REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Circular Economy; Traceability; BPMN; Blockchain; IoT; Electric and Electronic Equipment; EEE Value Chain
Online: 2 February 2023 (09:28:39 CET)
With the continuous growth of electric and electronic appliances’ usage, the waste produced with obsolete material (e-waste) has an increasing environmental impact. Also, the production of such appliances bears to increased consumption of natural resources and produces a multitude of toxic and hazardous substances, which typically are not properly treated. One of the approaches that may be adopted to reduce such problems relies on the circularization of the current linear model, commonly adopted in the EEE value chain. This includes recovering eol products and reintroducing its parts, components, or raw materials into the value chain (e.g. semiconductors, circuit boards, raw metals, etc.), thus contributing to a more sustainable value chain. In this article, we present a state-of-art review that focuses on approaches and solutions for the EEE value chain traceability, and analyses the technologies that may be beneficial for promoting and implementing the CE model in this value chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0151.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Circular Economy; Traceability; Sustainability; BPMN; Eco-Gamification; Textiles and Clothing Value Chain
Online: 9 February 2023 (01:24:56 CET)
The Textile and Clothing (T\&C) value chain is one of the most polluting in the world and one that produces the most waste. It is, therefore, important to encourage the Circular Economy (CE) model in this sector, to reduce pollution and mitigate the effects of waste production, and consequently increase environmental sustainability. For that, the involvement of the final consumer is essential. And, the final consumer's use of an Eco-gamified application for registering and promoting Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) and Consumer-to-Business (C2B) activities, which extends the life time of textile products, is of utmost importance. In this article, we survey gamification frameworks for analyzing system design level techniques that enable engaging the final consumer in the CE process. Then, we select and use one of such frameworks, Gameful Design Heuristics (GDH), for defining the gamification structure needed to implement on a Business-to-Consumer-to-Consumer (B2C2C) context of a circular economy. As result, we present a B2C2C circular business process model for the T\&C value chain, and propose the design model of a gamified platform for the final consumers, which allows them to register the C2B and C2C activities, from the circular value chain's business process, and benefit from a game-like experience. All model features have been mapped to GDH framework heuristics, validating that it is possible to support a set of defined heuristics of applied gamification for promoting CE in the T\&C value chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0624.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Textile and Clothing Value Chain; Blockchain-based Traceability Platform; Environmental and Social Indicators; Environmental and Social Impact Score; Sustainable and Cleaner Production
Online: 9 November 2023 (10:05:37 CET)
Textile and clothing is one of the most important industrial sectors, not only due to the significant number of jobs generated, but also because it addresses one of the people’s fundamental needs (clothing). It is, however, a sector with a huge environmental impact, all over the world, and also an important social impact, especially in developing countries. Sustainability in the Textile & Clothing value chain is a known issue, concerning both environmental, and economical-social facets of sustainability. One way to improve sustainability in this sector is by measuring the environmental, economic and social impacts of value chain activities and, ultimately, computing an Environmental and Circular score for each batch of textile and clothing product, and an Economical and Social score for each involved firm, reflected in their products. The consumer will then have the opportunity and responsibility for selecting products with the least negative environmental, economical and social impact. This article presents the results of STVgoDigital project - PPS1, developed in Portugal with the aim of implementing the traceability of textile and clothing products, boosting sustainability in this sector, and preparing the ground for the implementation of the circular economy. More exactly, a blockchain-based textile and clothing value-chain traceability platform is presented, for tracing textile product lots and activities, along the value chain, classifying them with a score, which measures their environmental and social impact. The environmental, economic and social impact scores are based on a set of proposed indicators. The results are assessed through the presentation of a case study of a face towel (home textile) and a case study of a T-shirt (clothing).