communication networks (such as Internet or Intranet) is provided for each organism (e.g. human being, animals, things, and so forth). Due to the limited hardware and communication operational capability as well as small dimensions, IoT undergoes quite a few challenges. Such inherent challenges not only cause fundamental restrictions in the efficiency of aggregation, transmission, and communication between nodes; but they also degrade routing performance. To cope with the reduced availability time and unstable communications among nodes, data aggregation and transmission approaches in such networks are designed more intelligently. In this paper, a distributed method is proposed to set child balance among nodes. In this method, the height of the network graph is increased through restricting the degree; and network congestion is reduced as a result. Besides, a dynamic data aggregation approach -named as LA-RPL- is proposed for RPL networks. More specifically, each node is equipped with learning automata in order to perform data aggregation and transmissions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms previously suggested based approaches in terms of energy consumption, network control overhead, and packet loss rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0148.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Discrete Mathematics And Combinatorics Keywords: Internet of Things; Big Data Ecosystem; Hadoop Ecosystem; Storage Computing
Online: 5 September 2023 (10:33:33 CEST)
To handle the huge amount of data generated by IoT devices, Big Data processing tools make it easier. This paper discusses the Big Data concept and its main V’s characteristics. It further describes IoT-enabling technologies; nominally cloud computing such as SaaS and PaaS. The centralization and infrastructure of Big Data systems, and how Cloud Computing gives a platform access to the data from anywhere. The paper explores IoT with big data architectural solutions for various use cases across the healthcare and transportation sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cyber risk; Internet of Things; cyber risk impact assessment; cyber risk estimation; cyber risk insurance
Online: 8 March 2019 (08:50:49 CET)
In this paper we present an understanding of cyber risks in the Internet of Things (IoT), we explain why it is important to understand what IoT cyber risks are and how we can use risk assessment and risk management approaches to deal with these challenges. We introduce the most effective ways of doing Risk assessment and Risk Management of IoT risk. As part of our research, we also developed methodologies to assess and manage risk in this emerging environment. This paper will take you through our research and we will explain: what we mean by the IoT; what we mean by risk and risk in the IoT; why risk assessment and risk management are important; the IoT risk management for incident response and recovery; what open questions on IoT risk assessment and risk management remain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0771.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: internet of things; fog computing; edge computing; industrial internet of things; industry 4.0; cyber-physical systems; cybersecurity
Online: 12 July 2023 (08:14:51 CEST)
The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) paradigm is a key research area derived from the Internet of Things (IoT). The emergence of IIoT has enabled a revolution in manufacturing and production, through the employment of various embedded sensing devices connected with each other by an IoT network, along with a collection of enabling technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) and edge/fog computing. One of the unrivaled characteristics of IIoT is the inter-connectivity provided to industries; however, this characteristic might open the door for cyber-criminals to launch various attacks. In fact, one of the major challenges hindering the prevalent adoption of the IIoT paradigm is IoT security. Inevitably, an increasing number of research proposals have been introduced over the last decade to overcome these security concerns. To obtain an overview of this research area, conducting a literature survey of the published research is necessary, eliciting the various security requirements and their considerations. This paper provides a literature survey of IIoT security, focused on the period from 2017 to 2023. We identify IIoT security threats and classify them into three categories, based on the IIoT layer they exploit to launch these attacks. Additionally, we characterize the security requirements that these attacks violate. Finally, we highlight how emerging technologies, such as AI and edge/fog computing, can be adopted to address security concerns and enhance IIoT security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0115.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Dew computing; Internet of Things; Blockchain; Hotspot Network
Online: 5 August 2022 (03:46:27 CEST)
Building a widely distributed hotspot network is a very tedious task due to its complexity. Providing security, fully distributed network services, and cost-conscious impact are the major challenges behind this goal. To overcome these issues, we have presented a novel distributed hotspot network architecture with five layers that can provide large-scale hotspot coverage as an assimilated result. Our contributions to this new architecture highlight important aspects. First, scalability can be increased by including many Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices with sensors and Wi-Fi and/or LoraWAN connectivity modules. Second, hotspot owners can rent out their hotspots to create a distributed hotspot network in which the hotspots can act as an ordinary data gateway, a full-fledged hotspot miner, and a lightweight hotspot miner to earn crypto tokens as rewards for certain activities. Third, the advantages of Wi-Fi and LoraWAN can be seamlessly leveraged to achieve optimal coverage, higher network security, and suitable data transmission rate for transferring sensor data from IoT devices to remote application servers and users. Fourth, blockchain is used to enhance the decentralized behavior of the architecture presented here by providing immutability and independence from a centralized regulator and making the network architecture more reliable and transparent. The main feature of our paper is the use of the tau-computing paradigm along with hotspots to improve availability, Internet backhaul-agnostic network coverage, and synchronous update capability, and tau-aware leasing to strengthen and improve coverage. We also discuss the key challenges and future roadmap that require further investment and deployment.
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Industrial Internet of Things; Cyber Physical Systems; Internet of Everything; Industry 4.0; Digital Industry; Digital Economy
Online: 14 September 2020 (05:47:48 CEST)
This article conducts a literature review of current and future challenges in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in cyber physical systems. The literature review is focused on identifying a conceptual framework for increasing resilience with AI through automation supporting both, a technical and human level. The methodology applied resembled a literature review and taxonomic analysis of complex internet of things (IoT) interconnected and coupled cyber physical systems. There is an increased attention on propositions on models, infrastructures and frameworks of IoT in both academic and technical papers. These reports and publications frequently represent a juxtaposition of other related systems and technologies (e.g. Industrial Internet of Things, Cyber Physical Systems, Industry 4.0 etc.). We review academic and industry papers published between 2010 and 2020. The results determine a new hierarchical cascading conceptual framework for analysing the evolution of AI decision-making in cyber physical systems. We argue that such evolution is inevitable and autonomous because of the increased integration of connected devices (IoT) in cyber physical systems. To support this argument, taxonomic methodol- ogy is adapted and applied for transparency and justifications of concepts selection decisions through building summary maps that are applied for designing the hierarchical cascading conceptual framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0263.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: IEEE 802.11ax; multiple NAVs; Internet-of-Things (IoT); beamforming
Online: 15 August 2018 (04:33:59 CEST)
The increased deployment of IoT devices in specific areas results in an interference among them and the quality of communications can be severely degraded. To deal with this interference issue, the IEEE 802.11ax standard has been established in hyper-densely wireless networking systems. The 802.11ax adopts a new candidate technology that is called multiple network allocation vector in order to mitigate the interference problem. In this paper, we point out potential problem in multiple network allocation vector which can cause delays to the communication among IoT devices in hyper-dense wireless networks. Furthermore, this paper introduces an adaptive beam alignment algorithm for interference issue resolution. In addition, we analyze potential delays of communications among IoT devices under interference conditions. Lastly, we simulate our proposed algorithm in densely deployed environment and show that the interference issue can be mitigated and the IEEE 802.11ax-based IoT devices can utilize the air interface more fairly compared to conventional IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Internet of things; Artificial Intelligence; Smart University; Microcontroller; Smart buildings
Online: 5 February 2021 (21:52:06 CET)
In this paper we designed system for smart university building based on artificial intelligence (AI) and internet of things (IOT). Our idea can be summarized in smart security system that has different sensors to detect the surrounding environment of the class room in campus which keep everyone and everything on campus safer. By using (IOT), (AI) technologies and applications and by using microcontroller programming we can make the university building safer, secure and more energy saves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: autonomous electrical vehicles; the Internet of Things; supply chain strategy
Online: 11 April 2019 (12:59:18 CEST)
This paper outlines a new methodology for developing strategy for supply chain integration of Autonomous Electrical Vehicles (AEV) to the Internet of Things (IoT). The methodology consists of external architecture and internal design that anticipates the business strategy in the development process. The methodology is designed to anticipate the impact of developments in new road transport technologies, such as Tesla Truck or Tesla Pickup. Since the methodology is designed to anticipate the impact of non-existing technologies, it represents green-field analysis. Green-field is defined as a new and non-existent operation. Green-field strategy architecture in this paper is presented as a process of accepting the world and acting upon that version of the world. The results of the analysis are presented as pathways and outcomes, emerging from the interrelated relationship between AEV and IoT. The emerging methodology is applied through two case studies to evaluate the impact to environment, performance and operationalisation. The methodology proposes architecture and design for integrating AEV and IoT in the supply chain strategy, and a set of new evaluation criteria that promote acceptance of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the design process. The main contribution to knowledge is a new methodology for integrating AEV and the IoT to the supply chains. The paper applies interplay between inductive and deductive case study and grounded theory approach to build upon the concept of supply chain architecture and contribute to knowledge to the topic of formulating green-field integrated AEV- IoT supply chain strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0180.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: mHealth; Blockchain; Internet of Things; Smart devices; Communication; Smart Devices; Emerging Technologies
Online: 14 June 2020 (15:07:26 CEST)
The mHealth is a term that is used for mobile health supported by smart devices such as mobile phones, tablets, and wearable smart devices, etc. The smart devices strengthen the efficiency and effectiveness of interaction with patients, physicians, and specialists. Patients nowadays would like to be intimately involved in their diagnosis as well as to make more informed decisions concerning their care. It has begun to measure the success of the quality of treatment. This was a reason that patients trust mHealth to provide them with consistency in their communications with the physicians. Most wireless strategies do not measure up to this standard so that patient engagement ultimately ended up decreasing. The blockchain can boost mHealth through storing and sharing electronic data securely and transparently. It can enhance the accessibility of patient information in real-time. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides a unique identification number to every connected device such as mobile devices, medical devices, and wearable devices. This framework uses the blockchain and IoT technologies together to provide quick help to the patients, monitor remotely, reduce the cost and unnecessarily hospitalization physically and find the real diagnosis. In order to increase patient involvement, mHealth framework with blockchain and IoT technologies has built with the key objective of providing patients with full information on their treatment and diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0443.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: group decision makers; multicriteria analysis; performance evaluation; internet of things; intuitionistic environment
