ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0650.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: rabies; ghana; dog vaccination; lyssavirus
Online: 11 September 2023 (10:39:07 CEST)
Rabies is a viral zoonotic disease caused by the lyssavirus and endemic to most tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. This study reports on the occurrence of rabies in humans and dogs and relates the results to the vaccination status of the dogs. A total of each of 25 brain and saliva samples of dogs were tested for Lyssavirus using RT-PCR and visualised using gel electrophoresis. Additionally, histopathological diagnosis of the Lyssavirus was made on the brain samples. A lyssavirus positivity of 34 % was realised. Sample specific positivity was 58 % and 10 % for brain and saliva samples respectively. Only one of the nine vaccinated dogs tested positive for lyssavirus. Five dogs that tested positive for the virus had bitten seven people prior to death. Results confirms the endemicity of the virus in Ghana and the danger it poses to humans. This study confirms vaccination as an effective tool for preventative of rabies. However, elimination of the disease is possible if there is an established and effective collaboration between veterinary and human medicine through one health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0088.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Climate change; Female farmers; Rural; Ghana
Online: 2 June 2021 (15:25:00 CEST)
Climate change poses a major threat to development in most low and middle-income countries, especially the sub – Saharan Africa. Wurompo is a small farming community in the Wenchi Municipality of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana that depends on rain-fed agriculture activities for livelihood. In recent years, droughts, unpredictable rainfall pattern and crop failure have become common in the area. The study assessed knowledge and awareness, effects of climate change on female farmers, and their adaptation strategies. A case study in design, qualitative methods were used to collect data from 50 purposefully selected participants. Data were analyzed using themes and sub-themes generated from the research questions. Findings showed lack of adequate information and knowledge on climate change and its effects. Climate change has impacted negatively on these farmers stemming from decline in crop production and unavailability of adequate water supply in due season. Challenges to climate change adaptation are poverty, poor basic infrastructure, and modern farming practices. Farmers must be educated on climate change and its effects, with training on the necessary adaptation strategies to build their resilience. Policies that target rural farmers to adapt to climate change, and device modern agricultural techniques and practices are also necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Ghana; SARS-CoV-2; transmission; Phylogenetics
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:24:17 CEST)
In regions lacking genomic data, analysis of sequences from the early stages of an outbreak can provide important insights into the diversity of pathogens present. Following the detection of the first imported case of COVID-19 in the Northern sector of Ghana on 13th March 2020, we have now molecularly characterized and phylogenetically analysed sequences including three (3) complete genomes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) isolated from nine (9) patients observed in Ghana. Eight (8) of these patients reported with a recent history of foreign travel and one (1) with no history of foreign travel. We performed high throughput sequencing for 9 samples following the determination of high concentration of viral RNA. In addition, we estimated the potential impact that long distance transportation of samples to testing centres may have on sequencing outcomes. Here, two samples that were closest in terms of viral RNA concentration but transported from sites which are over 400km apart were assessed. All sequences were compared to previous sequences from Ghana and representative sequences from regions where our patients had previously travelled. Complete genomes were obtained for three (3) sequences and with another near complete genome with a coverage of 95.6%. Sequences with coverage in excess of 80% were found to belong to three lineages namely A, B.1 and B.2. Our sequences clustered in two different clades with the majority falling within a clade composed of sequences from sub-Saharan Africa. Less RNA fragmentation was seen in sample KATH23 which was collected 9km compared with sample TTH6 which was collected and transported over a distance of 400km to the testing site. The clustering of several sequences from sub-Saharan Africa suggests regional circulation of the viruses in the subregion. Importantly, there may be the need to decentralize testing sites and build more capacity across Africa to boost the sequencing output of the subregion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0084.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: demand driven research; biomass; innovation; Ghana
Online: 5 July 2018 (08:09:35 CEST)
The case for demand-driven research and development has received important considerations among governments, donors and programme implementing partners in development planning and implementation. Addressing demand is believed to be a bottom-top approach for designing and responding to development priorities and is good for achieving development outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the concept and application of demand driven research for development (DDRD) in Africa. We use evidence of six projects implemented under the BiomassWeb Project in Africa. We focus on parameters on level of engagement of stakeholders - whose demand is being articulated, the processes for demand articulation, capacity building and implementation processes, innovativeness of the project, reporting and sustainability of the project. We find that the nature of the institutions involved in articulation and implementation of demand-driven research and development projects and their partnerships influence the impact and reporting of demand-driven projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0029.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: functions; contexts; traditional pottery; northern; Ghana
Online: 5 March 2018 (04:00:32 CET)
The aim of this paper is to identify and document some functions and contextsof traditional pottery within northern Ghana. The descriptive approach of the qualitative research methodology was employed. Interview and observation methods were employed as the data collection methods. They were used to ascertain reasons why some potteryare engaged in certain contexts andfor certainfunctions. The data was tabulated to include the traditional name of the pot, the function and the context. The data were then analyzed and the indications were that, the potters make interesting forms of traditional pottery for different purposes; and the local name given to each pot perfectly defines their functions and contexts within northern Ghana. On the flipside of the coin, the function and context of every pot can also be dictated by its end user. Base on this, the researchers were able to discover some functions and contexts of the indigenous pottery which were put into some groups. On the first hand, the researchers classified the functions into five groups of purpose. These included: domestic purposes, religious purposes, agricultural purposes, rites of passage purposes and traditional herbal medicinal purposes. On other hand, seven groups of contexts were also discovered at the time of the study. These included: courtyards, bedrooms, bathrooms, graveyards, kitchens, shrines, and hencoops as places where these pots can be found among the people of the Northern Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Assisted Reproductive Technologies; Ghana; Infertility; Pregnancy; Women
Online: 29 January 2021 (06:03:03 CET)
