REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0450.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Hox gene collinearity; spatial temporal collinearity; vertebrates; Noether theory
Online: 22 March 2021 (13:01:59 CET)
Hox gene collinearity (HGC) is a multiscalar property of many animal phyla particularly important in embryogenesis. It relates entities and events occurring in Hox clusters inside the chromosome DNA and in embryonic tissues. These two entities differ in linear size by more than four orders of magnitude. HGC is observed as spatial collinearity (SC) where the Hox genes are located in the order (Hox1, Hox2, Hox3 …) along the 3’ to 5’ direction of DNA in the genome and a corresponding sequence of ontogenetic units (E1, E2, E3, …) located along the Anterior – Posterior axis of the embyo. Expression of Hox1 occurs in E1. Hox2 in E2, Hox3 in E3… Besides SC, a temporal collinearity (TC) has been also observed in many vertebrates. According to TC first is Hox1 expressed in E1, later is Hox2 expressed in E2, followed by Hox3 in E3,… Lately doubt has been raised whether TC really exists. A biophysical model (BM) was formulated and tested during the last twenty years. According to BM, physical forces are created which pull the Hox genes one after the other driving them to a transcription factory domain where they are transcribed. The existing experiments support this BM description. Symmetry is a physical-mathematical property of Matter that was explored in depth by Noether who formulated a ground-breaking theory that applies to all sizes of Matter. This theory applied to Biology can explain the origin of HGC as applied not only to animals developing along the A/P axis but also to animals with circular symmetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Hox genes, Hox collinearity, Noether’s Theory, Anterior Posterior axis, Rotational symmetry
Online: 27 May 2019 (14:14:36 CEST)
Hox Gene Collinearity (HGC) is a fundamental property that determines the development of many animal clades including Vertebrates. In the Hox gene clusters the genes are located in a sequence Hox1, Hox2, Hox3,… along the 3’ to 5’ direction of the cluster in the chromosome. During Hox cluster activation the Hox genes are expressed sequentially in the ontogenetic units D1, D2, D3,… along the anterior (A)- Posterior (P) axis of the early embryo. This collinearity, first observed by E.B. Lewis, is surprising because the spatial extent of these structures (Hox clusters and embryos) differ by about 4 orders of magnitude. Biomolecular mechanisms alone cannot explain this correlation. Long range physical interactions like diffusion or electric attractions should be involved. A biophysical model (BM) has been formulated which cooperates with the biomolecular processes and describes the data successfully. Hundred years ago E. Noether made a fundamental discovery in Mathematics and Physics. She proved rigorously that a physical system obeying a symmetry law (e.g.rotations or self similarity) is linked to a conserved physical quantity. It is argued here that HGC obeys a ‘primitive’ self similarity symmetry of the genes of a Hox cluster along a finite straight line. In the case of Vertebrates, the associated partially conserved quantity is the ever increasing ‘ratchet’- like gene ordering where some Hox genes are missing. Another application of Noether’s Theory is performed to rotationally symmetric embryos like the sea urchin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1987.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Hox gene collinearity; temporal collinearity; Noether Theory; self similarity; double strand break; split Hox clusters; chicken limb growth
Online: 1 December 2023 (03:12:17 CET)
Hox gene clusters are crucial in Embryogenesis. It was observed that some Hox genes are located in order along the telomeric to centromeric direction of the DNA sequence: Hox1, Hox2, Hox3…. These genes are expressed in the same order in the ontogenetic units of the Drosophila embryo along the Anterior-Posterior axis. The two entities (genome and embryo) differ significantly in linear size and in-between distance. This strange phenomenon was named Spatial Collinearity (SP). Later, it was observed that, particularly in the Vertebrates, a Temporal Collinearity (TC) coexists: first is Hox1 expressed, later Hox2 and even later Hox3,…,. According to a Biophysical Model (BM), pulling forces act at the anterior end of the cluster while a cluster fastening applies at the posterior end. Hox clusters are irreversibly elongated along the force direction. During Evolution, the elongated Hox clusters are broken at variable lengths thus split clusters may be created. An Empirical Rule was formulated distinguishing development due to a complete Hox cluster from development due to split Hox clusters. BM can ‘explain’ this Empirical Rule. In a spontaneous mutation where the cluster fastening is dismantled, a minimal pulling force can automatically shift the cluster inside the Hox activation domain. This cluster translocation can probably explain the absence of Temporal Collinearity in Drosophila.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: hox genes; temporal collinearity; axial patterning; gastrulation; xenopus
Online: 11 June 2019 (04:03:46 CEST)
Kondo and collaborators recently reported the absence of Hox temporal collinearity in Xenopus tropicalis. They found none in the initiation of accumulation of Hox transcripts (detected via RNA seq). And none in the initial expression sequence of primary unprorocessed transcripts (Identified by using qRT-PCR against introns or intron-exon boundaries). Nor in the initial acquisition by Hox gene DNA of a mark for active chromatin. These findings are in conflict with the idea that temporal collinearity has to do with the initiation of Hox gene transcription or with the opening of and a progression from repressed to active states in Hox chromatin. But collinear acquisition of the same active chromatin mark has been shown by others in murine 5’ Hoxd cluster genes.The reason for this difference is unknown . This careful study thus indicated that the initiation phase of Hox expression shows no temporal collinearity in X. tropicalis. A previous study in X. laevis from the same group also showed that the sequence of times for reaching (normalised) half maximal Hox expression showed no temporal collinearity. These conclusions are likely to be correct. These authors do however also conclude that “experimental evidence for the temporal collinearity hypothesis is not strong” There is however strong evidence that Hox temporal collinearity does occur in early vertebrate embryos. Below. I present and discuss 3 lines of evidence to resolve the present conflict I argue that Hox temporal collinearity actually does exist and that it is part of a central mechanism in early development.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HOX gene collinearity; spatial collinearity; temporal collinearity; TC disappearence; TC reappearence