Online: 19 October 2018 (08:08:19 CEST)
The performance evaluation of the Internet of Things (IoT) based supply chain is challenging due to the involvement of multiple decision makers, the multi-dimensional nature of the evaluation process, and the existence of uncertainty and imprecision in the decision making process. To ensure effective decisions are made, this paper presents a fuzzy multicriteria analysis model for evaluating the performance of IoT based supply chain. The inherent uncertainty and imprecision of the performance evaluation process is adequately handled by using intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A new algorithm is developed for determining the overall performance index for each alternative across all criteria. The development of the fuzzy multicriteria group decision making model provides organizations with the ability to effectively evaluate the performance of their IoT based supply chains for improving their competitiveness. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the model for dealing with real world IoT-based performance evaluation problems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0083.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning; COVID-19; Internet of Things (IoT); Deep Learning; Big Data
Online: 19 April 2022 (08:21:00 CEST)
Early diagnosis, prioritization, screening, clustering and tracking of COVID-19 patients, and production of drugs and vaccines are some of the applications that have made it necessary to use a new style of technology to involve, to manage and deal with this epidemic. Strategies backed by artificial intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) have been undeniable to understand how the virus works and try to prevent it from spreading. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey article is to highlight the methods of ML, IoT and the integration of IoT and ML-based techniques in the applications related to COVID-19 from the diagnosis of the disease to the prediction of its outbreak. According to the main findings, IoT provided a prompt and efficient approach of following the disease spread. Most of the studies developed by ML-based techniques for handling COVID-19 based dataset provided performance criteria. The most popular performance criteria, is related to accuracy factor. It can be employed for comparing the ML-based methods with different datasets. According to the results, CNN with SVM classifier, Genetic CNN and pre-trained CNN followed by ResNet, provided highest accuracy values. On the other hand, the lowest accuracy was related to single CNN followed by XGboost and KNN methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0303.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); physical layer attack; routing security; Average Packet Transmission
Online: 26 January 2020 (03:57:09 CET)
Through the Internet of Things (IoT) the internet scope is established by the aid of physical objects integration to classify themselves to mutual things. A physical object can be created by this inventive perception to signify itself in the digital world. Regarding the physical objects that are related to the internet, it is worth to mention that considering numerous theories and upcoming predictions, they mostly require protected structures, moreover, they are at risk of several attacks. IoTs are endangered by particular routing disobedience called physical layer attack owing to their distributed features. The physical layer attack as a security warning makes possible for the invader to abuse the resources and bandwidth of the network through overloading the network via unimportant packets. This protocol is called LSFA-IoT consisting of two key sections of the physical layer detection system and misbehavior detection system. The first section is utilized in stabilizing the status of the network. The second section is in charge of discovering the misbehavior sources within the IoT network through , the Average Packet Transmission RREQ. By detecting a malicious node, the status of the node is checked by LSFA-IoT prior to sending a data packet and in case detecting the node as malicious, no packet is sent to that node and that node is added to the detention list. Here, the technique is assessed through wide simulations performed within the NS-3 environment. Based on the results of the simulation, it is indicated that the IoT network behaviour metrics are enhanced based on the detection rate, false-negative rate, false-positive rate, and packet delivery rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0529.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Internet of Things; Performance; Raspberry Pi; Security; Devices; OpenSSL; Hash functions; Tests.
Online: 7 June 2023 (09:37:29 CEST)
Data security is a fundamental aspect to be considered in Internet of Things (IoT) information gathering systems, as IoT is a network of interconnected devices that collect and share real-time data, becoming increasingly prevalent in our lives. However, data security in IoT systems presents unique challenges due to the large number of devices and access points involved. This study aims to conduct a literature review on IoT security to analyze the performance of security mechanisms on current development platforms, specifically on a Raspberry Pi 3. Some functions from the OpenSSL library were used, including popular hash functions and cipher algorithms. Additionally, a bash code was developed to obtain the time spent in seconds and the memory consumption in kilobytes. In addition to time and memory calculations, statistical values such as variance and standard deviation were also obtained and compared with results obtained on a personal computer. The tests conducted in this study demonstrated that it is possible to implement these algorithms on platforms with more limited resources, with AES and RSA algorithms being the most suitable for IoT scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1239.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network; Internet of Things (IoT); IoT Deployment; Localization; Sensing Coverage; Reliable Services; Intra-triangle Coverage; Delaunay Triangulation
Online: 16 June 2023 (12:08:21 CEST)
The proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) has revolutionized traditional services, giving rise to emerging smart infrastructures by connecting the physical and digital worlds. Sensory data is essential in IoT-based systems for providing context-aware and location-based services. Hence, the accurate localization of IoT devices is paramount. Anchor misplacement can significantly affect location information and coverage services in IoT. We study the effect of anchor misplacement in typical IoT settings where sensors are randomly deployed, can be mobile and may belong to multiple providers. We identify sensing coverage holes formed by anchor misplacement and analyze their presence and impact. To mitigate the impact of anchor misplacement on network reliability, we propose a framework to identify the affected sensor nodes and then identify and remove misplaced anchor nodes. The validity of our approach is verified, and its effectiveness is demonstrated by several experiments with different network topologies and parameters. Our results are promising and can be utilized in multiple coverage applications, such as smart agriculture systems and habitat monitoring, regardless of the sensors or deployment types. It also sheds light on best practices and methods for a reliable design of IoT-based systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0076.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: user authentication; multi server; internet of things; formal verification; security
Online: 9 May 2017 (04:38:37 CEST)
In recent years, the internet of things has been widely utilized in various fields, such as in smart factories or connected cars. As its domain of application has expanded, it has begun to be employed using multi-server architectures for a more efficient use of resources. However, because users wishing to receive IoT services connect to multi-servers over wireless networks, this can expose systems to various attacks and result in serious security risks. To protect systems (and users) from potential security vulnerabilities, a secure authentication technology is necessary. In this paper, we propose a smart card-based authentication protocol, which performs the authentication for each entity by allowing users to go through the authentication process using a smart card transmitted from an authentication server, and to login to a server connected to the IoT. Furthermore, the security of our proposed authentication protocol is verified by simulating a formal verification scenario using AVISPA, a security protocol-verification tool.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: FMIS; Internet of Things; Precision Agriculture; PoC; UML
Online: 17 March 2021 (19:45:27 CET)
The rising world population has made it imperative to get rid of time-consuming and non-economical agricultural practices. Thus, advances in Internet of Things (IoT) technology have recently propelled significant advancements in agriculture, similar to several other sectors. Through the combination of IoT and Farm Management Information Systems (FMIS), field data can be automatically collected, stored, analysed and accessed by farmers in real-time. In this paper, we present Proof-of-Concept (PoC) IoT circuit and FMIS web app for precision agriculture. The IoT circuit incorporates sensors, microcontroller and Wi-Fi module, which acquire and transfer field data to the FMIS web app. We designed and simulated the IoT circuit using Proteus, Arduino Uno, and Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The FMIS PoC web app was modelled with relevant Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams and Django (a Python framework) was employed to implement the app. Our simulation result illustrates how essentila field parameters can be monitored remotely and seamlessly by agriculture practitioners. It further provides a blueprint for real-time precision agriculture at scale and could serve as a learning aid for students in engineering and agricultural science.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1162.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: modern agriculture; smart farming; cloud computing; internet of things; survey
Online: 18 July 2023 (13:51:22 CEST)
Development of agriculture in Russia and Belarus is based on the practical implementation of "smart" systems in agriculture based on the use of modern wireless, intelligent technologies and Internet of Things. This review presents research articles (mainly, in Russian) published in the period of 2013 – 2022 on the use of cloud technologies and Internet of Things for the development of agriculture in Russia and Belarus. An analysis of the use of cloud technologies and Internet of Things in the modern world is given on the basis of research articles and reviews published in English in the period of 2017 – 2022. The main directions of digitalization of modern agriculture are listed. The uses of cloud technologies and Internet of Things in agriculture are described along with promising directions for further research and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Healthcare; Internet of Things; IoT; Medical Assistance; Medical Kiosk; Rural people
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:29:46 CET)
After conducting a detailed survey among the villagers of Pallissery and Karukutty, it was observed that in most of the villages the native people have to travel long distances for their basic health needs. Also most of the villagers lack knowledge regarding live health updates. At times, these problems have even resulted in death of many people including pregnant women and children. The objective of our research is to propose an integrated and easy to use Medical Kiosk that can be installed at various locations in rural areas. The Kiosk will provide an integrated environment for all medical related activities and would perform numerous functions like sending notifications regarding medical camps, mobile medical help, important dates for vaccinations, child care, insurance policies and provide other live medical updates to the villagers. It would also support the basic facilities for measurement of body parameters like height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, and heartbeat and also facilitate live consultation facilities with specialized doctors through video and voice chats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2172.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: IoT cyber risk management; Cyber risk assessment; Cyber risk control; Security controls; Internet of Things; Survey; IoT
Online: 30 June 2023 (07:59:54 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) continues to grow at a rapid pace, becoming integrated into the daily operations of individuals and organisations. IoT systems automate crucial services within daily life that users may rely on, which makes the assurance of security towards entities such as devices and information even more significant. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of papers that model cyber risk management processes within the context of IoT, and provide recommendations for further work. Using 39 collected papers, we studied IoT cyber risk management frameworks against four research questions that delve into cyber risk management concepts and human-orientated vulnerabilities. The importance of this work being human-driven is to better understand how individuals can affect risk and the ways that humans can be impacted by attacks within different IoT domains. Through the analysis, we identified open areas for future research and ideas that researchers should consider.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0489.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Fault Tolerance; Blockchain; Internet of Things; Edge Computing; Peer to Peer; Decentralized; Sensor Networks; Verifiable Delay Functions