Objective: The study aimed to explore the experiences of women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technologies namely; Invitro Fertilization and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection at the Finney Hospital and Fertility Centre, New Bortianor, Ghana. Method: A qualitative research design was employed to analyse and describe the experiences of the women seeking Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Fifteen women were invited and interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. The responses were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Results: Three themes emerged from the study: the women’s experiences, challenges and the roles and contributions of significant others. The women were anxious, stressed-up, exhausted and financially burdened. Spouses and health professionals played significant roles by providing social, emotional and financial support for these women. Significant others such as spouses and close relatives were supportive and provided encouragement to the women. Conclusion: The experiences of women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technologies are multi-dimensional. Thus psychosocial intervention as part of ART services with health insurance cover may be client-centered and more appropriate for these group of women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0388.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: weather variables; stock market returns; significant; Ghana
Online: 17 September 2020 (08:24:46 CEST)
In every economy, Stock markets are part of the key elements the build it up. A few decades ago, there has been a significant change in Ghana stock market returns (GSE). Our study examines the statistical and economic significance of investor sentiment, based on weather conditions/changes, on stock market returns. OLS models, assisted by unit root tests were employed in analyzing the data obtained from the Ghana stock exchange platform from 2000 to 2017. From our literature review, we discovered that investors’ perceptions play a central role in finalizing the direction of stock market returns. Regarding our empirical results, we tested whether weather variations influence the investment decisions of investors; we discovered that temperature and cloud cover significantly influences stock market returns. This is because of mood changes is associated with weather conditions variations. However, sunshine per our regression coefficient shows a statistically insignificant impact on investors’ investment choices. Precipitation to a large extend influence stock market activities further affecting its results negatively as our regression results depicted. We concluded stock brokerage firms, companies, and investors (foreign/local) must incorporate weather changes/effects when strategizing about their investment outcomes.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: genetic diversity; Dioscorea praehensilis; SSR markers; Ghana
Online: 8 March 2020 (14:55:19 CET)
Dioscorea praehensilis Berth is one of the wild yam species resistance to many yam disease (yam anthracnose disease and yam mosaic virus) grow in Ghana especially in the cocoa grown regions of the country. It is a crucial crop that has been known to contribute to poverty reduction and food gap. Genetic diversity in this yam species has been discovered to be eroding and neglected. In this study we evaluated the genetic diversity among 43 D. praehensilis collected from Ghana using simple sequence repeat (SSR). Using 11 SSR marker, a total of 99 number of alleles were generated with an average of 8.48 alleles per locus. The mean gene diversity was 0.81, mean polymorphism information content was 0.82 while mean Shannon information index was 1.94. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed a contribution of 40.16% of the first three coordinate axes and grouped the 43 morphotypes into 2 groups while hierarchical cluster through UPGMA revealed the presence of 3 main clusters. Molecular variance (AMOVA) alongside the Fst revealed low genetic diversity and differentiation among accessions and population. Result of this study assess the genetic diversity and will facilitate the use D. praehensilis as sources of resistance gene into yam breeding program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0003.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: pito; beverage; bacteria; coliform; Lower Prampram; Ghana
Online: 2 January 2017 (10:55:07 CET)
Pito is a traditionally brewed alcoholic beverage in some African countries. It is gaining much prominence and the patronage among the youth. Therefore, samples of the drink were collected every week for six weeks from three different popular brewing sites at Lower Prampram in the Ningo-Prampram District of Accra, Ghana. The samples were processed and examined for bacteria and fungi using the Standard Plate Count (SPC) technique. A total of six different bacteria and a fungus were isolated. The bacteria were Escherichia coli, Klesiella pneumoniae, Shigella spp, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosa, whiles the fungus was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Total viable counts as well as individual isolates counts in all the pito samples were found to be less than 104 cfu/ml. It is noteworthy that, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the only fungus isolated is known to be associated with fermentation and the microbes isolated from the pito samples were found to be within the permissible limits. However, these potentially pathogenic microbes, if found in unacceptable limits, from the fermenting samples could merit public health attention. Therefore, periodic screening of pito and their brewers, coupled with education on the maintenance of recommended guidelines concerning food and drink production is encouraged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Adherence, Moringa, Plantain, Glycemic control, Ghana
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:40:02 CEST)
Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk-factor for cardiovascular diseases. Plant-based dietary-patterns have been shown to positively impact the effects this cardiovascular risk-factor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of adherence to moringa, plantains, moringa-plantain combined, and other plant based dietary-patterns with glycemic-control among persons with type-2-diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Facility-based cross-sectional-study was conducted among 530 T2DM patients in Ghana. Structured-questionnaires were used to collect demographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables. Adherence to plant-based dietary-patterns were assessed with 24-hour dietary-recall questionnaire. SPSS version-22 was used in data analysis. BMI, HbA1c%, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly correlated with adherence to plant-based dietary-patterns (p-value < 0.05). After adjusting for confounders, adherence to: Plantain diets, standardized regression coefficient β (95%CI): -0.098 (-0.321, -0.022), Yam, β (95%CI): 0.148 (0.066, 0.496), Moringa diets β (95%CI): -0.095 (-0.325,-0.011) and Bean-diets β (95%CI): -0.112 (-0.577-.007) were significantly associated with glycemic control. Also adherence to: Plantain-moriga combined diets β (95%CI): -0.406 (-0.413, -0.049) and Plantain-beans combined diets β (95%CI): -0.128 (-0.188, -0.038) were significantly associated with glycemic control. Adherence to Plantain, Yam, Beans, Plantain-moriga combined diets, and Plantain-beans combined diets could be associated with glycemic control. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Adherence, Moringa, Plantain, Glycemic control, Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: COVID-19; knowledge; perception; attitude; Northern Region; Ghana
Online: 3 August 2020 (00:53:37 CEST)
Africa is gradually becoming an epicentre for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the current trends of the disease, Africa might be the last hardest hit continent. While scientific investigations are ongoing to develop effective management through medications and vaccines, existing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes could be harnessed to develop an effective strategy to curb community transmission of the COVID-19. The present study assessed the awareness level, perceptions and attitudes of people living in rural, peri-urban and urban communities in Northern Ghana and their preparedness for the prevention and containment of COVID-19. We conducted a face-to-face interview and administered 553 semi-structured questionnaires in eighteen (18) rural and peri-urban/urban communities under Tolon District, Kumbungu Districts, Sagnarigu Municipality, Savelugu Municipality and Tamale Metropolis from 23rd of April to 8th of June 2020. The percentage of male to female among the respondents was 56.8% and 43.2%, respectively. Nearly half (41%) of the respondents had no formal education and 91.3% of them were Muslims. Most of the respondents (85%) held the view that COVID-19 is a punishment from God. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the time rural and peri-urban/urban communities first heard of COVID-19. Majority (63%) of the rural respondents depended on radio, while the peri-urban/urban respondents (51%) relied on television for information on COVID-19. All respondents were aware of COVID-19 and 91.7% could mention at least two symptoms of the disease but 18% believed there was no COVID-19 in Ghana. Most of the respondents (69.6%) believed they will not contract the virus. Our findings may provide useful data to government and other stakeholders in the COVID-19 fight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0002.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: improved storage structure; aflatoxin; peanut; cragg’s model; ghana
