ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1783.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Covid-19; Pandemic; Agent-Based Models (ABM); Human Movement Modeling; Envi-ronment modeling; Disease Propagation and Containment
Online: 25 May 2023 (09:01:44 CEST)
It is crucial to immediately curb the spread of a disease once an outbreak is identified in a pandemic. An agent based simulator will enable the policymakers to evaluate the effectiveness of different hypothetical strategies and policies with a higher level of granularity. This will allow them to identify the vulnerabilities and asses the threat level more effectively, which in turn can be used to build resilience within the community against a pandemic. This study proposes a PanDemic SIMulator (PDSIM ) which is capable of modeling complex environments while simulating realistic human motion patterns. The ability of PDSIM to track the infection propagation patterns, contact paths, places visited, characteristics of people, vaccination, and testing information of the population, allows the user to check the efficacy of different containment strategies and testing protocols. The results obtained based on the case studies of Covid-19 are used to validate the proposed model. However, it is highly extendable to all pandemics in general, enabling robust planning for more sustainable communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0613.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Green Infrastructure (GI); Human Thermal Comfort (HTC); ENVI-met; microclimate; modelling
Online: 24 November 2020 (10:58:39 CET)
This study assesses Human Thermal Comfort in two selected areas: a Green Infrastructure (GI) area represented by a garden and a high-rise building area, in the Central Business District (CBD) of Melbourne, Australia. Three-dimensional microclimatic modelling software, ENVI-met version 4 was used to simulate the microclimate. The indices of Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Temperature Climate Index (UTCI) were used to quantify the level of thermal comfort in the research areas. The simulation results showed that at midday, the difference in temperature between the garden area and the high-rise building area was approximately 1°C. Increasing temperatures at midday led to a change in the level of thermal comfort for both the areas, even though it was not significant. In general, the thermal perception in the GI area was slightly ‘cooler’ than in the high-rise building area. The results of the study indicated the important role of GI in improving the thermal comfort in urban areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0018.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: green infrastructure; urban heat island; human thermal comfort, modelling tools; ENVI-met.
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:19:13 CEST)
Research on urban heat mitigation has been growing in recent years with many of the studies focusing on green infrastructure (GI) as a strategy to mitigate the adverse effects of Urban Heat Island (UHI). This paper aims at presenting a review of the range of findings from GI research for urban heat mitigation through a review of scientific articles published during the years 2009-2019. This research includes a review of the different types of GI and its contribution for urban heat mitigation and human thermal comfort. In addition to analyzing different mitigation strategies, numerical simulation tools that are commonly used are also reviewed. It is seen that ENVI-met is one of the modelling tools that is considered as a reliable tool to simulate different mitigation strategies and hence has been widely used in the recent past. Considering its popularity in urban microclimate studies, this article also provides a review of ENVI-met simulation results that were reported in the reviewed papers. It was observed that the majority of the research was conducted on a limited spatial scale and focused on temperature and human thermal comfort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0408.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: urban heat island; non-constructible parcels; cool surfaces; urban vegetation; envi met; mitigation measures; beirut
Online: 28 May 2018 (13:21:28 CEST)
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is one of the more serious consequences of urbanization resulting in impacts on thermal comfort levels, heat stress, and even mortality. For Municipal Beirut, implementation of “cool” surface materials and green spaces have been recommended to counterbalance the UHI. This paper builds on previous findings on the topic of non-constructible parcels within the district of Bachoura in Municipal Beirut and examines the possibility of implementing “cool” surface or paving materials and urban vegetation which can improve thermal conditions especially during the summer period and with the viewto project the positive findings of this case study to the entire Municipal Beirut area. A numerical analysis using ENVI-met 4.0 investigates the thermal performance of these non-constructibles further to implementation of high reflective surfaces and urban vegetation within a broad neighborhood scale in Bachoura. Results show reductions in ambient temperatures up to 1K on a summer day.. Within the framework of an integrated approach to planning, this form of urban acupuncture aims for substantial UHI reduction. Energy performance of buildings further to implementation of these mitigation measures is also recommended for future studies and to validate the findings in this paper.