Online: 10 August 2022 (15:41:43 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is experiencing widespread adoption across industry sectors ranging from supply chain management to smart cities, buildings, and health monitoring. However, most software architectures for IoT deployment rely on centralized cloud computing infrastructures to provide storage and computing power, as cloud providers have high economic incentives to organize their infrastructure into clusters. Despite these incentives, there has been a recent shift from centralized to decentralized architecture that harnesses the potential of edge devices, reduces network latency, and lowers infrastructure cost to support IoT applications. This shift has resulted in new edge computing architectures, but many still rely on centralized solutions for managing applications. A truly decentralized approach would offer interesting properties required for IoT use cases. To address these concerns, we introduce a decentralized architecture tailored for large scale deployments of peer-to-peer IoT sensor networks and capable of run-time application migration. The solution combines a blockchain consensus algorithm and verifiable random functions to ensure scalability, fault tolerance, transparency, and no single point of failure. We build on our previously presented theoretical simulations with many protocol improvements and an implementation tested in a use case related to monitoring a Slovenian cultural heritage building located in Bled, Slovenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0326.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: amphibious UAV; hovercraft; FEA; CFD; prototype; water quality; sensors; Internet of Things
Online: 18 September 2018 (05:30:13 CEST)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have gained significant attention in recent times due to their suitability to a wide variety of civil, military and societal missions. Development of an unmanned amphibious vehicle integrating the features of a multi-rotor UAV and a hovercraft is focus of the present study. Components and subsystems of the amphibious vehicle are developed with due consideration on aerodynamic, structural and environmental aspects. Finite element analysis (FEA) on static thrust conditions and skirt pressure are performed to evaluate the strength of structure. For diverse wind conditions and angles of attack (AOA), computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is carried out to assess the effect of drag and suitable design modification is suggested. A prototype is built with a 7 kg payload capacity and successfully tested for stable operations in flight and water-borne modes. Internet of Things (IoT) based water quality measurement is performed in a typical lake and water quality is measured using pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), turbidity and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors. The developed vehicle is expected to meet functional requirements of disaster missions catering to the water quality monitoring of large water bodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0458.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Electronic Commerce (E-commerce); Internet of Things (IoT); Artificial intelligence; Machine Learning; Fuzzy Logic; Industry 4.0; Industry 5.0
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:41:49 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) was born from the fusion of virtual and physical space and became the initiator of many scientific fields. Economic sustainability is the key to further development and progress. Today, the need for electronic commerce has become an economic priority in the transition period between Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0. Unlike mass production in Industry 4.0, customized production in Industry 5.0 should reach its true potential in vertically organized management and decision-making systems. The authors focused their research on e-commerce based on the three-level vertical IoT environment and the edge, fog, and cloud computing. The paper presents hands-on machine learning (ML) algorithms to facilitate the transition from a flat to a vertical e-commerce concept. The authors also propose practical ML algorithms for a few e-commerce types: consumer-consumer relationships and consumer-company-consumer relationships. These algorithms are mainly composed of convolution neural networks (CNN), natural language understanding (NLU) and sequential pattern mining (SPM), reinforcement learning (RL for agent training), algorithms for clicking on the item prediction, consumer behavior learning, etc. All presented concepts, algorithms, and models are described in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0002.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: adaptive security; evolutionary game; Internet of Things; Smart grid; advanced metering infrastructure; smart home
Online: 2 November 2020 (08:08:12 CET)
We applied evolutionary game theory to extend a resource constrained security game model for confidentiality attacks in an Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), which is a component of IoT-enabled Smart Grids. The AMI is modelled as a tree structure where each node aggregates the information of its children before encrypting it and passing it on to its parent. As a part of the model, we developed a discretization scheme for solving the replicator equations. The aim of this work is to explore the space of possible behaviours of attackers and to develop a framework where the AMI nodes adaptively select the most profitable strategies. Using this model, we simulated the evolution of a population of attackers and defenders on various cases resembling the real life implementation of AMI. We discuss in depth how to enhance security in AMI using evolutionary game theory either by a priori analysis or as a tool to run dynamic and adaptive infrastructure defence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0624.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Internet of Things; Load aware; Energy-efficient; Gray System Theory; Multipath protocol
Online: 24 November 2020 (16:23:43 CET)
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of smart things. This indicates the ability of these physical things to transfer information with other physical things. The characteristics of these networks, such as topology dynamicity and energy constraint, challenges the routing problem in these networks. Previous routing methods could not achieve the required performance in this type of network. Therefore, developers of this network designed and developed specific methods in order to satisfy the requirements of these networks. One of the routing methods is utilization of multipath protocols which send data to its destination using routes with separate links. One of such protocols is RPL routing protocol. In this paper, this method is improved using composite metrics which chooses the best paths used for separate routes to send packets. We propose Energy and Load aware RPL (ELaM-IoT) protocol, which is an enhancement of RPL protocol. It uses a composite metric, calculated based on remaining energy, hop count, Link Expiration Time (LET), load and battery depletion index (BDI) for the route selection. In order to evaluate and report the results, the proposed ELaM-IoT method is compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches with regard to average remaining energy, and network lifetime. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed ELaM-IoT compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0058.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Internet of Things; Incremental Machine Learning; Intrusion Detection System; Online Machine Learning; Cyber-Security; Ensemble Learning
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:47:23 CEST)
Computers have evolved over the years and as the evolution continues, we have been ushered into an era where high-speed internet has made it possible for devices in our homes, hospital, energy and industry to communicate with each other. This era is what is known as the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT has several benefits in the health, energy, transportation and agriculture sectors of a country’s economy. These enormous benefits coupled with the computational constraint of IoT devices which makes it difficult to deploy enhanced security protocols on them make IoT devices a target of cyber-attacks. One approach that has been used in traditional computing over the years to fight cyber-attacks is Intrusion Detection System (IDS). However, it is practically impossible to deploy IDS meant for traditional computers in IoT environments because of the computational constraint of these devices. In this regard, this study proposes a lightweight IDS for IoT devices using an incremental ensemble learning technique. We used Gaussian Naive Bayes and Hoeffding tree to build our incremental ensemble model. The model was then evaluated on the TON IoT dataset. Our proposed model was compared with other state-of-the-art methods proposed and evaluated using the same dataset. The experimental results show that the proposed model achieved an average accuracy of 99.98\%. We also evaluated the memory consumption of our model which showed that our model achieved a lightweight model status of 650.11KB as the highest memory consumption and 122.38KB as the lowest memory consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0266.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Internet of Things; Machine Learning; Cloud Computing; Artificial Intelligence; Security; Healthcare; Monitoring; Detection
Online: 5 July 2023 (05:07:51 CEST)
Even if the field of medicine has made great strides in recent years, infectious diseases caused by novel viruses that damage the respiratory system continue to plague people all over the world. This type of virus is very dangerous, especially for people who deal with serious long-term breathing problems, like triggering asthma, pneumonia, or bronchitis infections. Thus, this paper demonstrates a new Secure Machine Learning Monitoring System for a model for virus detection. Our proposed model makes use of 4 basic emerging technologies, Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Cloud Computing (CC), and Machine Learning (ML), to detect dangerous types of viruses that infect people or animals causing panic worldwide and deregulating human daily life. The proposed system is a robust system that could be established in various buildings, like hospitals, entertainment halls, universities, etc., and will provide accuracy, speed, and privacy for data collected in the detection of viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1560.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Emotion Recognition; Multimodal; Biosignal; Wearable Device; Internet of Things; Support Vector Machine
Online: 22 September 2023 (10:04:18 CEST)
Previous studies to recognize negative emotions (e.g. disgust, fear, sadness) for mental health care have used heavy equipment directly attaching electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes to the head, making it difficult to use in daily life, and they have proposed binary classification methods to determine whether negative emotion or not. To tackle this problem, we propose a negative emotion recognition system to collect multimodal biosignal data such as five EEG signals in an EEG headset and heart rate, galvanic skin response, and skin temperature in a smart band for classifying multiple negative emotions. It consists of android Internet of Things (IoT) application, an oneM2M-compliant IoT server, and a machine learning server. The android IoT application upload the biosignal data to the IoT server. By using the biosignal data stored in the IoT server, the machine learning server recognizes the negative emotions of disgust, fear, and sadness using a multi-class support vector machine (SVM) model with a radial basis function kernel (RBF). The experimental results showed that the multi-class SVM model achieved 93% accuracy when considering all the multimodal biosignal data. Moreover, when considering only data in the smart band, it could achieve 98% accuracy by optimizing the hyper-parameter of the RBF kernel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0739.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: rock-fall risk; internet of things IoT; deep learning; early warning
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:07:51 CEST)
During the last few years, several approaches have been proposed to improve early warning systems for reducing rock-fall risk. In this regard, this paper introduces a Deep learning-and (IoT) based Framework for Rock-fall Early Warning, devoted to reducing the rock-fall risk with high accuracy. In this framework, the prediction accuracy was augmented by eliminating the uncertainties and confusion plaguing the prediction model. In order to achieve augmented prediction accuracy, this framework fused the prediction model-based deep learning with a detection model-based Internet of Things. In order to determine the framework’s performance, this study adopted parameters, namely overall prediction performance measures, based on a confusion matrix and the ability to reduce the risk. The result indicates an increase in prediction model accuracy from 86% to 98.8%. In addition, a framework reduced the risk probability from (1.51 ×10-3) to (8.57 ×10-9). Our results indicate the framework’s high prediction accuracy; it also provides a robust decision-making process for delivering early warning and lowering the rock-fall risk probability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0431.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Supervised machine learning; intrusion detection; data engineering; cybersecurity; Internet of Things.