Online: 1 October 2019 (02:48:35 CEST)
Peanut production contributes to food security in northern Ghana due to its ability to tolerate drought and survive on marginal lands. This notwithstanding, poor handling along the value chain favors aflatoxin contamination, a threat to human and animal life. Farmer-led improved storage practice, a potential solution to aflatoxin contamination, have been promoted in northern Ghana. However, there is limited evidence on the factors influencing the use of the improved storage system that may guide dissemination efforts. Using the Cragg’s two stage model, our results show that the probability and intensity of adopting the improved storage structure is principally and significantly influenced by economic active household members, storing of peanut in other places relative to the field, and location of farmer residence. In disseminating the improved peanut storage structure, the identified factors must be incorporated in the selection criteria to ensure maximum uptake and usage. Farmer training programs that incorporate both good agronomic practices and good storage practices must be intensified to reduce postharvest losses due to aflatoxin contamination. These strategies will help mitigate the harmful effect of aflatoxin, ensure economic sustainability, and enhance food security.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0106.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Ghana; lagoon; tilapia; fish growth; otoliths; age; food
Online: 12 February 2019 (17:14:54 CET)
The black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron is the most abundant fish species in the Nakwa (a closed lagoon) and Brenu (an open lagoon) in the Central region of Ghana. Aspects of the life history characteristics and the ecology of the fish populations in both lagoons were studied to assess the bio-ecological status of this important resource. The estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters were L∞ = 12.04 cm; K =2.76 year-1 for the Nakwa Lagoon samples and L∞ = 13.44 cm; K = 3.27 years-1 for Brenu Lagoon samples. Daily otolith incremental rate ranged from 0.01-0.03mm per day and 0.01-0.02mm per day for Nakwa and Brenu lagoons respectively. Stomach content analysis of the fish samples revealed that the species are planktivorous and the range of food varied between the lagoons. Green algae was the most prevalent food item in the stomachs of the fish samples from Nakwa with frequency of 69% while diatoms (80.5%) were most prevalent phytoplanktonic food item in for the fish in Brenu lagoon. The results of this study of Sarotherodon melanotheron from the two lagoons and can be used to improve on management policies, maximize yield and to sustain the fishery resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: SIMPLS; energy economics; econometrics; carbon dioxide emissions; Ghana
Online: 26 September 2016 (12:09:01 CEST)
In this study, the impact of energy, agriculture, macroeconomic and human-induced indicators on environmental pollution from 1971 to 2011 is investigated using the statistically inspired modification of partial least squares (SIMPLS) regression model. There was evidence of a linear relationship between energy, agriculture, macroeconomic and human-induced indicators and carbon dioxide emissions. Evidence from the SIMPLS regression shows that a 1% increase in crop production index will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 0.71%. Economic growth increased by 1% will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 0.46%, thus supports the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis that an increase in a country’s economic growth leads to a reduction in environmental pollution. An increase in electricity production from hydroelectric sources by 1% will reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 0.30%, thus increasing renewable energy sources in Ghana’s energy portfolio will help mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. Increasing Enteric Emissions by 1% will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 4.22% and a 1% increase in the Nitrogen content of Manure Management will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 6.69%. The SIMPLS regression forecasting exhibited a 5% MAPE from the prediction of carbon dioxide emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0425.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teacher motivation; work motivation; job satisfaction; COVID-19; Ghana
Online: 22 December 2022 (09:10:30 CET)
Teachers, particularly in developing contexts, were vulnerable populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. As natural parental figures for students, they had to reconcile the dual role of ensuring the safety and health of students and their own and family well-being. The external crisis of COVID-19 heightened the negative experiences of teachers in their work environments during both online and physical instruction. The qualitative phenomenological study involving thirty (30) secondary school teachers in Ghana took a comprehensive and fresh look at how COVID-19 impacted the work motivation of teachers. It was found that teachers suffered a great deal of stress in the wake of the pandemic and had face-mounting concerns about their working conditions. The low morale of teachers precipitated by COVID-19 made them develop attrition intentions. However, intrinsic and altruistic traits such as passion, the feeling of responsibility, and the desire to contribute to society and foster student development made teachers resilient towards the deleterious effects of the pandemic to promote optimal teaching. Future studies should investigate the installation of support structures that strengthen the motivation of teachers in unforeseen crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0385.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Obstetric Violence; Midwives; Mistreatment and Abuse; Childbirth; Women; Ghana
Online: 25 October 2022 (09:40:35 CEST)
Obstetric violence has been recognized as a major impediment to facility-based delivery, increasing the risk of preventable complications and maternal mortality. In Ghana, studies on women’s birth experiences reveal enormous and brutal acts of violence during delivery; but inquiries into why midwives abuse women have largely been unexplored. This study explored the perspectives of midwives on the drivers of obstetric violence in the Western and Ashante Regions of Ghana. A qualitative study was conducted involving 30 in-depth interviews with midwives in eight health facilities. The data were analyzed thematically using NVivo 12. The results of the study reveal a normalization of violence in the delivery room and the intensity of violence is heightened during the second stage of labor. Midwives reported perpetrating or witnessing physical violence, abandonment of women, stigmatization of HIV women, verbal abuses such as shouting, and the detention of women in the health facilities. Obstetric violence occurs as a result of the pressures of the midwifery profession, poor maternal efforts of women, disrespect of midwives, women’s disobedience, and uncooperative attitudes. The culture of acceptability of obstetric violence is a major driver, contributing to its normalization. Midwives do not consider obstetric violence as abuse, but rather, as a delivery strategy which aids a successful delivery. It is therefore justified and viewed as a necessary part of the delivery process. There is a critical need for retraining midwives on alternative birthing strategies devoid of violence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0369.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; food; water; hygiene; sanitation; environment; Ghana; Africa
Online: 23 May 2020 (10:21:50 CEST)
