REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0096.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: ESD; transformative education; transmissive education; SDGs; HEIs
Online: 9 September 2019 (09:47:00 CEST)
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a global initiative towards transforming education for sustainability. The integration of SD into the education portfolio is considered to be an important approach that ensures strategic alignment of higher education with SDGs. A document review was used to identify and discuss the difference between transmissive and transformative education in relation to SDGs and in the context of Somali education. In this trajectory, it is expected that the concept of ‘‘transformative education is likely to become more common to meet the emerging social, economic and environmental issues, yet practical challenges remain in Somaliland HE sector. The roadmap towards addressing transformative education for sustainability is not included in the Somaliland national portfolios; particularly ESD has not been presented. In this regard, this paper proposed a generic framework that spotlights the integration of HEIs and the national development goals (NDGs) in Somaliland. Meanwhile, developed and developing countries are prioritizing structural transformation in their HEIs that are tailored to national and regional development programs. Consistent with the Rio + 20 outcomes, the authors analyzed the concept of the ‘‘sustainable university’’ and identified the fact that it is practically divided into three interrelated and complementary categories, namely social-, environmental-, and economic-oriented university in pursuit of actualizing SD. The paper recommends major reforms in the education sector including availing investment portfolios for R&D, renovation of education goals and transforming universities for sustainability
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0491.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable development; geography education; implementation; China
Online: 25 September 2018 (15:59:56 CEST)
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) had become a priority in many school systems. Geography has a tradition of investigating human-environment interactions and geography education is vital in order to make sense of sustainable development (SD). In this paper, the authors aimed to contribute to the implementation of ESD and SD in middle school geography, in The People’s Republic of China. This research employed a series of methods to analyze the content in (SD) in middle school geography standards and textbooks. The research surveyed geography teachers (n=237) and assessed geography students (n=246). Results exemplified both positive and negative conclusions from the data. Primarily, the findings suggested that geography education was important to ESD implementation, although the requirements for SD are low in Chinese middle schools. The SD content was reflected clearly in the content standards and textbooks, but it was not evenly distributed in geography education. Many geography teachers in China have ample geography and interdisciplinary knowledge and they can use textbooks and other teaching methods to teach SD. The students’ performance, in a sample of four key schools, was considered “OK”, however there was still room for improvement. Most students were familiar with people, resources, environmental problems and climate change, however most were unable to grasp the factual knowledge about SD, such as international events and documents, latest predicted data and research on global warming, as well as the indicators used in the specific SD assessment. Suggestions include providing students with more practical activities and a chance to do hands-on experiments, as well as building student organizations and clubs; improve Teachers’ knowledge and understanding through teacher training program and build a platform for communicating ideas of SD through modern communication technology. Ideas of SD should be integrated into students’ daily life.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: global learning; global learning for sustainable development; South/North perspectives; sustainability; sustainable development; education for sustainable development
Online: 24 September 2020 (07:59:39 CEST)
Despite continued efforts by educators, UN declarations and numerous international agreements, progress is still limited in handling major global challenges such as ecosystem collapse, accelerating climate change, poverty and inequity. The capacity to collaborate globally on addressing these issues remains weak. This systematic review of research on global learning for sustainable development (GLSD) aims to clarify the diverse directions research on GLSD has taken, to present the historical development of the research area, and highlight emerging research issues. The review summarises key findings of the English language literature in the period 1994-2020 identified with the search terms “global learning” and “sustainable development”, sustainability or GLSD, respectively. The review documented a gradually growing knowledge base, mostly authored by scholars located in the global North. Conclusions point to what we might achieve if we could learn from one another in new ways, moving beyond Northern-centric paradigms. It is also time to re-evaluate core assumptions that underlie education for sustainable development more generally, such as a narrow focus on formal learning institutions. The review provides a benchmark for future reviews of research on GLSD, reveals the emerging transformative structure of this transdisciplinary field, and offers reference points for further research
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0403.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: physical education; physical activity; pedagogical models; sustainability development
Online: 18 February 2021 (09:44:11 CET)
