REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: hemorrhagic shock; multimodal monitoring; individualized therapy; fluid therapy; critical care; trauma
Online: 8 August 2022 (09:56:33 CEST)
Worldwide, one of the main causes of death among young adults is multiple trauma. In these pa-tients hemorrhagic shock represents the leading cause for worsening of the clinical status and for increased morbidity and mortality. This is due to a multifactorial complex involving cellular, bi-ological, and biophysical mechanisms. The most important mechanisms affecting clinical out-come are oxidative stress, the augmentation of pro-inflammatory status, immune deficiency, dis-ruptions in the coagulation cascade, imbalances in electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. Poly-trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock need adequate fluid management to ensure hemodynamic stability that must consider not only the maintenance of adequate blood pressure, but also the ad-equate oxygenation of tissues for optimal cellular function. In the current clinical practice, fluid resuscitation in polytrauma patients uses a variety of widely studied pharmacological products, such as crystalloids, colloids, blood transfusions, and the infusion of other blood products. Alt-hough these products exist, an agreement was not reached on a standard administration protocol that could be generally applied for all patients. Moreover, numerous studies have reported a se-ries of adverse events related to fluid resuscitation and to the inadequate use of these products. This review aims at describing the impact the administration of all the solutions used in fluid re-suscitation might have on the cellular and pathophysiological mechanisms in the case of poly-trauma patients suffering from hemorrhagic shock.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0294.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: general anesthesia; redox; inflammation; antioxidants; hypermetabolism; microRNAs; biomarkers; oxidative stress; Vitamin C
Online: 6 June 2022 (05:09:14 CEST)
Worldwide, the prevalence of surgery under general anaesthesia has increased significantly, on one hand because of modern anaesthetic and pain control techniques, and on the other hand because of better diagnosis and increased complexity of surgical technique. Together with the development of new concepts in the surgical field, the attention of researchers and clinicians turned to minimizing the impact of surgical trauma and offering minimal invasive procedures. This fact is due to the recent discoveries in the field of cellular and molecular mechanisms, that have revealed a systemic inflammatory and pro-oxidative impact that not only lasts in the perioperative period, but also impacts the long term, contributing to more difficult recovery, increased morbidity, and mortality, and finally a negative financial impact. Detailed molecular and cellular analysis have shown an overproduction of inflammatory and pro-oxidative species, that are responsible for an augmentation of the systemic inflammatory status and more difficult postoperative recovery. Moreover, it was shown that there are a series of changes in certain epigenetic structures, the most important being the microRNAs. Based on these findings, a series of modern, targeted therapeutic approaches have been proposed, with the final goal of blocking these mechanisms and reducing the redox state. Recent studies carried out had a positive clinical impact regarding antioxidant therapy and have shown that it can be used in the perioperative period with beneficial clinical impact. This review describes and details the most important molecular and cellular mechanisms that impact the surgical patient undergoing general anaesthesia, and it presents a series of antioxidant therapies that can reduce systemic inflammation.