Governments all over the world are currently grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic. While some countries were very hard hit, others were only mildly hit but all are still taking measures to mitigate the consequences. The virus emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and spread to most continents by the beginning of March 2020, which led to the World Health Organization declaring it as a pandemic on the 11th of March 2020. Since it was a novel disease, there was limited information on the virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to the same family as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Researchers all over the world started working simultaneously to understand the virus to provide the necessary treatment regime or vaccine in order to reduce the impact of the virus on its victims. Africa and other developing countries with limited resources and poor planning and management are expected to be among the worst hit in the long run. The implications of the COVID-19 on food, water, hygiene, sanitation, and the environment in Africa have been reviewed in this paper, as well as possible implications they may pose to the population, based on the existing common practices and their immediate impacts. This information can assist policymakers in Africa to adequately plan the management of the COVID-19 in order to lessen its impact on the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: cookstove; emissions; emission factor; efficiency; global warming impact; Ghana
Online: 26 April 2017 (06:00:53 CEST)
In Ghana, about 73% of households rely on solid fuels for cooking. Over 13,000 annual deaths are attributed to exposure to indoor air pollution from inefficient combustion. In this study, assessment of thermal efficiency, emissions and total global warming impact of three cookstoves commonly used in Ghana was completed using IWA water boiling test (WBT) protocol. Statistical averages of three replicate tests for each cookstove were computed. Thermal efficiency results were: wood-burning cookstove 12.2% (Tier 0), traditional charcoal cookstove 23.3% (Tier 1-2) and improved charcoal cookstove 30% (Tier 2-3). The wood-burning cookstove emitted more CO, CO2 and PM2.5 than charcoal cookstove (coalpot) and improved cookstove. Emission factor for PM2.5 and emission rate for the wood-burning cookstove (Tier 0) were over four times higher than the traditional charcoal cookstove (Tier 3) and improved cookstove (Tier 2). On the basis of WBT, annual global warming impact potential for emissions are estimated at 4 tonnes of CO2e for the wood-burning cookstove, 1.5 tonnes of CO2e for charcoal cookstove (coalpot) and 1 tonne of CO2e for improved cookstove. We conclude that there is the need for awareness, policy and incentives to enable end-users switch to improved cookstoves for increased efficiency, reduced emissions/global warming impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0073.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rainfall; TMPA; CMORPH; Pra basin; satellite-based precipitation; Ghana
Online: 14 November 2016 (07:39:44 CET)
Satellite-based rainfall estimation products provide a vital alternative source of rainfall data in areas where conventional precipitation measurement is not readily available. In order to facilitate the use of these products there is the need to evaluate their accuracies. This study evaluated the accuracy of three satellite rainfall products; TMPA 3B42RT, TMPA 3B42 and CMORPH in the Pra basin (23,330 km2) of Ghana. The evaluation was through the point-to-pixel method by comparing 0.25°x 0.25° satellite grids to gauged rainfall based on gauge locations and analyzed statistically using correlation coefficient (r), bias and percent bias (pBias) as the performance verification methods. Seven (7) gauge stations with no missing data for the period of 2003-2008 was used in the evaluation. The analysis was based on daily, monthly, annual and seasonal timescales. Our results showed a good correlation between the TMPA products and the gauged data on all timescales considered. The CMORPH on the other hand showed huge overestimation at all gauge locations. The TMPA 3B42 was seen to be the best amongst the three products. The overall rainfall in the basin was well depicted by the TMPA 3B42 and 3B42RT. Although there wasn’t a perfect match between the 3B42RT and 3B42 products and the gauged rainfall, these products can be used to supplement gauged rainfall measurements in the basin and in estimation of rainfall in ungauged basins with similar characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1386.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; food security; food system; risk; vulnerabilities; Northern Ghana
Online: 20 September 2023 (10:43:47 CEST)
Evidence shows how food system activities from production to consumption underpin food security. However, studies exploring climate impacts on food security in northern Ghana have overly focused on production systems, neglecting post-production activities that loom large in food security. This paper addresses the research need to comprehensively analyze how climate change affects post-production activities and exacerbates food insecurity risks in northern Ghana. The study collects and analyzes data on climate hazards, impacts, and food system vulnerabilities using questionnaires and participatory engagement with farming households in northern Ghana. Results show that climate-induced food insecurity risks in northern Ghana are not just products of persistent climate impacts on food production in the region. Instead, risks are inextricably connected to the vulnerability contexts within which food is harvested, processed, stored, and marketed. Specifically, the results reveal that climate hazard events such as floods, extreme temperatures, and droughts damage stored grain, disrupt food supply to the market, and cause seasonal volatilities in food prices. However, these impacts are not solely externally generated circumstances. The food system is highly vulnerable; most households lack access to threshing and grinding machines, warehouse storage, post-harvest management information, and transportation services. These underlying characteristics of the post-food-production system of northern Ghana, which is ultimately quite remote from climate change, exacerbate household-level food insecurity risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0397.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: foreign aid; external debt; debt overhang; dependency theory; Ghana; VECM
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:21:57 CEST)
Over recent years, the Ghanaian economy has struggled to find its feet on the ground despite rising public debt and unending inflows of foreign aid. Against this backdrop, this study employs the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) estimation technique on data from 1970 to 2020 to test the usefulness of the debt overhang hypothesis and the dependency theory in the special case of Ghana. The results confirm evidence of the debt overhang hypothesis and the center-periphery wisdom of the dependency theory in Ghana. The findings depict that an increase in external debt stock and total debt service on external debt have both short and long-run growth-limiting effects on the Ghanaian economy. Similarly, foreign aid catalyzes growth only in the short run and later suppresses rather than stimulates economic growth in Ghana over the long run. The study recommends that harnessing domestic resources, maintaining fiscal discipline by cutting down unproductive expenditures, enhancing an effective tax system, and promoting institutional capabilities to counteract corruption and openness to trade are better ways to fast-track growth development in Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0128.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: forestry production; carbon dioxide emissions; ARDL; Granger-causality; Ghana; econometrics
Online: 26 December 2016 (10:06:54 CET)
In this study, the causal-effect between carbon dioxide emissions and forestry production and trade was investigated in Ghana by employing a data spanning from 1961 to 2014 by using the VECM and ARDL model. Evidence of the long-run equilibrium relationship in the VECM shows that, a 1% increase in veneer sheet production reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 1.47% in the long-run. There was evidence of a bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and veneer sheet production, carbon dioxide emissions and wood charcoal production, and a unidirectional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to wood fuel production and plywood production to carbon dioxide emissions. Evidence from the long-run equilibrium relationship in the ARDL model shows that; a 1% increase in plywood production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 0.17% in the long-run, a 1% increase in sawnwood production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 0.17% in the long-run, a 1% increase in wood charcoal production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 0.36% in the long-run and a 1% increase in wood fuel production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 0.37% in the long-run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0141.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: REDD+; climate change; forests; Ghana; Nigeria; West Africa; political ecology