Online: 27 October 2022 (10:57:09 CEST)
Nowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) devices and applications have rapidly expanded worldwide due to their benefits in improving the business environment, industrial environment, and people's daily lives. However, the IoT devices are not immune to malicious network traffic, which causes potential negative consequences and sabotages IoT operating devices. Therefore, developing a method for screening network traffic is necessary to detect and classify malicious activity to mitigate its negative impacts. Therefore, this research proposes a predictive machine learning model to detect and classify network activity in an IoT system. Specifically, our model distinguishes between normal and anomaly network activity. Furthermore, it classifies network traffic into five categories, normal, Mirai attack, denial of service (DoS) attack, Scan attack, and man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack. Five supervised learning models were implemented to characterize their performance in detecting and classifying network activities for IoT systems. This includes models shallow neural networks (SNN), decision trees (DT), bagging trees (BT), support vector machine (SVM), and k-nearest neighbor (kNN). The learning models were evaluated on a new and broad dataset for IoT attacks, the IoTID20 dataset. Besides, a deep feature engineering process was applied to the dataset to improve the accuracy of the learning models. Our experimental evaluation exhibited an accuracy of 100% recorded for the detection using all implemented models and an accuracy of 99.4%-99.9% recorded for the classification process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0305.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Internet of Things; fog computing; security; blockchain; traffic; latency; SDN; OpenFlow
Online: 30 January 2019 (07:17:57 CET)
IoT is a new communication paradigm that gains a very high importance in the past few years. This communication paradigm supports various heterogeneous applications in many fields and with the dramatic increase of the number of sensor devices, it becomes a demand. Designing IoT networks faces many challenges that include security, massive traffic, high availability, high reliability and energy constraints. Thus, new communication technologies and paradigms should be deployed for IoT networks to overcome these challenges and achieve high system performance. Distributed computing techniques (e.g. fog and MEC), software defined networking (SDN), network virtualization and blockchain are common recent paradigms that should be deployed for IoT networks, either combined or individually, to achieve the main requirements of the IoT networks at a high system performance. Fog computing is a form of edge computing that has been developed to provide the computing capabilities (e.g. storage and processing) at the edge of the access network. Employing Fog computing in IoT networks, as an intermediate layer between IoT devices and the remote cloud, becomes a demand to make use of the edge computing benefits. In this work, we provide a framework for the IoT system structure that employs an edge computing layer of Fog nodes controlled and managed by SDN network with the blockchain technology to achieve a high level of security for latency sensitive IoT applications. The proposed system employs SDN network with distributed controllers and distributed OpenFlow switches; these switches are enabled with limited computing and processing capabilities. Furthermore, a data offloading algorithm is developed to allocate different processing and computing tasks to the distributed OpenFlow switches with available resources. Moreover, a traffic model is proposed to model and analyze the traffic among different parts of the network. The proposed work achieves various benefits to the IoT network, such as the latency reduction, security improvement and high efficiency of resources utilization. The proposed algorithm is simulated and also the proposed system is experimentally tested over a developed testbed to validate the proposed structure. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves higher efficiency in terms of latency, security and resource utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: internet of things; smart grids; protocol communication; interoperability; CoAP; OSGP
Online: 16 January 2020 (11:41:25 CET)
The evolution and miniaturization of the technologies for processing, storage, and communication have enabled computer systems to process a high volume of information and make decisions without human intervention. Within this context, several systems architectures and models have gained prominences, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and Smart Grids (SGs). SGs use communication protocols to exchange information, among which the Open Smart Grid Protocol (OSGP) stands out. In contrast, this protocol does not have integration support with IoT systems that use some already consolidated communication protocols, such as the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP). Thus, this work develops the integration of the protocols OSGP and CoAP to allow the communication between conventional IoT systems and systems dedicated to SGs. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of this integration, with the minimum impact on the flow of commands and data, making possible the use of the developed CoAP-OSGP Interface for Internet of Things (COIIoT).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Authentication and Key Agreement; Internet of Things; Physical Layer Authentication, Universal Software Radio Peripheral
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:11:46 CEST)
In this paper, we propose a lightweight physical layer aided authentication and key agreement (PL-AKA) protocol in the internet of things (IoT). Conventional evolved packet system AKA (EPS-AKA) used in long-term evolution (LTE) systems may suffer from congestions in core networks by the large signaling overhead as the number of IoT devices increases. Thus, in order to alleviate the overhead, we consider a cross-layer authentication by integrating physical layer approaches to cryptography-based schemes. To demonstrate the feasibility of the PL-AKA, universal software radio peripheral (USRP) based tests are conducted as well as numerical simulations. The proposed scheme shows a significant reduction in signaling overhead compared to the conventional EPS-AKA in both simulation and experiment. Therefore, the proposed lightweight PL-AKA has the potential for practical and efficient implementation of large-scale IoT networks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0390.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Ovarian Cancer; Features Classification; Self-Organizing Map; Optimal Neural Networks; Adaptive Harmony Search Optimization; Internet of Things
Online: 19 September 2018 (16:15:56 CEST)
Ovarian Cancer (OC) is a type of cancer that affects ovaries in women, and is difficult to detect at initial stage due to which it remains as one of the leading causes of cancer death. The ovarian cancer data generated from the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) was used and a novel approach was proposed for distinguishing the ovarian cancer by utilizing Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and Optimal Recurrent Neural Networks (ORNN). SOM algorithm was utilized for better feature subset selection and was also utilized for separating profitable, understood and intriguing data from huge measures of medical data. In supervised learning techniques, the SOM-based feature selection seems to be a tougher challenge because of the absence of class labels that would guide the search for relevant information to the classifier model. The classification approach can identify ovarian cancer data as benign/malignant. The ovarian cancer detection process can be improved by optimizing the weights of RNN structure using Adaptive Harmony Search Optimization (AHSO). The proposed model in this study can be used to detect cancer at early stages with high accuracy and low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0163.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; pulsoximeter; Internet of Things; maker culture; medically underserved area
Online: 9 May 2020 (10:55:48 CEST)
Family doctors can have an active role in identifying significant population needs and solutions. During COVID-19 epidemic, patient home monitoring with pulse oximetry has been a key aspect of care of patients. However, pandemics bring shortage medical equipment such as pulse oximetry. Through the local maker community in a matter of days four “smart” pulsoximeters were created and built. Following Internet of Things principles, the pulsoximeters were programmed to transmit recorded data through Wi-Fi, in real time, directly to the doctors. Each protype pulsoximeter served a family doctor during the pandemic. Building instructions were shared in maker-oriented websites, potentially leading to additional small-scale productions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0539.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Ontology Model, Context Mashup, Context Type, Context Awareness, Internet of Things (IoT)
Online: 27 July 2018 (12:57:06 CEST)
In an open and dynamic IoT (the Internet of Things) environment, a common context information model is essential for active things to share common knowledge, reason their situations, and support adaptive interoperability with each other. There have been many studies on the IoT context information models based on semantic technology, but most of them have assumed a static situation based on a service-oriented information model suitable for specific applications of the IoT. In the case of applying their models to an open and dynamic IoT environment, two issues have been observed: Most of the models ignore (a) the mashup of the open-world semantics of context information generated by multiple context sources and (b) the reconciliation of the semantic relationships between multiple context entities under dynamic situation changes. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a context information model that is flexible enough to express complex and diverse semantic relationships between context information generated from a variety of context information sources in the IoT. The main background of this proposal is to propose an adaptive context model that can effectively mash up various context classes that use ontology in open and dynamic IoT environments. In this paper, we also show the effectiveness of the proposed model through an adequate verification model and a practical example.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0650.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Internet of Thing (IoT); Hierarchical Routing; Overlap clustering; Fog computing; Cloud computing
Online: 25 November 2020 (15:16:33 CET)
Considering the great growth of IoT networks and the need for highly reliable networks and also considering the manufacturing divides of IoT equipment which are highly limited by their memory, processing power and battery; we need a highly efficient routing for guaranteeing our network's high life span. So, this paper has suggested an efficient energy routing method based on the overlapping clustering method which is inspired from the Grey theory. The Overlap clustering method means that some Things collect data that must be sent to two or more Fog nodes for processing. In the suggested method the best node is selected as the cluster head based on factors such as remaining energy, distance, link expiration time, signal power for receiving data from things by the Fog nodes. In the next step the Fog node's data are sent in a hierarchical method using a symmetrical tree of processed data to the server. Thus, the main issue here is making using a proper routing method for data sending to the Cloud that doesn't just focus on energy, but also considers other factors such as delay and network life span. The simulation results show that the HR-IoT reduces the average end to end delay more than 17.2% and 23.1%, decreases the response time more than 20.1% and 25.78% and increase packet delivery rate more than 23.1% and 28.78% and lifetime more than 25.1% and 28.78% compared to EECRP and ERGID approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0243.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things; Security; Sybil attack; Quality of Service; multi-hop flows; ad hoc networks
Online: 23 August 2019 (09:56:55 CEST)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology that aims to enable the interconnection of a large number of smart devices and heterogeneous networks. Ad hoc networks play an important role in the designing of IoT-enabled platforms due to their efficient, flexible, low-cost, and dynamic infrastructures. These networks utilize the available resources efficiently to maintain the Quality of Service (QoS) in a multi-hop communication. However, in a multi-hop communication, the relay nodes can be malicious, thus requiring a secured and reliable data transmission. In this paper, we propose a QoS-aware secured communication scheme for IoT-based networks (QoS-IoT). In QoS-IoT, a Sybil attack detection mechanism is used for the identification of Sybil nodes and their forged identities in multi-hop communication. %by high-power and mobile nodes. After Sybil nodes detection, an optimal contention window (CW) is selected for QoS provisioning, i.e., to achieve per-flow fairness and efficient utilization of the available bandwidth. In a multi-hop communication, the MAC layer protocols do not perform well in terms of fairness and throughput, especially when the nodes generate a large amount of data. It is because the MAC layer has no capability of providing QoS to prioritized or forwarding flows. We evaluate the performance of QoS-IoT in terms of Sybil attack detection, fairness, throughput, and buffer utilization. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing schemes and significantly enhances the performance of the network with a large volume of data. Moreover, the proposed scheme is resilient against Sybil attack.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: Mine Internet of Things (MIoT); post-disaster reconstruction; opportunistic routing (OR); data transmission; energy efficient; routing void
