ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0152.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Desmin; Myopathy; Cardiomyopathy; Intermediate Filaments; Cytoskeleton; Myofibrillar Myopathy (MFM); Desminopathy; Desmosomes; Protein Aggregation.
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:48:45 CEST)
Desmin is the major intermediate filament protein of all three muscle cell types and connects different cell organelles and multi-protein complexes like the cardiac desmosomes. Several pathogenic mutations in the DES gene cause different skeletal and cardiac myopathies. However, the significance of the majority of DES missense variants is currently unknown since functional data are lacking. To determine whether desmin missense mutations within the highly conserved 1A coil domain cause a filament assembly defect, we generated a set of variants with unknown significance and analyzed systematically the filament assembly in transfected SW13 and H9c2 cells using confocal microscopy. We found that mutations in the N-terminal part of the 1A coil domain affect the filament assembly leading to the cytoplasmic desmin aggregation. In contrast, mutant desmin in the C-terminal part of the 1A coil domain form filamentous structures comparable to wild-type desmin. Our findings suggest that the N-terminal part of the 1A coil domain is a hot spot for pathogenic desmin mutations, which affect the desmin filament assembly leading in consequence to skeletal and/or cardiac myopathies. This study may have relevance for the genetic counselling of patients carrying variants in the 1A coil domain of the DES gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0655.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: mitochondria; Ca2+ handling; heart failure; CaMKII; cardiomyocyte hypertrophy
Online: 26 March 2021 (10:41:00 CET)
Background : ATPase inhibitor factor-1 (IF1) preserves cellular ATP under conditions of respiratory collapse, yet the function of IF1 under normal respiring conditions is unresolved. We tested the hypothesis that IF1 promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in the context of heart failure (HF). Methods and results Cardiac expression of IF1 was increased in mice and in humans with HF, downstream of neurohumoral signaling pathways and in patterns that resembled the fetal-like gene program. Adenoviral expression of wild type IF1 in primary cardiomyocytes resulted in pathological hypertrophy and metabolic remodeling as evidenced by enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress, reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity, and the augmentation of extra-mitochondrial glycolysis. Similar perturbations were observed with an IF1 mutant incapable of binding to ATP-synthase (E55A mutation), indication that these effects occurred independent of binding to ATP synthase. Instead, IF1 promoted mitochondrial fragmentation and compromised mitochondrial Ca2+ handling, which resulted in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ overloading. The effects of IF1 on Ca2+ handling were associated with the cytosolic activation of CaMKII and inhibition of CaMKII or co-expression of catalytically dead CaMKIIδC was sufficient to prevent IF-1 induced pathological hypertrophy. Conclusions IF1 represents a novel member of the fetal-like gene program that contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and pathological cardiac remodeling in HF. Furthermore, we present evidence for a novel, ATP-synthase independent, role for IF1 in mitochondrial Ca2+ handling and mitochondrial- to nuclear crosstalk involving CaMKII.