Online: 14 December 2016 (08:08:28 CET)
This paper analyses the design and implementation of REDD+ in the West African region, an important global biodiversity area. Drawing on in-depth interviews, analysis of policy documents and observation of everyday activities, we sought to understand how REDD+ has been designed and implemented in Nigeria and Ghana. We draw on tools from political ecology to examine how, and why REDD+ takes the form it does in these countries. We focus on three key dimensions that emerged as strong areas of common emphasis in our case studies -- capacity building, carbon visibility, and property rights. First, we show that, while REDD+ design generally foregrounds an ostensible inclusionary politics, its implementation is driven through various forms of exclusion. This contradictory inclusion-exclusion politics, which is partly emblematic of the neoliberal provenance of the REDD+ policy, is also a contingent reality and a strategy for navigating complexities and pursuing certain interests. Second, we show that though the emergent foci of REDD+ implementation in our case studies align with global REDD+ expectations, they yet manifest as historically and geographically contingent processes that reflect negotiated and contested relations among actors that constitute the specific national circumstance of each country. We conclude by reflecting on the wider implications of these findings for understanding REDD+ implementation more broadly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2093.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice production; sustainable production; ghana rice; resource management; environmentally-friendly practice
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:38:20 CEST)
In Ghana, rice remains a critical crop, representing 15% of the country's GDP. However, production has been hindered by limited water access, degraded soil, pests and diseases, and ineffective pesticide use. These issues have impeded industry growth while adversely affecting the environment and impairing socioeconomic development. To combat these challenges, it is necessary to implement sustainable production strategies that emphasize environmental protection, resource management, and socioeconomic progress. This study evaluates sustainable rice production in Ghana, taking into account its consequences on the environment, socioeconomic growth, and food security. It pinpoints gaps and offers advice for stakeholders, policymakers, and scholars to transition to sustainability. The study illuminates the increasing significance of rice in Ghana and its role in food security, illustrating increased output due to widened land rather than higher yields. It underscores the necessity of fulfilling surging demand while implementing environmentally friendly practices. The paper scrutinizes the difficulties encountered by the rice sector, such as restricted water supplies and soil degradation, along with the adverse impacts of pests, diseases and inefficient pesticide utilization. Sustainable methods are imperative for Ghana's agribusiness, environmental protection, and socioeconomic progress. By embracing green techniques, prioritizing resource management, and investing in research, Ghana can surmount production issues. This review provides invaluable insight and suggestions for policymakers, academicians, and stakeholders alike to ensure sustainable rice production for current and future generations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Open defecation; rural women; Ghana; Environmental Health; Demographic and Health Survey
Online: 12 December 2022 (10:03:35 CET)
The study investigated determinants of open defecation among rural women in Ghana. The study extracted data from the female’s file of the 2003, 2008 and 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). A total of 4,284 pooled sample size of rural women aged 15-49 with complete information about the variables analyzed in the study. The outcome variable was “open defecation” (i.e., defecating in an open space rather than a toilet facility) whilst fourteen (14) key explanatory variables were used. Two regression models were built, and output reported in odds ratio. Descriptively, 42 in every 100 women aged 15-49 practised open defecation (n=1811, 95’CI=49-52). Open defecation significantly correlated with educational attainment, wealth status, religion, access to mass media, partner's education, and zone of residence. The likelihood to practice open defecation reduced among those with formal education [aOR=0.69, CI=0.56-0.85], those whose partners had formal education [aOR=0.64, CI=0.52-0.80], women in the rich wealth quintile [aOR=0.12, CI=0.07-0.20], the traditionalist [aOR=0.33, CI=0.19-0.57], and those who had access to mass media [aOR=0.70, CI=0.57-0.85]. Residents in the Savannah zone were over 21-fold higher to defecate openly [aOR=21.06, CI=15.97-27.77]. The prevalence of open defecation is disproportionately pro-poor indicating that impoverished rural women are more likely to perform it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Labour productivity; prestressed concrete floors; relative importance index (Smart-PLS. Ghana)
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:31:34 CEST)
The construction industries face several challenges related to productivity. Productivity mainly depends upon labour effort and performance. The poor productivity of labour is one of the major reasons of time over-runs and increasing cost in construction projects. Our study aims to build a comprehensive assessment on the relationship between various factors that affect labour productivity in the construction of prestressed concrete Buildings in Ghana. A sample of 200 re-spondents collected from workers of Construction Company in Ghana. The questionnaire was designed which comprises two parts; the first part contains background information of the staff of construction company while second section explores the opinion of the staff regarding factors af-fecting labour productivity. The Smart-PLS was utilized to analyze and estimate the relationship among construct variables. By utilizing relative importance index and multiple linear regressions, it is identified that the management factor such as inadequate incentives; material factor such as poor quality of material; labour factors such as poor quality and training of labors; supervision factor such as incompetence of site supervisor; equipment factor such as frequent damage of equipment have a negative and significant relationship with labour productivity in the construc-tion of prestressed concrete buildings in Ghana. The findings of this study recommend that in order to improve labour productivity, the construction industries must conduct labour productivity measurements by adopting schedule for procurement of materials, safety programs, motivational system, and frequent meeting with project professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0440.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; Point prevalence survey; Antimicrobial resistance; Ghana; CwPAMS; Antibiotic use; THET
Online: 23 December 2022 (03:53:09 CET)
Commonwealth Partnerships for Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) uses a health partnership model to establish AMS in Commonwealth countries. The University Hospital of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partnership with Ulster University, in Northern Ireland undertook an AMS project from November 2021 to May 2022. We report on the implementation and its effect on antibiotic use and infections management at the University Hospital. The Global-Point Prevalence Survey (PPS) protocol was used to assess antibiotics use at the hospital at the beginning, midpoint and end of the project. Feedback on each PPS was given to staff to inform behaviour change and improve antibiotic prescribing. Antibiotic use reduced from 65% at baseline to 59.7% at the end of the project. The rate of health-associated infections also reduced from 17.5% at baseline to 6.5%. In addition, the use of antibiotics belonging to the WHO Access group at the hospital was 40% initially but increased to 50% at the project endpoint. Culture and antibiotic susceptibility requests increased from the beginning of the project from 111 total requests to 330 requests over 7 months. The AMS model implemented improved antibiotic use as well as requests for culture and susceptibility test which must be sustained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0188.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Co-composted Biochar; Nitrogen Uptake; Nitrogen Use Efficiency; Eutric Gleysol; Northern Ghana