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is a global strategy that aims to obtain a more equitable and just world. These objectives are organized in 17 SDGs, which are detailed in 169 targets. Different international institutions have emphasized education's relevance to developing citizens who contribute to the SDGs' achievement for 2030. However, a review focused on Physical Education exclusively has not been performed yet. Therefore, the objective of this work is double. First, to analyze and select the specific goals of the SDGs that can be implemented in the subject of Physical Education. And second, to relate these specific goals to the different models based on Physical Education practices. This review showed how three institutional documents have previously related sport, physical exercise and physical education to the specific goals of the SDGs. Based on the search done, this document selects those goals that could be integrated into the educational context through Physical Education. The bibliographic and narrative analysis carried out in this research shows that of the 169 specific goals proposed in the SDGs, only 24 could be worked on in Physical Education. In addition, after this previous analysis, a proposal for the relationship between the practice-based models and these 24 goals is presented. The contributions made in this paper will allow teachers to establish links between PE sessions and SDGs while raising awareness to develop students who contribute to a more sustainable world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0251.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: biology education; sustaiable development goals; new biology; biology science
Online: 23 April 2019 (10:59:39 CEST)
Today in times of increasing inequality, climate change, and major social challenges, education is the best way to equip citizens, scholars and leaders to implement meaningful change and prevent future crises. Biologi education and science will solve these problems to supporting sustainable development goals especially in soil remediation, clean water, education quality and clean and affordable energy. This paper will describe how biological education could solve these problems. New biology can solve the problem about hunger use biotech, use synthetic biological material to find new advance material. New biology could driving intersectorial, interdisciplinary and international connectivity, and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology, materials science, allied science and technology areas, are the major challenges in delivering the Materials from Biology vision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teachers’ training; teachers’ competences; intercultural dialogue; education for sustainable development; professional development.
Online: 6 October 2020 (10:58:25 CEST)
The present research is embedded in the professional development and research line and in the needs of secondary education and first-year university teachers. We focussed on evidencing the importance of teachers’ professional training to include some specific adaptation and skills in intercultural dialogue and understanding -often called Intercultural Competence- because of its direct impact on the sustainable development of human beings, groups, and ecosystems. We investigated the role played by each of the main competencies linked to the following intercultural dimensions: Professional Identity, Ethics and Axiology, Methodology, and Inclusive Education. We used an integrated methodology and a cross-study of data, performed after the obtention of a three-cornered evaluation of results collected in focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires. We were able to show the impact of intercultural dialogue and understanding in the education for a sustainable development pattern. This is fundamental to set up a new ecology of forms, knowledge, attitudes, and educational meanings, further used to update teachers and students’ training in sustainable ecology and cultural diversity. Progress made in these complementary competencies -Professional Identity, Ethics and Axiology, Methodology- were appraised by teachers participating in the present study; the latter showing an increased interest and demand for the intercultural competence, after increasing their proficiency in the other complementary competencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0020.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: BIM; SOLO; threshold concepts; green buildings; certificate systems; higher education
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:16:28 CEST)
Sustainable development (SD) is essential to reduce and mitigate climate change impacts, environmental deterioration and to increase social sustainability. SD is therefore highly relevant for the engineering profession and is today found integrated with the higher education of specific engineering programs. This paper investigated the knowledge of SD for students entering the master’s program in Sustainable Building Information Management (BIM) by comparing levels of knowledge at the start and end of the first course Sustainability, Analyses and Simulations. The level of knowledge of SD was analyzed by classifying students’ conceptions of sustainability using SOLO taxonomy and the spectrum of liminality and the threshold concept. Students written responses to the question “What do you know about sustainability?” and written group project reports were used for analyzing levels of knowledge of SD. Levels of knowledge of SD was classified as pre (pre-liminal or pre-structural); uni-structural, multi-structural, relational and post-stages (extended abstract or post-liminal). In total, 68% of the students entering the master’s program in 2017 and 88% in 2018 showed a pre-structural, uni-structural and multi-structural SD knowledge. In general, few students entering the program showed relational and post-stages of SD knowledge, 32% and 12% of the students in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The students at the post-stage were able to express themselves more individually and creatively compared to previous levels in that they could connect the dimensions of SD to the context of SD of buildings, but also argue why SD of buildings was important and they could also suggest actions or tools for improved SD that engineers should use. Only one group of five (in 2017) showed a post-stage level of knowledge in the group project report. It is likely that the student’s general approach to the work with the reports was to mainly cope with the course requirements which is a sign of surface approach to learning. It, therefore, seems reasonable that future developments of the course should ensure that the students use the scientific literature in their group project reports to make it easier for them to understand the relationship between software use and the connection to green buildings certificate systems and SD of buildings. By making it mandatory to include scientific literature in the reports the students will be encouraged to read and think critically, and deeper, and to put the practical implementation of the software analysis results into a scientific context of SD and BIM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0460.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: education for sustainable development; confusion; intelligent tutoring system (ITS); ASSISTments; machine learning; computer-based homework; algebra mathematics technology education; sustainable development