Online: 7 September 2021 (09:56:27 CEST)
It was observed that a cluster of ordered genes (Hox1, Hox2, Hox3,…) in the genome are activated in the ontogenetic units (1, 2, 3,…) of an embryo along the Anterior/Posterior axis following the same order of the Hox genes. This Spatial Collinearity (SC) is very strange since it correlates events of very different spatial dimensions. It was later observed in vertebrates, that, in the above ordering, first is Hox1expressed in ontogenetic unit 1, followed later by Hox2 in unit 2, and even later Hox3 in unit 3….This temporal collinearity (TC) is an enigma and even to-day is explored in depth. In 1999 T. Kondo and D. Duboule, after posterior upstream extended DNA excisions , concluded that the Hox cluster behaves ‘as if’ TC disappears. Here the consideration of TC really disappearing is taken face value and its repercussions are analyzed. Furthermore, an experiment is proposed to test TC disappearance. An outcome of this experiment could be the reappearance (partial or total) of TC.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0753.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: HOX genes; Hox gene collinearity; spatial collinearity; temporal collinearity; vertebrates; elongated gene cluster
Online: 4 January 2021 (08:30:15 CET)
Hox gene collinearity (HGC) is a multiscalar property of many animal phyla particularly important during embryogenesis. It relates events occurring in Hox clusters inside the chromosome DNA and embryonic tissues. These two entities differ in size by more than four orders of magnitude. HGC is observed as spatial collinearity (SC) where the Hox genes are located in the order H1, H2, H3 … along the 3’ to 5’ direction of the DNA sequence. The corresponding embryonic tissues (E1, E2, E3, …) are activated along the Anterior – Posterior axis in the same order. Besides this collinearity a temporal collinearity (TC) has been also observed in many vertebrates. According to TC first is H1 expressed in E1, later is H2 in E2, followed by H3,… Lately doubt has been raised whether TC really exists. A biophysical model (BM) has been formulated and tested in the last twenty years. According to BM, physical forces are created which pull the Hox genes one after the other driving them to a transcription factory domain where they are transcribed. The existing experiments support this BM description. In the present work two equivalent realizations of BM are presented which explain the recent findings on TC as observed in the vertebrates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0192.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Hox; collinearity; time space translation; gastrulation; Xenopus; BMP
Online: 17 September 2019 (12:55:22 CEST)
The vertebrate anterior-posterior (A-P = craniocaudal) axis is evidently made by a timing mechanism. Evidence has accumulated that tentatively identifies the A-P timer as being or involving Hox temporal collinearity. Here, I focus on the two current competing models based on this premise. Common features and points of dissent are examined and a common model is distilled from what remains. This is an attempt to make sense of the literature.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0607.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Hox gene collinearity; temporal collinearity; Noether theory; self similarity; double strand break; split Ηox cluster; limb growth
Online: 11 May 2023 (04:34:03 CEST)
Abstract: Hox gene clusters are crucial in Embryogenesis. It was observed that some Hox genes were located in order along the telomeric to centromeric direction of the DNA sequence: Hox1, Hox2, Hox3…. These genes were expressed in the same order in the ontogenetic units of the Drosophila embryo along the Anterior-Posterior axis. The two entities (genome and embryo) differ significantly in linear size and in-between distance. This strange phenomenon was named Spatial Collinearity (SP). Later, it was observed that, particularly in the Vertebrates, a Temporal Collinearity (TC) coexists: first is Hox1 expressed, later Hox2 and even later Hox3,…,. Hox clusters are irreversibly elongated along the force direction. According to a Biophysical Model (BM), pulling forces act at the anterior end of the cluster while a cluster fastening applies at the posterior end. During Evolution, the elongated Hox clusters are broken at variable lengths thus split clusters may be created. An Empirical Rule was formulated distinguishing development due to a complete Hox cluster from development due to split Hox clusters. BM can explain this Empirical Rule. In an accidental mutation where the cluster fastening is dismantled, a minimal pulling force can automatically shift the cluster inside the Hox activation domain. This cluster translocation can probably explain the absence of temporal collinearity in Drosophila.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Hox genes; collinearity; segmental identity; chromatin modifications; vertebral malformations; vertebrae; Hox synteny; somitogenesis; Notch pathway
Online: 7 August 2019 (03:51:41 CEST)