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:02:22 CEST)
Inherent low soil fertility status limits productivity of rice in the lowland ecologies in Northern Ghana. Combining organic and inorganic N fertilizers could help to maintain the fertility of lowland soils for rice production. A screen house pot experiment was carried out to investigate the combined effect of biochar-compost and inorganic N fertilizer on the nitrogen uptake and agronomic performance of rice plants grown on Eutric Gleysol lowland soil. Inorganic N fertilizer alone and its combinations with different types of biochar-compost (based on the proportions of biochar and compost) were used as treatment. A control (unamended soil) was also included. The incorporation of biochar-compost and inorganic N fertilizer improved the growth parameters and yield components of rice plants. The combination of biochar-compost and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer was also found to improve nitrogen uptake and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in rice plants. This practice could be the most likely viable option for alleviating lowlands soil fertility issues and increasing rice productivity in Northern Ghana.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Psychometric Assessment; Attitude; Breast Self- Examination; Tertiary; Health Trainee; Undergraduate Students, Ghana
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:28:42 CEST)
Breast self-Examination (BSE) is the cheapest most recommended Breast Cancer (BC) preventive tool for resource-deprived settings. There is paucity in the attitude research domain and comparative gender assessments of the BSE knowledge, attitude and performance (KAP) literature. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the combined and exclusive gender BSE attitude of undergraduate health trainees and to determine significant differences between scores of both genders. Methodology: participants included 5 undergraduate health trainee classes purposively sampled from 2 faculties. Online cross-sectional method was used to assess BSE attitude of 336 purposively sampled Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and technology (KNUST) College of Health Sciences (CoHS) students. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Main findings: Compared to the construction groups’ average norm of 101.17 (SD = 9.55), our study participants’ (SPs) BSE attitude was lower (92.51; SD = 11.80). However, using popular mid-point and 3- part attitude scoring methods, our SPs’ attitude scores were comparable to sub-regional and national findings. Moreover,the male participants scored a generally high BSE attitude but significantly lower compared to their female counterparts (p < 0.5). Recommendations: There is the need to adjust the curriculum of all health trainees in developing nations to reflect relevant BC preventive measures. Furthermore, BSE research, education as well as advocacy should involve more males as important BC BSE stake holders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci1010014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: agriculture land use; conversion; peri-urbanization; food security; Asante-Akim South; Ghana
Online: 18 March 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Rapid peri-urbanization has resulted in increasing demand for and pressure on peri-urban lands at the expense of agricultural lands. Households’ decision to convert from agricultural land uses to residential and commercial land uses is driven by a myriad of factors, ranging from social to economic, in the Asante-Akim South district of the Asante region, Ghana. The paper examined the effects of agricultural land use trade-off on food production in the district. Using a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative methods, 115 household respondents were proportionately sampled from three selected communities in the district, for the collection of data through the administration of questionnaires. The data were subjected to the Pearson’s chi-square, embedded in the SPSS V.16, to test for association among the variables. We report that the increasing rate of agricultural land uses conversions was as a result of increasing demand for residential and commercial land usage at the expense of agricultural land uses. Converting prime agricultural lands into other land uses was seen as profitable to agricultural expansion. A re-examination of the district land use plans by the Ghanaian Physical (Town and Country) Planning Department in tandem with the Lands Commission is therefore recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0251.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: self-disclosure; social networking sites; flow; privacy concerns; structural equation modeling; Ghana
Online: 29 March 2018 (14:35:35 CEST)
Social media and other web 2.0 tools have provided users the platform to interact and also disclose personal information not only with their friends and acquaintances, but also with relative strangers with unprecedented ease. This has enhanced the ability of people to share more about themselves, their families, and their friends through a variety of media including text, photo, and video, thus developing and sustaining social and business relationships. The purpose of the paper is to identify the factors that predict self-disclosure on social networking sites within the Ghanaian context. Data was collected from 452 students in three leading universities in Ghana and analyzed with Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling. Results from the study revealed that all variables in the proposed model with the exception of interaction and perceived control were significant predictors of self-disclosure with privacy risk being the most significant predictor. In all, the model accounted for 54.6 percent of the variance in self disclosure. The implications and limitations of the current study are discussed and directions for future research proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0049.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: shared sanitation; microbial safety; toilet sharing; toilet usage; Ghana; SDG 6.2; excreta disposal facilities
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:29:21 CEST)
Sharing facilities with other households offers the most realistic opportunity for access to sanitation to many households in low-income settings. However, questions remain about the safety of shared toilets, including those shared at the household level. This study sought to compare the usage and microbial safety of household-level shared and unshared toilets in a Ghanaian rural district to investigate any association between their microbial safety and sharing status. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on the user characteristics of the sampled toilets, while common contact surfaces (door handles and toilet seats) were assessed for faecal contamination following standard swab sampling and analytical protocols. The results of the study indicate that sharing toilets affords about 90% more household-level access to sanitation as compared to single-household toilets. Toilet sharing mostly occurred between two households, with a maximum user population of 14 per toilet. Generally, there was a high prevalence of faecal contamination of the door handles and seats of both shared and unshared toilets, but this had no association with the sharing status of the toilets. The median concentration of E. coli on door handles and seats of shared toilets were 34.3 x 105 and 103.2 x 105 CFU/ml respectively as compared to 54.7 x 105 and 125.0 x 105 CFU/ml respectively on unshared toilets. In conclusion, the sharing of toilets at the household level nearly doubles access to sanitation at home without necessarily exposing the users to a higher risk of faecal-oral disease transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Land dispute, customary land tenure, statutory land tenure, tenure security, Ghana, sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:31:29 CET)