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:46:56 CET)
Incorporating substantial sustainable development issues into teaching and learning is the ultimate task of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The purpose of our study is to identify the confused students who have failed to master the skill(s) given by the tutors as a homework using Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). We have focused ASSISTments, an ITS in this study and scrutinized the skill-builder data using machine learning techniques and methods. We used seven candidate models that include: Naïve Bayes (NB), Generalized Linear Model (GLM), Logistic Regression (LR), Deep Learning (DL), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF), and Gradient Boosted Trees (XGBoost). We trained, validated and tested learning algorithms, performed stratified cross-validation and measured the performance of the models through various performance metrics i.e., ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic), Accuracy, Precision, Recall, F-Measure, Sensitivity & Specificity. We found GLM, DT & RF are high accuracies achieving classifiers. However, other perceptions such as detection of unexplored features that might be related to the forecasting of outputs can also boost the accuracy of the prediction model. Through machine learning methods, we identified the group of students which were confused attempting the homework exercise and can help students foster their knowledge, and talent to play a vital role in environmental development.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; skills development; online distance learning; credentials; open badges; blockchain; sustainable livelihoods; sustainable mountain development; traditional knowledge; culture; Kyrgyzstan; Central Asia
Online: 27 March 2020 (03:07:11 CET)
Mountain and pastoralist societies around the world have for centuries sustained their livelihoods and cultures by accumulating specialist knowledge about their local and regional socio-ecological environments. Developing traditional knowledge and customary practices takes time, sometimes spanning across generations. As macro-level changes to social and natural environment are now taking place, such as globalization and climate change, local communities could potentially also benefit from complementary, suitably adapted educational opportunities for sustainable development. However, access to education has often required moving to urban centres, which can weaken community structures and cohesion, and could also foster increased dependence on external specialists, providers or decision-makers. Careful introduction of emerging Educational Technologies could alleviate and possibly reverse such trends as mobile Internet access spreads to remote areas. This paper examines the role of education in sustainable development and specifically explores the potential for two educational innovations, open badges and blockchain, to provide a new construct for transformation in sustainable development amongst mountain and pastoralist societies. These technologies could not only facilitate education through online distance learning, but also allow geographically remote populations to highlight the value of their traditional knowledge and to engage more comprehensively in their changing worlds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0497.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: higher education; international students; leadership and governance; SEM; STEM; sustainable development; sustainability
Online: 31 December 2021 (09:39:26 CET)
Attracting and retaining international students has been widely discussed in higher education settings. Increasing the number of international students has become an indispensable strategy for national and global competition. This study focuses on effective strategies and international students' issues regarding satisfaction in the most popular STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) programs. We designed a structural equation modeling (SEM) method to determine the effect of institutional mediation between push factors and satisfaction factors for the development of better strategies by which to attract and retain international students. Taking Taiwan as an example, this study employed a self-designed questionnaire to collect data: 485 degree-seeking international students in STEM programs were invited and successfully participated in this study during spring 2021. IBM SPSS 26 and AMOS 26 (Analysis of Moment Structure) were used to carry out the data analysis. We employed reliability, factor, and SEM analyses. This study assumed that the impact of push factors can be modified by institutional situations and result in international students’ satisfaction with their learning and environment and regarding migration policy. The results revealed that the predictors, mediation, and criteria were significant at the 0.05 or 0.01 levels. The findings suggest that push factors impact international students’ satisfaction when using institutional leadership and international strategy. The results of the bootstrap with a generalized least square method showed that the SEM model fit in 2000 bootstrap samples. The effect of institutional mediation can provide useful information for STEM programs to boost their future recruitment and retention strategies. This study provides an innovative approach to the detection of issues among international students in specific programs. These findings can enrich our knowledge regarding attracting and retaining global students in higher education settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education for sustainable leadership; gender equality; competencies; higher education; women managers
Online: 5 September 2019 (02:55:41 CEST)