Online: 2 August 2023 (04:44:01 CEST)
The Mine Internet of Things (MIoT), as a key technology for reconstructing post-disaster communication networks, enables to realize the safety monitoring and controlling of the affected roadway. However, due to the challenging underground mine environment, the MIoT suffers from severe signal attenuation, vulnerable nodes, and limited energy, which result in low network reliability of the post-disaster MIoT. To improve the transmission reliability as well as to reduce energy consumption, a directional-area-forwarding-based energy-efficient opportunistic routing (DEOR) for the post-disaster MIoT is proposed. DEOR defines a forwarding zone (FZ) for each node to route packets toward the sink. The candidate forwarding set (CFS) is constructed by the nodes within the FZ that satisfy the energy constraint and the neighboring node degree constraint. The nodes in CFS are prioritized based on the routing quality evaluation by taking the local attributes of nodes into consideration, such as the directional angle, transmission distance, and residual energy. DEOR adopts a recovery mechanism to address the issue of void nodes. The simulation results validate that the proposed DEOR outperforms ORR, OBRN and ECSOR in terms of energy consumption, average hop count, packet delivery rate, and network lifetime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0190.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: sustainability; smart cities; Internet of Things (IoT); multi-agent deep reinforcement learning; smart waste management; smart sensors
Online: 10 November 2022 (04:49:09 CET)
Ever-increasing need for improving the livability of a city and improve outcomes for its residents, over the last decade, the adoption of technology to develop urbanised societies around the world has given rise to the need for developing smart cities. The speed at which the world population is growing, the use of Internet of Things in smart cities have really advanced the quality of life. One significant area of concern within the smart city framework is waste management. If the waste within a city is not adequately managed, then it leads to issues in the health of the citizens. Additionally, the waste management has such a high impact on the environmental footprint, hence the need to have a smart way of managing waste is of critical importance. Through our research, we analyse the challenges of waste management within a city to understand the impact of the problem on to the citizens and overall city operations. We then investigate ways in which we can solve these problems using the emerging technologies, such as the Internet of Things, to collect valuable data of large volumes arriving at an astronomical rate, then apply multi-agent deep reinforcement learning algorithms to harness the power of big data to extract meaningful information and actionable insights. We ingest data generated by our Internet of Things into our algorithm for three main purposes including providing the notifications to an external system, for example, a map navigation engine out of the scope for this project but a future extension for route optimisation and waste vehicle tracking; extracting and reporting the actionable insights from the underlying data; and consuming the extracted data for predictive forecasting to draw out the unknown patterns of waste fill levels within various geographical locations and again send out triggers and notification to external systems for example a waste collection authority who can efficiently schedule the waste collection vehicles and optimise the route. To achieve the above mentioned outcomes, we propose a framework that is agnostic of the hardware that it connects to and can effectively interface with a wide variety of hardware keeping a level of abstraction in the architecture.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: antenna array; ambience monitoring; deep learning; internet of things (IoT); RF energy harvesting; rectenna; time series prediction
Online: 14 July 2020 (03:21:28 CEST)
IoT system becomes hot topic nowadays for smart home, IoT helps devices to communicate together without human intervention inside home, so it is offering many challenges. A new smart home IoT platform powered using electromagnetic energy harvesting is proposed in this paper. It contains a high gain transmitted antenna array and efficient circular polarized array rectenna system to harvest enough power from any direction to increase life time of the batteries used in IoT system. Optimized energy consumption, the software with adopting the Zigbee protocol of the sensor node and low power microcontroller are used to operate in lower power modes. The proposed system has an 84.6 days lifetime which is approximately 10 times the lifetime for similar system. On the other hand, the proposed power management circuit operated at 0.3 V DC to boost the voltage to ~3.7V from radio frequency energy harvesting and manage battery level to increase the batteries lifetime. A predictive indoor environment monitoring system is designed based on a novel hybrid system to provide a non-static plan, approve energy consumption and avoiding failure of sensor nodes in smart home.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: functional dependency; network-based linear dependency modelling; internet of things; micro mort model; goal-oriented approach; transformation roadmap; cyber risk regulations; empirical analysis; cyber risk self-assessment; cyber risk target state.
Online: 25 December 2020 (11:35:48 CET)
The Internet-of-Things (IoT) triggers new types of cyber risks. Therefore, the integration of new IoT devices and services requires a self-assessment of IoT cyber security posture. By security posture this article refers to the cybersecurity strength of an organisation to predict, prevent and respond to cyberthreats. At present, there is a gap in the state-of-the-art, because there are no self-assessment methods for quantifying IoT cyber risk posture. To address this gap, an empirical analysis is performed of 12 cyber risk assessment approaches. The results and the main findings from the analysis is presented as the current and a target risk state for IoT systems, followed by conclusions and recommendations on a transformation roadmap, describing how IoT systems can achieve the target state with a new goal-oriented dependency model. By target state, we refer to the cyber security target that matches the generic security requirements of an organisation. The research paper studies and adapts four alternatives for IoT risk assessment and identifies the goal-oriented dependency modelling as a dominant approach among the risk assessment models studied. The new goal-oriented dependency model in this article enables the assessment of uncontrollable risk states in complex IoT systems and can be used for a quantitative self-assessment of IoT cyber risk posture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0531.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Biosensors; COVID-19; Artificial Intelligence; Computer-aided Detection (CAD) Internet of Medical Things (IoMT).
Online: 29 November 2022 (03:44:17 CET)
Despite the fact that COVID-19 is no longer a global pandemic due to development and integration of different technologies for the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Technological advancement in the field of molecular biology, electronics, computer science, artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, nanotechnology etc. has led to the development of molecular approaches and computer aided diagnosis for the detection of COVID-19. This study provides a holistic approach on COVID-19 detection based on (1) molecular diagnosis which include RT-PCR, antigen-antibody and CRISPR-based biosensors and (2) computer aided detection based on AI-driven models which include Deep Learning and Transfer learning approach. The review also provide comparison between these 2 emerging technologies and open research issues for the development of smart-IoMT-enable platform for the detection of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0304.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); Gray System Theory; Multi-Path Routing; GSTMPR-IoT
Online: 26 January 2020 (04:00:20 CET)
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of smart things. This indicates the ability of these physical things to transfer information with other physical things. IoT has introduced various services and daily human life depends on its reliable and accessible operation. The characteristics of these networks, such as topology dynamicity and energy constraint, challenges the routing problem in these networks. Previous routing methods could not achieve the required performance in this type of network. Therefore, developers of this network designed and developed specific methods in order to satisfy the requirements of these networks. One of the routing methods is utilization of multi-path protocols which send data to its destination using routs with separate links. One of such protocols is AOMDV routing protocol. AOMDV protocol is a multi-path protocol which uses multiple different paths for sending information in order to maintain the network traffic balance, manage and control node energy, decrease latency, etc. In this paper, this method is improved using gray system theory which chooses the best paths used for separate routes to send packets. To do this, AOMDV packet format is altered and some fields are added to it so that energy criteria, link expiration time, and signal to noise ratio can also be considered while selecting the best route. The proposed method named GSTMPR-IoT is introduced which chooses the routs with highest rank for concurrent transmission of data, using a specific routine based on the gray system theory. In order to evaluate and report the results, the proposed GSTMPR-IoT method is compared to the EECRP and AOMDV approaches with regard to throughput, packet delivery rate, end to end delay, average residual energy, and network lifetime. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed GSTMPR-IoT compared to the EECRP and AOMDV approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0865.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things; Machine learning; Intrusion detection system; Ensemble classifier; Principal Component Analysis
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:31:56 CEST)
The Internet of Things technology opens the horizon for a broader scope of intelligent applications in smart cities. However, the massive amount of traffic exchanged among devices may cause security risks, significantly when devices are compromised or vulnerable to cyber-attack. An intrusion detection system is the most powerful tool to detect unauthorized attempts to access smart systems. It identifies malicious and benign traffic by analyzing network traffic. In most cases, only a fraction of network traffic can be considered malicious. As a result, it is difficult for an intrusion detection system to detect attacks at high detection rates while maintaining a low false alarm rate. This work proposes an integrated framework to detect suspicious traffic to address secure data communication in smart cities. This paper presents an approach to developing an intrusion detection system to detect various attack types. It can be done by implementing a Principal Component Analysis method that eliminates redundancy and reduces system dimensionality. Furthermore, the proposed model shows how to improve intrusion detection system performance by implementing an ensemble model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0032.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: internet of thing; IoT; cognitive sensor networks; forwarding; spectrum-availability; retransmission
Online: 10 October 2016 (12:17:22 CEST)
The widespread proliferation of sensor nodes in the era of Internet of Things (IoT) coupled with increasing usage of wireless spectrums especially the ISM band makes it difficult to deploy real-life IoT. Currently, the cognitive radio technology enables sensor nodes communicate with each other through the licensed spectrum bands as well as the free ISM bands. Cognitive radio networks (CRSNs) are considered as a promising solution to the problem of spectrum under utilization and artificial radio spectrum scarcity. The paradigm of dynamic spectrum access allows secondary users (SUs) to utilize wireless spectrum resources which belong to primary users (PUs) with minimal interference to PUs. Due to the dynamic spectrum availability and quality, routing for SUs in multi-hop CRSNs is a challenge. In this paper, we introduce novel routing metrics that estimate both the future spectrum availability and the average transmission time with the consideration of both the global statistical spectrum usage and local instant spectrum resources. In our novel routing metrics, one retransmission is allowed and considered to reduce the probability of rerouting upon PU's arrival. Then, we propose two routing algorithms for multi-hop CRSNs. Finally, we conduct simulations, whose results show that our proposed algorithms lead to a significant performance improvement over the reference algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0370.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: building information modeling; industry foundation classes; internet of things; smart campus; environmental sensors; Dynamo
