ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0132.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: civil science; antibiotic producers screening; actinomycetes; reporter systems; chartreusin; pikromycin
Online: 8 August 2022 (05:27:03 CEST)
Since streptomycin discovery, actinomycetes were the main source for new antibiotics, but after the Golden age (1950-1960th) the discovery rate significantly decreased. The high probability to rediscover well-known antibiotics led to a reduction in interest in soil bacteria as a source for new antibiotics. At the same time, actinomycetes remain a very promising reservoir for searching for new active molecules. In this work, we present several reporters containing eye-visible fluorescent protein genes, which can be used to increase the efficiency of determining the mechanism of antibiotics at the very initial stage of screening. Presented reporters and the following pipeline were optimized given the involvement of citizen scientists without specialized skills and equipment in order to utilize the reservoir of soil bacteria in the search for new antibiotic producers. The combination of mechanism-based approaches and civil science has proved its effectiveness in practice revealing a significant increase in the screening rate. Two new strains Streptomyces sp. KB-1 and BV113 were found to produce antibiotics pikromycin and chartreusin, respectively, demonstrating the efficiency of the pipeline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0026.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: chloramphenicol; alkyl(triphenyl)phosphonium; bacterial ribosome; molecular dynamics simulations; antibiotic activity; antiproliferative activity
Online: 1 April 2021 (14:38:19 CEST)
In the current work, in continuation of our recent research  we synthesized and studied new chimeric compounds comprising the ribosome-targeting antibiotic chloramphenicol (CHL) and the membrane-penetrating cation triphenylphosphonium (TPP) connected by alkyl linkers of different lengths. Using various biochemical assays, we showed that these CAM-Cn-TPP compounds bind to the bacterial ribosome, inhibit protein synthesis in vitro and in vivo in a way similar to that of the parent CHL, and significantly decrease membrane potential. Similar to CAM-C4-TPP, the mode of action of CAM-C10-TPP and CAM-C14-TPP on bacterial ribosomes differ from that of CHL. By simulating the dynamics of complexes of CAM-Cn-TPP with bacterial ribosomes, we have proposed a possible explanation for the specificity of the action of these analogs on the translation process. CAM-C10-TPP and CAM-C14-TPP stronger inhibit the growth of the Gram-positive bacteria in comparison to the CHL and suppress some strains of CHL-resistant bacteria. Thus, we have shown that TPP derivatives of CHL are dual-acting compounds that target the ribosomes and the cellular membranes of bacteria. The TPP fragment of CAM-Cn-TPP compounds contributes to the inhibitory effect on bacteria. Moreover, since the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells have qualities similar to those of their prokaryotic ancestors, we demonstrate the possibility of targeting chemoresistant cancer cells with these compounds.