It is not understood how the numbers and identities of vertebrae are controlled during mammalian development. The remarkable robustness and conservation of segmental numbers may suggest a digital nature of the underlying process. Here I propose a mechanism that allows cells to obtain and store the segmental information in digital form, and to produce a pattern of chromatin accessibility that in turn regulates Hox gene expression specific to the metameric segment. The model requires that a regulatory element be present such that the number of occurrences of the motif between two consecutive Hox genes equals the number of segments under the control of the anterior gene. This is true for the recently discovered HRC3 motif, associated with histone modifications and developmental genes. The finding not only allows correctly predicting the numbers of segments using only sequence information, but also resolves the 40-year-old enigma of the function of temporal and spatial collinearity of Hox genes. The logic of the mechanism is illustrated in an animated video: https://youtu.be/4a3XOQ7Lz28. I also discuss how different aspects of the proposed mechanism can be tested experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0262.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Hox genes, Retinoids, BMP, Gastrulation, Xenopus, Timing, Time Space Translation
Online: 28 March 2019 (10:33:43 CET)
The vertebrate anterior-posterior (A-P) body axis arises due to time space translation (TST). BMP dependent Hox temporal collinearity in early embryonic mesoderm generates the initial vertebrate axial pattern because the Hox codes associated with sequential times are frozen sequentially by BMP inhibiting signals from the embryonic organiser or node. There are three reasons why it is now opportune to review TST. 1/ It has become clear that this mechanism is highly relevant for current and emergent directions in medicine. Making a particular tailored stem cell or culturing a specific organoid in vitro both depend on it. 2/ This unexpected and perhaps unlikely sounding mechanism has recently been thoroughly validated. 8 recent primary publications from 6 major groups confirm that TST is the mechanism for primary axial patterning in the 4 best investigated vertebrate embryos. 3/ Its mechanism is now becoming clear. Previous publications propose it involves Hox regulation of cell movement during gastrulation or sequential stabilisation of Hox codes by anti BMP as above. Neither of these processes works alone but together they amount to a very convincing mechanism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0509.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: hox genes; gene cluster; larva; evolutionary novelties; Spiralia; Lophotrochozoa; Annelida; Rotifera
Online: 26 November 2021 (13:28:22 CET)
The decoding of genomes of a larger number of animal species have provided further insights into the genomic Hox gene organization and with this indicated the evolutionary changes during the radiation of several clades. The expansion of gene expression studies during development and life history stages of more species, complete the picture of the relationship between cluster organisation and temporal and spatial correlation of the Hox activity. Now these results open the opportunity to look deeper into the regulatory pathways that form these patterns and identify what exact changes caused the evolution of the application of this iconical gene set for the evolution of new larval forms and new structures. Here we review recent progress of Hox gene related research in the large clade Spiralia, that comprises Annelida, Mollusca, Lophophorata, Platyhelminthes, Nemertea and others. Albeit their relationship to each other is not resolved yet, there are emerging patterns that indicate that Hox genes are mainly used for patterning late, adult body parts and that Hox genes are often not expressed on the larval stages. Hox genes seem also often recruited for the formation of morphological novelties. Together with the emerging genomic information Hox genes show a much more dynamic evolutionary history than previously assumed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Hox genes; limb development; main body axis; timing; time space translation
Online: 20 November 2019 (10:31:55 CET)
This article is a tribute to Lewis Wolpert on the occasion of the recent 50th anniversary of the publication of his article ‘Positional Information and the Spatial Pattern of Differentiation’. This tribute relates to another of his ideas: his early ‘Progress Zone’ timing model for limb development. Recent evidence is reviewed that a mechanism sharing features with this model patterns the main body axis in early vertebrate development. This tribute celebrates the golden era of Developmental Biology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0101.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: spleen; islet transplantation; transplant site; immunity; tolerance; regeneration; diabetes mellitus; mesenchymal stem cell; Sjogren’s syndrome; HOX
Online: 2 April 2018 (11:05:40 CEST)
In this review, we show the unique potential of spleen as an optimal site for islet transplantation and a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy to treat severe diabetes mellitus, but its clinical outcome is unsatisfactory at present. One factor in clinical success of this therapy is selection of the most appropriate transplantation site. The spleen has been studied for a long time as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity. Recently it has also been shown that the spleen contributes to the regeneration of transplanted islets. The efficacy of transplantation is not as high as that obtained with intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established before the spleen can be effectively used in the clinic. Spleen also has an interesting aspect as a mesenchymal stem cell reservoir. The splenic mesenchymal stem cells contribute to tissue repair in damaged tissue, and thus, the infusion can be a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and Sjogren’s syndrome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0351.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: organogenesis, adult liver, translational, regeneration, homeobox, hox, Wnts, growth factors, theme, gene expression, cancer, hepatectomy, three-dimensional, organoid
Online: 16 January 2019 (09:14:06 CET)
Researchers in different disciplines studied liver’s genetic expression of organogenesis in embryogenesis; however, organogenesis has not been studied as an independent and a complementary process during adult liver regeneration. This paper reviewed studies and extracted information related to organogenesis in adult liver regeneration because of organogenesis’ important role in cancer and tissue regeneration.