Online: 25 May 2018 (12:29:54 CEST)
Building information modeling (BIM) is the digital representation of physical and functional characteristics (such as geometry, spatial relationship, and geographic information) of a facility to support decisions during its life cycle. BIM has been extended beyond 3D geometrical representations in recent years, and now includes time as a fourth dimension and cost as a fifth dimension, as well as such other applications as virtual reality and augmented reality. The Internet of Things (IoT) has been increasingly applied in various products (smart homes, wearables) to enhance work productivity, living comfort, and entertainment. However, research addressing the integration of these two technologies (BIM and IoT) is still very limited, and has focused exclusively on the automatic transmission of sensor information to BIM models. This paper describes an attempt to represent and visualize sensor data in BIM with multiple perspectives in order to support complex decisions requiring interdisciplinary information. The study uses a university campus as an example and includes several scenarios, such as an auditorium with a dispersed audience and energy saving options for rooms with different functions (mechanical/electric equipment, classrooms, and laboratory). This paper also discusses the design of a common platform allowing communication among sensors with different protocols (Arduino, Raspberry Pi), the use of Dynamo to accept sensor data as input and automatically redraw visualized information in BIM, and how visualization may help in making energy-saving management decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: inverse problem; electrical impedance tomography; machine learning; flood embankment; internet of things
Online: 20 August 2018 (06:29:09 CEST)
The article presents a non-destructive test system based on electrical impedance tomography for monitoring flood embankments. The technology of cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things with the use of electrical impedance tomography enables real-time monitoring of flood embankments. This solution provides a visual analysis of damage and leaks, which allows for quick and effective intervention and possible prevention of danger. A dedicated solution based on the IT structure, dedicated laboratory models and a dedicated measurement system with various types of sensors and machine learning algorithms for image reconstruction has been developed. The system includes specialized intelligent devices for tomographic measurements. The application contains the analysis of anomalies occurring in the structure of the object as a result of damage or danger and breaking the shaft during the flood. The presented solution enables ongoing monitoring of objects by collecting measurement results, forecasts and simulations. The main advantage of the proposed system is the spatial ability to analyse shafts, high accuracy of imaging and high speed of data processing. The use of tomographic techniques in conjunction with image reconstruction algorithms allow for non-invasive and very accurate spatial assessment of humidity and damages of flood embankments. The presented results show the effectiveness of the presented research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0011.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Internet of Things; data mining algorithms; GPU cluster; performance; energy consumption; reliability
Online: 6 July 2017 (12:40:22 CEST)
This paper aims to develop a low-cost, high-performance and high-reliability computing system to process large-scale data using common data mining algorithms in the Internet of Things computing. Considering the characteristics of IoT data processing, similar to mainstream high performance computing, we use a GPU cluster to achieve better IoT services. Firstly, we present an energy consumption calculation method (ECCM) based on WSN. Then, using the CUDA Programming model, we propose a Two-level Parallel Optimization Model (TLPOM) which exploits reasonable resource planning and common compiler optimization techniques to obtain the best blocks and threads configuration considering the resource constraints of each node. The key to this part is dynamic coupling Thread-Level Parallelism (TLP) and Instruction-Level Parallelism (ILP) to improve the performance of the algorithms without additional energy consumption. Finally, combining the ECCM and the TLPOM, we use the Reliable GPU Cluster Architecture (RGCA) to obtain a high-reliability computing system considering the nodes’ diversity, algorithm characteristics, etc. The results show that the performance of the algorithms significantly increased by 34.1%, 33.96% and 24.07% for Fermi, Kepler and Maxwell on average with TLPOM and the RGCA ensures that our IoT computing system provides low-cost and high-reliability services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0445.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: data mining; predictive analytics; Internet of Things; peasant farming; smart farming system; crop production prediction
Online: 31 January 2022 (10:58:30 CET)
Internet of Things (IoT) technologies can greatly benefit from machine learning techniques and Artificial Neural Networks for data mining and vice versa. In the agricultural field, this convergence could result in the development of smart farming systems suitable for use as decision support systems by peasant farmers. This work presents the design of a smart farming system for crop production, which is based on low-cost IoT sensors and popular data storage services and data analytics services on the Cloud. Moreover, a new data mining method exploiting climate data along with crop production data is proposed for the prediction of production volume from heterogeneous data sources. This method was initially validated using traditional machine learning techniques and open historical data of the northeast region of the state of Puebla, Mexico, which were collected from data sources from the National Water Commission and the Agri-food Information Service of the Mexican Government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0116.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: big data； body area network；body sensor network；edge computing；Fog Computing； Medical Cyberphysical Systems； medical internet-of-things；telecare； tele-treatment；wearable devices
Online: 26 June 2017 (06:24:07 CEST)
In the era when the market segment of Internet of Things (IoT) tops the chart in various business reports, it is apparently envisioned that the field of medicine expects to gain a large benefit from the explosion of wearables and internet-connected sensors that surround us to acquire and communicate unprecedented data on symptoms, medication, food intake, and daily-life activities impacting one’s health and wellness. However, IoT-driven healthcare would have to overcome many barriers, such as: 1) There is an increasing demand for data storage on cloud servers where the analysis of the medical big data becomes increasingly complex; 2) The data, when communicated, are vulnerable to security and privacy issues; 3) The communication of the continuously collected data is not only costly but also energy hungry; 4) Operating and maintaining the sensors directly from the cloud servers are non-trial tasks.This book chapter defined Fog Computing in the context of medical IoT. Conceptually, Fog Computing is a serviceoriented intermediate layer in IoT, providing the interfaces between the sensors and cloud servers for facilitating connectivity, data transfer, and queryable local database. The centerpiece of Fog computing is a low-power, intelligent, wireless, embedded computing node that carries out signal conditioning and data analytics on raw data collected from wearables or other medical sensors and offers efficient means to serve telehealth interventions. We implemented and tested an fog computing system using the Intel Edison and Raspberry Pi that allows acquisition, computing, storage and communication of the various medical data such as pathological speech data of individuals with speech disorders, Phonocardiogram (PCG) signal for heart rate estimation, and Electrocardiogram (ECG)-based Q, R, S detection. The book chapter ends with experiments and results showing how fog computing could lessen the obstacles of existing cloud-driven medical IoT solutions and enhance the overall performance of the system in terms of computing intelligence, transmission, storage, configurable, and security. The case studies on various types of physiological data shows that the proposed Fog architecture could be used for signal enhancement, processing and analysis of various types of bio-signals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0227.v3
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); groundwater level; groundwater resource; groundwater management models; groundwater monitoring system; wireless sensor network
Online: 28 December 2021 (12:10:17 CET)
Globally, groundwater is the largest distributed storage of freshwater and plays an important role in an ecosystem’s sustainability in addition to aiding human adaptation to both climatic change and variability. However, groundwater resources are dynamic and often change as a result of land usage, abstraction, as well as variation in climate. To solve these challenges, many conventional solutions, such as certain numerical techniques, have been proffered for groundwater modelling. The global evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT) has enhanced the culture of data gathering for the management of groundwater resources. In addition, efficient data-driven groundwater resource management relies hugely on information relating to changes in groundwater resources as well as their availability. At the moment, some studies in the literature reveal that groundwater managers lack an efficient and real-time groundwater management system that is needed to gather the required data. Additionally, the literature reveals that the existing methods of collecting data lack the required efficiency to meet computational model requirements and meet management objectives. Unlike previous surveys, which solely focussed on particular groundwater issues related to simulation and optimisation management methods, this paper seeks to highlight the current groundwater management models as well as the IoT contributions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0018.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; Internet of Things; Context; Prediction; Context Histories; Alzheimer’s Disease
Online: 4 May 2021 (13:47:01 CEST)
The new Internet of Things (IoT) applications are enabling the development of projects that help monitoring people with different diseases in their daily lives. Alzheimer’s is a disease that affects neurological functions and needs support to maintain maximum independence and security of patients during this stage of life, as the cure and reversal of symptoms have not yet been discovered. The IoT-based monitoring system provides the caregivers’ support in monitoring people with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). This paper presents an ontology-based computational model which receives physiological data from external IoT applications, allowing to identify of potentially dangerous behaviors for patients with AD. The main scientific contribution of this work is the specification of a model focusing on Alzheimer’s disease using the analysis of Context Histories and Context Prediction, which considering the state of the art, it is the only one that uses analysis of Context Histories to perform predictions. The research also proposes a simulator to generate activities of the daily life of patients allowing the creation of datasets. These datasets were used to evaluate the contributions of the model and were generated according to the standardization of the ontology. The simulator generated 1025 scenarios applied to guide the predictions, which achieved average accurary of 97.44%. The experiments also allowed the learning of 20 relevant lessons on technological, medical and methodological aspects of DCARE that are recorded in this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1530.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Edge computing; Internet of Things system; Knee rehabilitation; Machine Learning rehabilitation; Movement detection
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:56:41 CEST)