Despite the ongoing land administration reforms being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including Ghana as viable pathway to achieve tenure security and greater efficiency in land administration, the subject of land dispute resolution has received relatively less attention. Whereas customary tenure institutions play a central role in land administration (controlling ~80% of all land in Ghana), they remain at the fringes of the formal land dispute adjudicatory process. Recognizing the pivotal role traditional institutions as development agents and potential vehicles for promoting good land governance, recent discourse on land tenure have geared towards mainstreaming traditional land disputes institutions into the architecture of formal judicial process via alternative dispute resolution pathways. Yet little is known at least empirically as to the operations of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the contemporary context. This study therefore explores the importance of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the management of land-related disputes in southcentral and western Ghana. Drawing on data collated from 380 farming households operating 746 plots. The results show that contrary to the conventional thinking that traditional institutions are anachronistic and not fit for purpose, they remain strong and preferred forum for land dispute resolution (proving resilient and adaptable) given the changing socio-economic and tenurial conditions. Yet these forums have differing implications for different actors within the customary spheres accessing them. The results highlight practical ways for incorporating traditional dispute resolution in the overall land governance setup in Ghana and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. This has implications for redesigning context-specific and appropriate land-use policy interventions that address local land dispute resolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Africa/Ghana; climate change; farming/farmers; food security; gender inequality; global South/North; hunger; justice; land
Online: 24 June 2020 (14:31:37 CEST)
Can investing in women’s agriculture increase productivity? This paper argues that it can. We assess climate impacts and gender bias on women’s production in the global South and North and challenge the male model of agricultural development to argue further that women’s farming approaches can be more sustainable. Level-based analysis (global, regional, local) draws on literature review, including authors’ published longitudinal field research in Ghana and the United States. Women farmers are shown to be undervalued and to work harder, with fewer resources, for less compensation; gender bias challenges are shared globally while economic disparities differentiate; breaches of distributive, gender, and intergenerational justices as well as compromise of food sovereignty affect women everywhere. We conclude that investing in women’s agriculture needs more than standard approaches of capital and technology investment. Effective ‘investment’ would include systemic interventions into agricultural policy, governance, education, and industry; be directed at men as well as women; and use gender metrics, e.g. quotas, budgets, vulnerability and impacts assessments, to generate assessment reports and track gender parity in agriculture. Increasing women’s access, capacity, and productivity cannot succeed without men’s awareness and proactivity. Systemic change can increase productivity and sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020045
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: adverse drug reactions; antimalarial; Ghana; herbal remedies; malaria; questionnaire; street sale; orthodox; unnatural medicines; patient preference
Online: 12 June 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Malaria is a serious infection affecting millions of people in Africa. Our study investigated the personal preferences and applications of antimalarial medicines in Ghana. Based on over 1000 questionnaires distributed in Ghana from January to May 2019, we noticed that although Western medications to fight this disease are widely available, most patients in Ghana prefer treatment with locally produced herbal remedies. This preference appears to be due to a combination of traditional venues for obtaining medicines “on the street” rather than in licensed pharmacies, trust in local and “green” products, extensive advertisement of such local products, and an inherent distrust of imported and synthetic or unnatural medicines. Going local and natural is a trend also observed in other countries across the globe, and adds to the acceptance or rejection of drugs regardless of their activity or toxicity. In fact, adverse side effects associated with herbal remedies, such as general weakness and swollen, sore mouth, do not seem to deter the respondents of this study in Ghana. We propose a combination of (a) increasing public awareness of the benefits of modern medicine and (b) an improvement and control of the quality of herbal remedies to raise the standard of malaria treatment in countries such as Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Urinary tract infection; Ghana; Antimicrobial resistance (AMR); Multi-drug resistance (MDR); MDS Lancet Laboratories; AWaRE classification; Uropathogens
Online: 8 November 2022 (03:25:41 CET)
Management of urinary tract infection is challenged by increasing antimicrobial re-sistance (AMR) worldwide. In this study we describe the trends in antimicrobial re-sistance of uropathogens isolated from the largest private sector laboratory in Ghana over a five-year period. We reviewed positive urine cultures at the MDS Lancet Laboratories from 2017 to 2021. Proportions of uropathogens with antimicrobial resistance to oral and parenteral antimicrobials recommended by the Ghana standard treatment guidelines were determined. The proportion of multi-drug resistant isolates, ESBL and car-bapenemase-producing phenotypes were determined. Of 94,134 urine specimens submitted for culture, 20,010 (22.1%) were culture positive. Enterobacterales were the commonest group of organisms, E. coli (70.6) being the commonest isolate and Enterococcus spp. the commonest gram positive (1.3%) organisms. Among oral antimicrobials the highest resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin (62.3%) and cefuroxime (60.2) %) and the least resistance to Fosfomycin (1.9%). The least resistance among parenteral antimicrobials was to meropenem ( 0.3%). Highest multi-drug resistance levels were observed among Klebsiella spp. (68.6%) and E. coli (64.0%). ESBL positivity was highest in Klebsiella spp. (58.6%) and E. coli (50.0%). There may be a need to review the Ghana standard treatment guidelines to reflect increased resistance among uropathogens to recom-mended antimicrobials
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Antibiotic prescription; Outpatients; AWaRe classification; Ghana; SORT IT; Antimicrobial stewardship; Electronic Medical Records; Operational research; Antimicrobial resistance
Online: 26 July 2022 (07:47:52 CEST)
Background: Monitoring of antibiotic prescription practices in hospitals is essential to assess and facilitate appropriate use. This is relevant to halt the progression of antimicrobial resistance. Methods: Assessment of antibiotic prescribing patterns and completeness of antibiotic prescriptions among out-patients in 2021 was conducted at the University Hospital of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in the Ashanti region of Ghana. We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 49,660 patients who had 110,280 encounters in the year. Results: The patient encounters yielded 350,149 prescriptions. Every month, 33-36% of patient encounters resulted in antibiotic prescription, higher than the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended optimum of 27%. Almost half of the antibiotics prescribed belonged to WHO’s Watch group. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (50%), azithromycin (29%), ciprofloxacin (28%), metronidazole (21%), and cefuroxime (20%) were the most prescribed antibiotics. Antibiotic prescribing parameters (indication, name of drug, duration, dose, route and frequency) were documented in almost all prescriptions. Conclusions: Extending antimicrobial stewardship to the out-patient settings by developing standard treatment guidelines, an out-patient specific drug formulary and antibiograms can promote rational antibiotic use at the hospital. The EMR system of the hospital is a valuable tool for monitoring prescriptions that can be leveraged for future audits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Drug use review; Outpatients; Ghana; SORT IT; Quality indicators; Electronic Medical Records; Operational research; Rational use of medicines
Online: 15 September 2022 (13:39:06 CEST)