Education is an imperative key to driving sustainability and gender equity. In addition to addressing well-known female deficiencies in leadership training, it is really important to develop initiatives in sustainable leadership education for women to acquire skills, competencies and tools on leadership and to increase their self-perceptions. The purpose of this study is to assess a Women’s Leadership Program for university students. The sample consisted of 50 students enrolled in the program. A mixed-method approach was applied. Quantitative methods with a survey were conducted to evaluate the training and the achievement of leadership skills. In the data analysis, a descriptive statistics variance analysis, using a Welch statistic and T2 Dunnett test, was applied. Qualitative research methods were conducted through three focus groups to evaluate personal changes in their own-perceptions and self-confidence. Results suggest that the female students in the program reached a level of leadership knowledge with practical tools for their future. The program inspired them and confirmed changes in their personal capacities or self-confidence, including reflection about facing challenges in the work environment. The findings support the effectiveness of the specific education in breaking two barriers shown by the literature for women to getting a managerial position: lack of training and female self-confidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0665.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: university and higher education; sustainability; change and transformation; sustainable development goals; living labs
Online: 29 October 2018 (09:43:58 CET)
Universities can do more to deliver against the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), working with faculty, staff and students as well as their wider stakeholder community and alumni body. They play a critical role in helping shape new ways for the world, educating global citizens and delivering knowledge and innovation into society – universities can be engines of societal transformation. Here, using a case study approach, different ways of strategizing sustainability in a university setting are explored with an example from the UK, Europe and USA. The first case is a public UK university that adopted enterprise and sustainability as its academic mission to secure differentiation in a disrupted and increasingly marketized global higher education sector which then became a source of inspiration for change in regional businesses and the local community. The second case study is a business sector-led sustainability-driven transformation working with a private university in Bulgaria to catalyze economic regeneration and social innovation. Finally, the case of Harvard’s Office for Sustainability engagement program is given to show how this approach connects faculty and students with institutional sustainability plans and external partners. Each case is a living lab, positioning sustainability as an intentional strategy. Leadership at all levels, and by students, was key to success in acting with purpose. Partnerships within and with universities can help accelerate delivery of the SDGs, with higher education making a fuller contribution to sustaining the economic, cultural and intellectual well-being of our global communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0140.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: entrepreneurial sustainability strategy; system thinking; business process management; process improvements; innovation in higher education; sustainable organizational performance
Online: 16 January 2018 (10:44:40 CET)
The sustainable development of our world has gain particular attention of a wide range of decisional factors, civil society, business sector, and scientific community, seeing that the prosperity of people and society is possible with the aid of sustained and inclusive economic growth of all countries and regions. Educational environment has a decisive impact on changes in the way that societies are coping with national, regional, and global challenges and opportunities brought by sustainable development. Looking at the implications of HE on the progress of society, the paper addressed the lack of HE institutional capacity to integrate the principles and practices of sustainable development into all aspects of education and learning. The scope of research problem was bounded on the capability of HEI as organization and school to act as entrepreneurial university by combining the scope of its responsibility within the value chain through a practical and effective mechanism needed to align the strategy with sustainable development goals (SDGs). Embarking on the path of SDGs requires HEI to design, launch, implement, and customize specific processes architectures to govern the advance of sustainability approach. The authors applied the process scoping diagram to capture and conceptualize the educational model needed to guide the HEI through the process of change to embrace sustainability into organizational culture and daily operations. It has been used the SIPOC method (Supplier, Input, Process, Output, Customer) with Visio software tool to articulate processes relationships embedded in the educational model of HEI. The benefits relied on the organized view of the work processes needed to be performed to incorporate SDGs into the strategy of any entrepreneurial HEI. Finally, the authors shared their views on the scalability of the model which may be customized and harmonized in accordance with different HE circumstances and priorities. Implementing the proposed educational model requires long-term institutional commitment, transparency, continuous performance improvement, and communicating the strategy for SDGs and its achievements to wider stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education for sustainable development, postgraduate students, united kingdom, survey study
Online: 7 February 2019 (10:15:59 CET)
As reflected in the sustainable development goals (SDG), sustainable development is a multi-dimensional concept integrating political, ethical, economic and other factors. Reports from the UN decade of Education for Sustainable Development (UNDESD) suggest that universities are more engaged with sustainable development in higher education (HESD). Despite promising signals about student awareness of sustainable development, survey studies suggest student engagement and knowledge is limited in addressing social and economic factors. This study evaluated how UK students enrolled in postgraduate taught sustainability degrees responded to the multi-dimensional issues of sustainable development. Consolidating work by Baker on the multi-dimensional ladder of sustainable development, this study piloted a 39 question 7-point Likert scale survey with a cohort of UK taught postgraduate (MSc, MPhil) students (n=121, Cronbach Alpha 0.796, n=39 Questions). Subsequent removal of questions duplicating content and replacement of missing values produced better results (0.810 Cronbach Alpha, n=30 Questions). The study found this cohort able to recognize and respond to the multiple challenges of strong and weak sustainable development issues. Results also suggest that future studies could limit the number of questions Results and qualitative comments from the survey suggest, however, students resist the idea of strong interventions in social, political and economic life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1205.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Sustainability; Education