In this work, an IoT system with edge computing capability is proposed facilitating postoperative surveillance of patients who have undergone knee surgery. The main objective is to reliably identify whether a set of orthopedic rehabilitation exercises are executed correctly, which is critical since, it is often necessary to supervise patients during the rehabilitation period so as to avoid injuries or long recovery periods. The proposed system leverages Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm, in combination with Deep Learning and Edge Computing to classify the extend-flex movement of one’s knee via embedded Machine Learning (ML) classification algorithms. The contribution of the proposed work is multilayered. Furthermore as an outcome of this work a dataset of labeled knee movements is freely available on https://www.kaggle.com/datasets/billskarm/knee-range-of-motion to the research community. It also provides real time movement detection with an accuracy reaching 100%, which is achieved with a ML model trained to fit a low cost, off the shelf, Bluetooth Low Energy platform. The proposed Edge Computing approach allows predictions to be performed on-device rather than solely relying on a cloud service. This yields critical benefits in terms of wireless bandwidth and power conservation, drastically enhancing device autonomy, while delivering reduced event detection latency. In particular, the “on device” implementation is able to yield a drastic 99,9% wireless data transfer reduction, a critical 39% prediction delay reduction and a valuable 17% increase of prediction event. Finally, enhanced privacy comprises another significant benefit from the implemented Edge Computing ML model as sensitive data can be processed on-site and only events or predictions are shared with the medical personnel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0424.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Internet of things; Raspberry Pi; LiDAR; GNSS; High-throughput plant phenotyping; Precision agriculture
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:15:26 CET)
Phenotypic characterization of crop genotypes is an essential yet challenging aspect of crop management and agriculture research. Digital sensing technologies are rapidly advancing plant phenotyping and speeding-up crop breeding outcomes. However, off-the-shelf sensors might not be fully applicable and suitable for agriculture research due to diversity in crop species and specific needs during plant breeding selections. Customized sensing systems with specialized sensor hardware and software architecture provide a powerful and low-cost solution. This study designed and developed a fully integrated Raspberry Pi-based LiDAR sensor named CropBioMass (CBM), enabled by internet of things to provide a complete end-to-end pipeline. The CBM is a low-cost sensor, provides high-throughput seamless data collection in field, small data footprint, injection of data onto the remote server, and automated data processing. Phenotypic traits of crop fresh biomass, dry biomass, and plant height estimated by CBM data had high correlation with ground truth manual measurements in wheat field trial. The CBM is readily applicable for high-throughput plant phenotyping, crop monitoring, and management for precision agricultural applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0513.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: C2; command and control; Identity; Internet of Things; IoT; MQTT; NFC; security; QR Code
Online: 22 July 2020 (10:17:33 CEST)
This paper examines dynamic identity, as it pertains to the IoT; and explores the practical implementation of a mitigation to some of the key weaknesses of a conventional dynamic identity model. This paper explores human-centric and machine-based observer approaches for confirming device identity, permitting automated identity confirmation for deployed systems. It also assesses the advantages of dynamic identity in the context of identity revocation permitting secure change of ownership for IoT devices. The paper explores use-cases for human and machine-based observation for authentication of device identity when devices join a C2 network, and considers the relative merits for these two approaches for different types of system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0192.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: LiDAR sensors reliability; Internet of Things, self-turning parametrization; k-nearest neighbors, driven-assistance simulator
Online: 28 February 2018 (11:26:12 CET)
Nowadays, the research and development of on-chip LiDAR sensors for vehicle collision avoidance is growing very fast. Therefore, the assessment of the reliability in obstacle detection using the information provided by LiDAR sensors has become a key issue to be explored by the scientific community. This paper presents the design and implementation of a self-tuning method in order to maximize the reliability of an Internet-of-Things sensors network and to minimize the number of sensors to localize with the required accuracy obstacles by a detection threshold. In order to achieve this goal, models that predict accuracy (i.e., prediction error) for object localization using data collected by LIDAR sensors are designed and implemented in Webots Automobile 3D simulation tool. The approach is based on combining different techniques. Firstly, point-cloud clustering technique and an error prediction model library composed by a multilayer perceptron neural network with backpropagation, k-nearest neighbors and linear regression are explored. Secondly the above-mentioned techniques for modeling are also combined with a supervised and reinforcement machine learning technique, Q-learning in order to minimize the detection threshold. In addition, a IoT driving assistance simulated scenario with a LiDAR sensor network is designed in order to validate the prediction model and the optimal configuration of the sensor network to guarantee reliability in obstacle localization. The results demonstrate that the self-tuning method is appropriate to increase the reliability of the sensor network whereas minimizing the detection threshold
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0311.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cyber-Physical Systems; reliability assessment; Internet-of-Things; LiDAR sensor; driving assistance; obstacle recognition; reinforcement learning; Artificial Intelligence-based modelling
Online: 28 July 2019 (12:38:28 CEST)
Currently, the most important challenge in any assessment of state-of-the-art sensor technology and its reliability is to achieve road traffic safety targets. The research reported in this paper is focused on the design of a procedure for evaluating the reliability of Internet-of-Things (IoT) sensors and the use of a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) for the implementation of that evaluation procedure to gauge reliability. An important requirement for the generation of real critical situations under safety conditions is the capability of managing a co-simulation environment, in which both real and virtual data sensory information can be processed. An IoT case study that consists of a LiDAR-based collaborative map is then proposed, in which both real and virtual computing nodes with their corresponding sensors exchange information. Specifically, the sensor chosen for this study is a Ibeo Lux 4-layer LiDAR sensor with IoT added capabilities. Implementation is through an artificial-intelligence-based modeling library for sensor data-prediction error, at a local level, and a self-learning-based decision-making model supported on a Q-learning method, at a global level. Its aim is to determine the best model behavior and to trigger the updating procedure, if required. Finally, an experimental evaluation of this framework is also performed using simulated and real data
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0328.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Internet of Things; multi-path routing; Gray System Theory; network stability; RMPGST-IoT
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:46:42 CET)
Internet of things (IoT) is a network of smart things. This indicates the ability of these physical things to transfer information with other physical things. The characteristics of these networks, such as topology dynamicity and energy constraint, challenges the routing problem in these networks. Previous routing methods could not achieve the required performance in this type of network. Therefore, developers of this network designed and developed specific methods in order to satisfy the requirements of these networks. One of the routing methods is utilization of multi-path protocols which send data to its destination using routes with separate links. One of such protocols is AOMDV routing protocol. In this paper, this method is improved using gray system theory which chooses the best paths used for separate routes to send packets. To do this, AOMDV packet format is altered and some fields are added to it so that energy criteria, link expiration time, and signal to noise ratio can also be considered while selecting the best route. The proposed method named RMPGST-IoT is introduced which chooses the routes with highest rank for concurrent transmission of data, using a specific routine based on the gray system theory. In order to evaluate and report the results, the proposed RMPGST-IoT method is compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches with regard to throughput, packet receiving rate, packet loss rate, average remaining energy, and network lifetime. The results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed RMPGST-IoT compared to the ERGID and ADRM-IoT approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0462.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: diabetes disease; feature selection; E-Healthcare; decision tree; performance; machine learning; internet of things; medical data
Online: 29 February 2020 (10:16:37 CET)
A significant attention has been made to the accurate detection of diabetes which is a big challenge for the research community to develop a diagnosis system to detect diabetes in a successful way in the IoT e-healthcare environment. Internet of Things (IOT) has emerging role in healthcare services which delivers a system to analyze the medical data for diagnosis of diseases applied data mining methods. The existing diagnosis systems have some drawbacks, such as high computation time, and low prediction accuracy. To handle these issues, we have proposed a IOT based diagnosis system using machine learning methods, such as preprocessing of data, feature selection, and classification for the detection of diabetes disease in e- healthcare environment. Model validation and performance evaluation metrics have been used to check the validity of the proposed system. We have proposed a filter method based on the Decision Tree (Iterative Dichotomiser 3) algorithm for highly important feature selection. Two ensemble learning Decision Tree algorithms, such as Ada Boost and Random Forest are also used for feature selection and compared the classifier performance with wrapper based feature selection algorithms also. Machine learning classifier Decision Tree has been used for the classification of healthy and diabetic subjects. The experimental results show that the Decision Tree algorithm based on selected features improves the classification performance of the predictive model and achieved optimal accuracy. Additionally, the proposed system performance is high as compared to the previous state-of-the-art methods. High performance of the proposed method is due to the different combinations of selected features set and GL, DPF, and BMI are more significantly important features in the dataset for prediction of diabetes disease. Furthermore, the experimental results statistical analysis demonstrated that the proposed method would be effectively detected diabetes disease and can easily be deployed in IOT wireless sensor technologies based e-healthcare environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0227.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: real-time intelligent monitoring; zigbee protocol; Internet of Things (IoT); office security system; security-threats
Online: 13 July 2018 (05:25:50 CEST)
Internet of Things (IoT) opens new horizons by enabling automated procedures without human interaction using IP connectivity. IoT deals with devices, called things which are represented as any item from our daily life that is enhanced with computing or communication facilities. Among various mobile communications, Zigbee communication is broadly used in controlling or monitoring applications due to its low data rate and low power consumption. Securing IoT systems have been the main concern for the research community. In this paper, different security-threats of Zigbee networks in IoT platform have been addressed to predict the potential security threats of Zigbee protocol and a Security Improvement Framework (SIF) has been designed for intelligent monitoring in an office environment. Our proposed SIF can predict and protect various potential malicious attacks in the Zigbee network and respond accordingly through a notification to the system administrator. This framework (SIF) is designed to make automated decisions immediately based on real-time data which are defined by the system administrator. Finally, the designed SIF has been implemented in an office security system as a case study for real-time monitoring. This office security system is evaluated based on the capacity of detecting potential security attacks. The evaluation results show that the proposed SIF is capable of detecting and protecting several potential security attacks efficiently enabling more secure way of intelligent monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0109.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Cyber risk; Internet of Things cyber risk; Digital Economy Risk Assessment; Economic Impact Assessment.