(1) Background: Rational use of medicines (RUM) and their assessment is important to ensure optimal use of resources and patient care in hospitals. These assessments are essential to identifying practice gaps for quality improvement. (2) Methods: Assessment of adherence to WHO/ International Network for Rational Use of Drugs core prescribing indicators among out-patients in 2021 was conducted at the University Hospital of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in the Ashanti region of Ghana. We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 110,280 patient encounters in the year which resulted in 336,087 medicines prescribed. (3) Results: The average number of medicines prescribed per encounter was 3 with generics being prescribed in 76% of prescriptions. Injections were prescribed in 7% of encounters while 90% of medicines were from Ghana’s Essential Medicines List 2017. (4) Conclusions: With the exception of patient encounters with injections, all prescribing indicators assessed in this study did not meet WHO optimum levels providing targets for quality improvement in RUM. Implementing prescribing guides and policies, regular audits and feedback as well as continuous professional development training may help to improve prescribing practices in the hospital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0008.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR); Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS); delayed/back-up prescribing; upper respiratory tract infections; developing countries; LMICs; Ghana
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:29:47 CEST)
This service improvement project was carried out at LEKMA Hospital, Ghana. Ghana has high levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). There is an urgent need to introduce models of care that optimize antibiotic prescribing. Methods Delayed / back-up prescribing is a strategy that could reduce antibiotic use in suspected upper respiratory tract infections. Four different models of delayed / back-up prescribing [no prescription; post-dated prescription (given to patient); post-dated prescription (forwarded to pharmacy); and follow-up appointment for reassessment after 3 days] were implemented in discussion between clinician and patient. Patients were contacted 10 days after their appointment to record compliance, check on their wellbeing, and rate their experience. Results Over a 3-month period (12/2019-02/2020), 142 patients were eligible for delayed / back-up prescribing. The most common clinical diagnoses were sore throat (102/140, 73%), common cold (22/140, 16%) and sinusitis (10/140, 7%). In total, 12 (9%) patients remained symptomatic at day 10, and only one individual in the entire cohort took antibiotics. Most patients (95%) rated their experience as good or very good. Conclusions Delayed / back-up prescribing models can lead to substantial reduction in antibiotic consumption amongst outpatient department patients with suspected upper respiratory tract infections. Delayed / back-up prescribing can be implemented safely in low and middle-income countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0111.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: helminthiasis dynamics in Ghana, preventive chemotherapy, school-aged children, high-risk adults, neglected tropical diseases, age-structure, infection risk, cost analysis
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:43:33 CET)
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) remains a major health problem all over the world including Ghana, which has STH prevalence of 25.4%. To control the disease, the government of Ghana currently concentrates on implementing mass drug administration (MDA) efforts focusing only among school-aged children. However, various studies have suggested that focusing on only a specific group for MDA may not be cost-effective. Moreover, some adults such as teachers and school-workers spend large fraction of their time with children, who shed more parasite in environment due to unhygienic behavior, and thus have a higher risk of getting infected as compared to other adults. In this study we use a mathematical model to evaluate age-structured and risk-based policies for implementing MDA while capturing transmission dynamics of STH in Ghana. A cost model was developed that included various costs related to MDA to study cost-effectiveness of current policies of MDA in Ghana against novel policies to control STH in Ghana. We carry out analysis for five different scenarios— I: no MDA (baseline), II: current MDA policy (focusing children) in Ghana, III: MDA for different age groups (adults and children groups) for unlimited budget, IV: MDA for different age groups with limitations of number of individuals treated, and, V: MDA for different groups based on their risk of getting infected (adults school workers (high-risk group), adults non-school workers and children groups). Our results suggest that it might be more cost-effective to allocate treatment through MDA to at least some proportion of adults along with children. In case of unlimited budget, the best strategy in Scenario IV would be to treat approximately 22% of adults and approximately 45% of children. The most cost-effective among the 5 scenarios is suggested through scenario V, where high-risk adults group and children are provided MDA at higher level than low-risk adults. In conclusion, age-structured and risk-based allocation of treatment and resources is crucial to reducing STH load in developing countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0150.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: rainfall trend; Mann Kendall’s test; Sen’s slope estimator; climate statistics; seasonal rainfall; standardized anomaly index; extreme precipitation indicators; rainfall variability; southern Ghana
Online: 6 August 2021 (08:01:09 CEST)
Rainfall variability has resulted in extreme events like devastating floods and droughts which is the main cause of human vulnerability to precipitation in West Africa. Attempts have been made by previous studies to understand rainfall variability over Ghana but these have mostly focused on the major rainy season of April-July, leaving a gap in our understanding of the variability in the September-November season which is a very important aspect of the Ghanaian climate system. The current study seeks to close this knowledge gap by employing statistical tools to quantify variabilities in rainfall amounts, rain days, and extreme precipitation indices in the minor rainfall season over Ghana. We find extremely high variability in rainfall with a Coefficient of variation (CV) between 25.3% and 70.8%, and moderate to high variability in rain days (CV=14.0% - 48.8%). Rainfall amount was found to be higher over the middle sector (262.7 mm – 400.2 mm) but lowest over the east coast (125.2 mm – 181.8 mm). Analysis of the second rainfall season using the Mankandell Test presents a non-significant trend of rainfall amount and extreme indices (R10, R20, R99p, and R99p) for many places in southern Ghana. Rainfall Anomaly Indices show that the middle sector recorded above normal precipitation which is the opposite for areas in the transition zone. The result of this work provides a good understanding of rainfall in the minor rainfall season and may be used for planning purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0127.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: sustainability; Sustainable Development Goals; Africa/Ghana; women and gender; agriculture; food security; climate change; capital economics; patriarchal governance; care labor/logics/practices
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:38:58 CEST)
Africa was the only continent not to achieve the 2015 Millennium Development Goal of 50% poverty reduction. This paper asks whether Africa will fare better in meeting Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) addressing poverty and hunger by 2030. To answer this question we examine literature, including our field research published over the last thirteen years. We find that ‘sustainable development’ is a failed concept immersed in the contemporary global economic system that favors growth over ecosystem stability and patriarchal systems of governance that undervalue women’s capacity for sustainability in their care-work as food providers. We examine barriers to women’s farming (climate change, gender bias, limited access to land, technology, finance) and provide examples of women’s innovative strategies for overcoming these barriers in their care practices toward family and community well-being and ecosystem health. We conclude that sustainability is only possible through transformation of thinking away from approaches that value profit over people and ecosystems and toward gender-based approaches for achieving the goals laid out in the SDGs through holistic, integrative systems of ecosystem fit.