ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Gestalt therapy; dementia; depression; single-case experimental design; psychosocial interventions
Online: 19 January 2022 (09:32:12 CET)
Psychotherapy is one of the evidence-based clinical interventions for the treatment of depression in older adults with dementia. Randomized Controlled Trials are often the first methodological choice to gain evidence, yet they are not applicable to a wide range of humanistic psychotherapies. Amongst all, the efficacy of the Gestalt therapy (GT) is under-investigated. The purpose of this paper is to present a research protocol aiming to assess the effects of a GT-based intervention on people with dementia (PWD) and the indirect influence on their family carers. The study implements the Single-Case Experimental Design with Time-Series Analysis that will be carried out in Italy and Mexico. Ten people in each country, who received a diagnosis of dementia and present depressive symptoms, will be recruited. Eight or more GT sessions will be provided whose fidelity will be assessed by the GT Fidelity Scale. Quantitative outcome measures are foreseen for monitoring participants’ depression, anxiety, quality of life, carers’ burden, and the caregiving dyad mutuality, at baseline and follow-up. The advantages and limitations of the research design are considered. If GT will result effective in the treatment of depression in PWD, it could enrich the range of evidence-based interventions provided by healthcare services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0040.v2
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: spatial clustering; sweep-circle; Gestalt theory; data stream
Online: 24 August 2017 (10:53:05 CEST)
An adaptive spatial clustering (ASC) algorithm is proposed in this present study, which employs sweep-circle techniques and a dynamic threshold setting based on the Gestalt theory to detect spatial clusters. The proposed algorithm can automatically discover clusters in one pass, rather than through the modification of the initial model (for example, a minimal spanning tree, Delaunay triangulation or Voronoi diagram). It can quickly identify arbitrarily-shaped clusters while adapting efficiently to non-homogeneous density characteristics of spatial data, without the need of prior knowledge or parameters. The proposed algorithm is also ideal for use in data streaming technology with dynamic characteristics flowing in the form of spatial clustering in large data sets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: insight problem-solving; Aha! Moment; pupillometry; Gestalt; perception; attention; creativity
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:09:14 CEST)
The Gestalt psychologists’ theory of insight problem-solving was based on a direct parallelism between perceptual experience and higher-order forms of cognition (e.g., problem-solving). Simi-larly to the sudden recognition of an ambiguous figure, they contended that problem-solving in-volves a restructuring of one's initial representation of the problem’s elements, leading to a sud-den leap of understanding phenomenologically indexed by the "Aha!" feeling. Over the last centu-ry, different scholars discussed the validity of the Gestalt psychologists’ perspective foremost us-ing the behavioral measures available at the time. However, in the last 2 decades, scientists gained a deeper understanding of insight problem-solving due to the advancements in cognitive neuroscience. This review aims to provide a retrospective reading of Gestalt theory based on the knowledge accrued by adopting novel paradigms and investigating their neurophysiological correlates. Among several key points that the Gestalt psychologists underscored, we focus specif-ically on the role of the visual system in marking a discrete switch of knowledge into awareness, as well as the perceptual experience and the holistic standpoints. While the main goal of this paper is to read the previous theory in light of new evidence, we also hope to initiate an academic dis-cussion and encourage further research about the points we raise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0435.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: genomic DNAs; stochastics; tensor-unitary transformation; quantum informatics; fractal; projection operators; gestalt phenomena; stochastic determinism
Online: 25 August 2022 (11:52:12 CEST)
The article is devoted to algebraic modeling of universal rules of stochastic organization of genomic DNA of higher and lower organisms, previously published by the author. The proposed algebraic apparatus, which uses formalisms of quantum mechanics and quantum informatics and which is based on the so-called tensor-unitary transformations of vectors that generate families of interrelated stochastic-deterministic vectors of increased dimensions. The features of the vectors' interconnections in these families model the stochastic-deterministic properties of the named phenomenological rules. There are new approaches to modeling of developing multi-parameter biosystems, whose number of parameters increases in the course of step-by-step development. In the light of the presented materials, the issues of fractal-like organization in genetically inherited biosystems are considered. The development of the theory of stochastic determinism as an antipode of deterministic chaos is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0319.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: monocular depth cues; luminance contrast; colour; visual arts; image plane; human perception; brain; 3D structure; figure-ground; Gestalt Theory
Online: 27 January 2020 (01:54:27 CET)
Victor Vasarely’s (1906-1997) important legacy to the study of human perception is brought to the forefront and discussed. A large part of his impressive work conveys the appearance of striking three-dimensional shapes and structures in a large-scale pictorial plane. Current perception science explains such effects by invoking brain mechanisms for the processing of monocular (2D) depth cues. Here in this study, we illustrate and explain the local effects of 2D color and contrast cues on the perceptual organization in terms of figure-ground assignments, i.e. which local surfaces are likely to be seen as “nearer” or “bigger” in the image plane. Paired configurations are embedded in a larger, structurally ambivalent pictorial context inspired by some of Vasarely’s creations. The figure-ground effects these configurations produce reveal a significant correlation between perceptual solutions for “nearer” and “bigger” when no other monocular depth cues are given in the image. In consistency with previous findings on similar, albeit simpler visual displays, a specific color may compete with luminance contrast in resolving the planar ambiguity of a complex pattern context. Vasarely intuitively understood, and successfully exploited, this kind of subtle context effect in his art, well before empirical investigations had set out to study and explain their genesis in terms of information processing by the visual brain.