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:26:13 CEST)
We present an updated design process for adapting and integrating existing cyber risk assessment approaches for impact assessment for the risk from IoT to the digital economy. The new design process includes a set of changes to the original standards (e.g. NIST) that are adapted for the IoT cyber risk in this paper. This paper also presents a new framework for impact assessment of IoT cyber risk, specific for the digital economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: encryption space ratio; entropy coding; H.264/AVC; internet of multimedia things; lightweight cipher; selective encryption
Online: 30 January 2019 (10:09:35 CET)
Within an Internet of Multimedia Things, the risk of disclosing streamed video content, such as arising from video surveillance, is of heightened concern. This leads to the encryption of that content. To reduce the overhead and lack of flexibility arising from full encryption of the content, a good number of selective-encryption algorithms have been proposed in the last decade. Some of them have limitations, in terms of significant delay due to computational cost, or excess memory utilization, or, despite being energy efficient, do not provide a satisfactory level of confidentiality, due to their simplicity. To address such issues, this paper presents a lightweight selective encryption scheme, in which encoder syntax elements are encrypted with the innovative EXPer (EXtended Permutation with exclusive OR). The selected syntax elements are taken from the final stage of video encoding that is during entropy coding. As a diagnostic tool, the Encryption Space Ratio measures encoding complexity of the video relative to the level of encryption so as to judge the success of the encryption process, according to entropy coder. A detailed comparative analysis of EXPer with state-of-the-art algorithms confirms that the EXPer provides significant confidentiality with a small computational cost and negligible encryption bitrate overhead. Thus, the results demonstrate that the proposed security scheme is a suitable choice for constrained devices in an Internet of Multimedia Things environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0194.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Internet of Things; IoT; Wireless Sensor Networks; ContikiMAC; Energy Efficiency; Duty-Cycles; Clear Channel Assessments; Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI)
Online: 17 January 2020 (12:49:13 CET)
The radio operation in wireless sensor networks (WSN) in the Internet of Things (IoT) applications are the most common source for power consumption. However, recognizing and controlling the factors affecting radio operation can be valuable for managing the node power consumption. ContikiMAC is a low-power Radio Duty-Cycle protocol in Contiki OS used in WakeUp mode, which is a clear channel assessment (CCA) to check radio status periodically. The time spent to check the radio is of utmost importance for monitoring power consumption. It can lead to false WakeUp or idle listening in Radio Duty-Cycles and ContikiMAC. This paper presents a detailed analysis of radio WakeUp time factors of ContikiMAC. Then, we propose lightweight CCA (LW-CCA) as an extension to ContikiMAC to reduce the percentage of Radio Duty-Cycles in false WakeUps and idle listenings by using dynamic received signal strength indicators (RSSI) status check time. The simulation results in the Cooja simulator show that LW-CCA reduces about 8% energy consumption in nodes while maintaining up to 99% of the packet delivery rate (PDR).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0316.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); wireless sensor network (WSN); data integrity; watermark; data injection attack
Online: 13 November 2018 (13:14:25 CET)
Using Internet of Things (IoT) applications has been a growing trend in the last few years. They have been deployed in several areas of life including secure and sensitive sectors like military and health. In these sectors, sensory data is the main factor in any decision-making process. This introduces the need to ensure the integrity of data. Secure techniques are needed to detect any data injection attempt before catastrophic effects happen. Sensors have limited computational and power resources. This limitation creates a challenge to design a security mechanism that is both secure and energy-efficient. This work presents a Randomized Watermarking Filtering Scheme (RWFS) for IoT applications that provides en-route filtering to get rid of any injected data at an early stage of the communication. Filtering injected data is based on a watermark that is generated from the original data and embedded directly in random places throughout the packet's payload. The scheme uses homomorphic encryption techniques to conceal the report's measurement from any adversary. The advantage of homomorphic encryption is that it allows the data to be aggregated and, thus, decreases the packet's size. The results of our proposed scheme proved that it improves the security and energy consumption of the system as it mitigates some of the limitations in the existing works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: decentralized access control; Internet of Things (IoT); blockchain protocol; smart contract; federated delegation; capability-based access control
Online: 3 May 2018 (13:06:09 CEST)
While the Internet of Things (IoT) technology has been widely recognized as the essential part of Smart Cities, it also brings new challenges in terms of privacy and security. Access control (AC) is among the top security concerns, which is critical in resource and information protection over IoT devices. Traditional access control approaches, like Access Control Lists (ACL), Role-based Access Control (RBAC) and Attribute-based Access Control (ABAC), are not able to provide a scalable, manageable and efficient mechanism to meet the requirements of IoT systems. Another weakness in today's AC is the centralized authorization server, which can be the performance bottleneck or the single point of failure. Inspired by the smart contract on top of a blockchain protocol, this paper proposes BlendCAC, which is a decentralized, federated capability-based AC mechanism to enable an effective protection for devices, services and information in large scale IoT systems. A federated capability-based delegation model (FCDM) is introduced to support hierarchical and multi-hop delegation. The mechanism for delegate authorization and revocation is explored. A robust identity-based capability token management strategy is proposed, which takes advantage of the smart contract for registering, propagating and revocating of the access authorization. A proof-of-concept prototype has been implemented on both resources-constrained devices (i.e., Raspberry PI node) and more powerful computing devices (i.e., laptops), and tested on a local private blockchain network. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the BlendCAC to offer a decentralized, scalable, lightweight and fine-grained AC solution for IoT systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Specific Emitter Identification, Radio Frequency Fingerprinting, Physical Layer Authentication, Physical Layer Security, Internet of Things
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:37:34 CEST)
Initially introduced almost thirty years ago for the express purpose of providing electronic warfare systems the capabilities to detect, characterize, and identify radar emitters, Specific Emitter Identification (SEI) has recently received a lot of attention within the research community as a physical layer technique for securing Internet of Things (IoT) deployments. This attention is due in large part to SEI’s demonstrated success in passively and uniquely identifying wireless emitters using traditional machine learning and the success of Deep Learning (DL) within the natural language processing and computer vision areas. SEI exploits distinct and unintentional features present within an emitter’s transmitted signals. The existence of these distinctive and unintentional features is attributed to slight manufacturing and assembly variations that exist within and between the components, sub-systems, and systems that comprise an emitter’s Radio Frequency (RF) front end. Although sufficient to facilitate SEI, these features do not hinder normal operations such as detection, channel estimation, timing, and demodulation. However, despite the plethora of SEI publications, it has remained largely a focus of academic endeavors that primarily focus on proof-of-concept demonstration and little to no use in operational networks for various reasons. The focus of this survey is a review of SEI publications from the perspective of its use as a practical, effective, and usable IoT security mechanism, thus we use IoT requirements and constraints (e.g., wireless standard, nature of their deployment) as a lens through which each reviewed paper is analyzed. Previous surveys have not taken such an approach and have only used IoT as motivation, a setting, or a context. In this survey, we consider operating conditions, SEI threats, SEI at scale, publicly available data sets, and SEI considerations that are dictated by the fact that it is to be employed by IoT devices or IoT infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0285.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Mobile Edge Computing; Internet Of Things; Cost Minimization Model; Energy Consumption; Scheduling Algorithm
Online: 10 March 2021 (13:23:33 CET)
Advances in communication technologies have made the interaction of small devices, such as smartphones, wearables, and sensors, scattered on the Internet, bringing a whole new set of complex applications with ever greater task processing needs. These Internet of Things (IoT) devices run on batteries with strict energy restrictions. They tend to offload task processing to remote servers, usually to Cloud Computing (CC) in datacenters geographically located away from the IoT device. In such a context, this work proposes a dynamic cost model to minimize energy consumption and task processing time for IoT scenarios in Mobile Edge Computing environments. Our approach allows for a detailed cost model, with an algorithm called TEMS that considers energy, time consumed during processing, the cost of data transmission, and energy in idle devices. The task scheduling chooses among Cloud or Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) server or local IoT devices to better execution time with lower cost. The simulated environment evaluation saved up to 51.6% energy consumption and improved task completion time up to 86.6%.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0295.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Internet of Things; security; vulnerabilities and protective measures; control network security; operation in multi-user environments; risk assessment
Online: 15 September 2019 (02:55:36 CEST)
The introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT), i.e. the interconnection of embedded devices over the Internet, has changed the world we live in from the way we measure, make calls, print information and even the way we get energy in our offices or homes. The convenience of IoT products, like CCTV cameras, IP phones, and oscilloscopes, is overwhelming for end-users. In parallel, however, security issues have emerged and it is essential for infrastructure providers to assess the associated security risks. In this paper, we propose a novel method to detect IoT devices and identify the manufacturer, device model, and the firmware version currently running on the device using the page source from the web user interface. We performed automatic scans of the large-scale network at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) to evaluate our approach. Our tools identified 233 IoT devices that fell into eleven distinct device categories and included 49 device models manufactured by 26 vendors from across the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0202.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; artificial intelligence; computer vision; cybersecurity; privacy, security; gerontology; social gerontology; internet of medical things; best practices
Online: 15 March 2022 (10:40:36 CET)
Fall prediction using machine learning has become one of the most fruitful and socially relevant applications of computer vision in gerontological research. Since its inception in the early 2000s, this subfield has proliferated into a robust body of research underpinned by various machine learning algorithms (including neural networks, support vector machines, and decision trees) as well as statistical modeling approaches (Markov chains, Gaussian mixture models, and hidden Markov models). Furthermore, some advancements have been translated into commercial and clinical practice, with companies in various stages of development capitalizing on the aging population to develop new commercially available products. Yet despite the marvel of modern machine learning-enabled fall prediction, little research has been conducted to shed light on the security and privacy concerns that such systems pose for older adults. The present study employs an interdisciplinary lens in examining privacy issues associated with machine learning fall prediction and exploring the implications of these models in elderly care and the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT). Ultimately, a justice-informed set of best practices rooted in social geroscience is suggested to help fall prediction researchers and companies continue to advance the field while preserving elderly privacy and autonomy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0557.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Industry 4.0; Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS); Internet of Things (IoT); Human factors; Automated production Systems; Social interactions; Social Networks
Online: 26 July 2021 (09:47:59 CEST)
Since the 1970s, the application of microprocessor in industrial machinery and the development of computer systems have transformed the manufacturing landscape. The rapid integration and automation of production systems have outpaced the development of suitable human design criteria, creating a deepening gap where human factor was seen as an important source of errors and disruptions. Today the situation seems different: the scientific and public debate about the concept of Industry 4.0 has raised the awareness about the central role humans have to play in manufacturing systems, to the design of which they must be considered from the very beginning. The future of industrial systems, as represented by Industry 4.0, will rely on the convergence of several research fields such as Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (IMS), Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Internet of things (IoT), but also socio-technical fields such as social approaches within technical systems. This article deals with different Human dimensions associated with CPS and IoT and focuses on their conceptual evolution of automatization to improve the sociability of such automated production systems and consequently puts again the human in the loop. Hereby, our aim is to take stock of current research trends, and to show the importance of integrating human operators as a part of a socio-technical system based autonomous and intelligent products or resources. As results, different models of sociability as way to integrate human into the broad sense and/or the development of future automated production systems, were identified from the literature and analysed.