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:22:29 CEST)
The importance of transforming to a sustainable economy to protect against global crises such as climate change is widely recognized. Sustainable entrepreneurs are seen as playing a key role in this transformation process by creating innovative market solutions with environmental, social, and economic value. To date, there is no consensus on the skills education should deliver to create sustainable entrepreneurs to solve sustainability challenges. The goal of this article is to identify sustainable entrepreneurship education factors that enable effective education of future sustainable entrepreneurs. An academic search engine and bibliographic database were searched for documents written in English and published between 2012 and April 2023 to identify existing educational models discussed in the current literature in sustainable entrepreneurship education (SEE). The review process resulted in a set of 59 empirical and non-empirical papers on SEE. The data analysis revealed different educational frameworks for sustainable entrepreneurship (SE), both developed for use in higher education institutions and secondary schools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0303.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: 21st Century; Education; Historical Development; Paradigm
Online: 11 June 2021 (08:23:02 CEST)
This article aims to examine the concept of historical thinking by looking at the development of historical learning from colonialism to reformation, as well as some examples of innovations in history learning through technology media. The development of history learning in Indonesia has a long story from the colonialism era to the reformation that changed from time to time. However, changes and reforms in the education system do not make students more interested in history. The 21st century, known as the digital century, makes students' attention more focused on the present and the development of the times. Therefore, there are many innovations that are in line with technological media to support and maintain history learning in this era. The question from this research is how is history learning not favored by students when technological innovations to support this learning have developed? By using the literature review method and a qualitative approach, this article provides a new perspective through existing data. Because innovation cannot run effectively before it is accompanied by historical thinking, so the results of the research are historical thinking must be instilled from the start to support innovations that develop and attract students' interest. Based on the study, it is recommended that have historical thinking to further optimize technology develops innovation more effectively and ask for more interest in history. Keywords: 21st Century, Historical Development, Paradigm
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0645.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: architecture; education; practice
Online: 23 April 2021 (17:49:48 CEST)
The balance between theory and practice in architectural education is a permanent element of the discussion on teaching architecture. The article discusses the method of implementation of practical knowledge of the architectural profession at Poland’s largest department of architecture – Cracow University of Technology. Showing the subsequent stages of the education process on the way to obtaining authorization to independent design in Poland. Against this background, the didactic methods used in the initially experimental subject and now regular one taught at the Faculty of Architecture of the Technical University of Cracow together with the Chamber of Architects of the Republic of Poland since 2018 are discussed. The results of this collaboration and the didactic effects are discussed. The experience of adapting methods for remote education in connection with the pandemic of Covid-19 is also presented. In conclusion, because of the obtained results in response to the legal changes introduced by the State, the proposed new model of professional practice is discussed which, in the coming years, will cover all architecture universities in Poland.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Programming Approach; Web programming; Sustainable Education; Teaching experience; Teaching Methodology
Online: 17 June 2021 (14:44:43 CEST)
The fast pace development of the Internet and the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic have impacted considerably on the educative sector; encouraging the constant transformation of the teaching-learning strategies and more in technological areas as Educational Software Engineering. Web programming, a fundamental topic in Software Engineering and Cloud-based applications, deals with various critical challenges in education, such as learning continuous emerging technological tools, plagiarism detection, generating innovative learning environments, among others. Continual change and more with the current digitization becomes a challenge for teachers and students who cannot depend on traditional educational methods. The article presents a sustainable teaching-learning methodology for web programming courses in Engineering Education using a project-based integrated approach adaptable to the continuous web technological advances. The methodology has been developed and improved for 9 years, 15 groups, and 3 different universities. Our results demonstrate that the methodology is 100% adaptable with new technologies that might arise; it also presents the advantages of avoiding plagiarism in the best case and a personalized induction for every specific student in the learning process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0274.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digital methods; student-centred learning; higher education; sustainable development goals; corporate social responsibility; CSR communication.
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:52:27 CET)
The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has created big challenges and opportunities in Higher Education (HE). In this situation, several universities worldwide have responded with digital methods and hybrid classes in a short period of time. The aim of this paper is to show how the universities have adapted teaching methods to digital platforms in the academic year 2020–21. This case study is based on the experience of 37 postgraduate communication students in the course Business and Communication from a Communication Programme. The objective of this course was to promote the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) in business and following the Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME) of the United Nations. To do this, the students provided different solutions related to the SDGs and developed a communication strategy to inform and engage the stakeholders in the companies analyzed in a hybrid class. The results show that using this methodology and working in digital platforms, students have learned the importance of SDGs through implementing specific solutions linked to the corporate social responsibility (CSR) strategy. Based on this analysis, they also developed a communication strategy showing how companies can improve society with specific actions through the lens of the SDG perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0308.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cooperative learning; professional capital; learning of education professionals; long-term project
Online: 5 May 2023 (05:41:46 CEST)
This article presents the research results on developing professional capital in Lithuanian schools during the national project "Time for leaders". The longitudinal national initiative aimed to develop professional capital as the synergy of human, social and decisional components (Hargreaves and Fullan, 2019) of schools through the various cooperation-based learning experiences of educational professionals. The article provides an overview of project interventions (activities that stimulated cooperative learning of educational professionals) in the light of cooperative learning principles. The assessment of change over two project years in education professionals' perceptions of professional capital is presented using Cohen's d effect size measure. The measurement sample consisted of teachers (n1=5105; n2=4683) and school leaders (n1=439; n2=405) from 189 schools in 30 Lithuanian municipalities. The findings show a statistically significant medium positive change in professional capital. The most considerable change was estimated in the social and decisional capital dimensions and the relatively smallest - in the field of human capital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0267.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: early childhood education (ECE); free early childhood education; policy cycle; sustainability
Online: 23 May 2022 (03:42:52 CEST)
Many countries have implemented free early childhood education to solve the affordability and accessibility problems without considering the sustainability of policy; thus, they have to discontinue the policy. The city of Nanjing, China, is no exception. This case study adopted a mixed-methods approach to understanding how and why the policy was formulated, implemented, and failed in the city, using the “policy cycle” framework. Altogether 232 kindergarten principals and teaching/research staff were randomly sampled and surveyed, and 5 kindergarten principals and 5 teaching/researcher staff were interviewed. The results indicated that there were many obstacles to the policy’s sustainability, including the conflict of interest, the inefficient policy implementation, the insufficient funding, and more social inequality issues. And the policymakers made mistakes in the five domains of the policy cycle: the context of influence, the context of policy text production, the context of practice, the context of outcomes, and the context of political strategy. Finally, the lessons for a more sustainable policy decision process are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: university; sociology of education; economism; social institution; higher education; modernization
Online: 27 February 2019 (05:04:32 CET)
On the termination of nearly twenty years since the beginning of commercialization of the Ukrainian higher education the intensity of discussion of its purposes, results and possible amendments don't decrease neither among experts, nor among the interested public. Supporters and opponents of commercialization note that education is that social branch which participates in the formation of prerequisites of economic growth. The main point of the article is to disclose the essence of the phenomena of economism and commercialization. Economism is seen as part of globalization of education, a global corporatization of education provides training for the global labour market, using human capital economic theories. As noted by George Spring, the human capital, economists argue that investments in education lead to economic growth, reducing income inequality and increasing employment. The article confirms that the state educational policy as a component of social policy is one of instruments of influence of the state on formation of social structure and is directed to the solution of problems of societal level. It does relevant sociological examination of transformational processes in education and, in particular, results of commercialization. Thus, it is possible to claim that the educational system tests the uncommon influence of globalization, forming and building a peculiar system of the relations and interaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0483.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Humanities, World citizenship, World Languages, Higher Education, Peter Critchley, Eco-praxis, Ethics
Online: 25 July 2018 (12:45:08 CEST)
It is time that universities reexamine what is meant by globalization. Contemporary researchers in science and the humanities (Critchley, Chomsky, Mumford, Ostrom, Eisenstein, Ferry, Orr, Shiva, Klein, Margulis, Meadows, Capra and Tolba, just to name a few) have aptly redefined the concept of « world » as a biological and cultural ecosystem. This paper seeks ways to integrate the theory and practice of eco-citizenship into various cross-disciplinary aspects of higher education, with a focus on curricular adjustments that may be steered by World Languages and Cultures programs. While "global citizenship" is still often understood today as a form of supranational citizenship that may find its actualization through the valuable, yet often arrested efforts of the United Nations, or as the individualistic result of a neoliberal economic emancipation of markets and capital throughout the world, this notion must rather be embedded within a radically cultural, natural and ethical bedrock from which a more potent world citizenry will stem. Departments of World Languages and Cultures and cultures are ideally positioned in the academic landscape to foster the development of a greater eco-civic and biospheric awareness that can permeate new curricular orientations of universities in the US and abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainability; consciousness; education; e-portfolios; ICT
Online: 3 August 2018 (15:49:54 CEST)
The contents of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) should be included in teachers’ initial and advanced training programs. In order to determine the key competences for sustainability, creating a Sustainable Consciousness is one of the main foundations. However, there are not many empirical studies that deal with consciousness from education. In this context, e-portfolio appears as a tool that promotes reflection and critical thinking, key competences for consciousness development. This work intends to propose a categorization system to extract types of consciousness and identify trainee teachers’ levels of consciousness. For this research work, of an eminently qualitative nature, we have selected twenty-five portfolios of students in the last year of the School of Education at the University of Macerata (Italy). The qualitative methodological procedure followed allowed to deduce three bases that shape trainee teachers’ consciousness: thinking, representation of reality and type of consciousness. We concluded that the attainment of a Sustainable Consciousness in teachers requires activating and developing higher levels of thinking, as well as a projective and macrostructural representation of reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: questionnaire development; osteoporosis; osteoporosis education; attitude; behaviors
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:37:04 CET)
This research develops the Osteoporosis Knowledge, Attitude, and Behaviors Questionnaire (OKABQ) with the intent to evaluate levels of osteoporosis knowledge, attitude and behavior change. The aims of the study were to develop and validate the OKABQ; and to establish a mediation model of the research. A quantitative, descriptive, and instrumental study was conducted in two phases: Phase I—development of the scale through Delphi Method by osteoporosis experts; Phase II—evaluation of the validity and reliability of the scale and construction of a mediation model using SmartPLS. In Phase I, the content validity index (CVI) of the questionnaire was higher than 0.96 and the inter-rater reliability (IRR) kappa was 1.00. In Phase II, exploratory factor analysis showed that two predominating factors of attitude as a mediation were addressed by the 26-item OKABQ. The indirect effect results from the estimated model indicates that attitude mediates the relationship between knowledge and behaviors (β = 0.114, t = 2.627, p < 0.001), which is positive and statistically significant. We concluded that the OKABQ is a valid measure of osteoporosis knowledge, attitude and behaviors for women with osteoporosis. These assessment results could assist healthcare providers in mitigating insufficiency on health education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0756.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: STEM Education; Energy Efficiency; CO₂ Emissions; APEC databases; Cross-Border classes; Sustainable Development
Online: 30 December 2020 (14:37:12 CET)
Early education is critical for improving energy efficiency. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of Interactive Cross-Border Classes to increase awareness of energy efficiency among middle school students. We designed and tested an Interactive Cross-Border class between Chilean and Peruvian 8th-grade classes. The classes were synchronously connected and all students answered open-ended questions on an online platform. Some of the questions were designed to check conceptual understanding while others asked for suggestions of how to develop their economies while keeping CO₂ air concentration at acceptable levels. In real-time, the teacher reviewed the students’ written answers and the concept maps that were automatically generated based on their responses. Students peer-reviewed their classmates’ suggestions. This is part of an Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) STEM Education project on Energy Efficiency using APEC databases. We found high levels of student engagement, where students discussed not only the cross-cutting nature of energy, but also its relation to socioeconomic development and CO₂ emissions, and the need to work together to improve energy efficiency. In conclusion, Interactive Cross-Border classes are a feasible educational alternative, with potential as a scalable public policy strategy for improving awareness of energy efficiency among the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0158.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: contemporary media; advertising; education program; digital literacy; tourism capital
Online: 10 July 2018 (05:26:39 CEST)
Technology then has become a mixed bag for the tourism industry. It creates a great deal of conveniences while at the same time has been used as a way to increase revenues and to lessen customer service, especially for the education of adults in the area of digital competence for the use for advertising the tourist offer of your own units. Modern Education Programs can be a great help in overcoming digital literacy and thus helping to choose a variety of offers that offer free internet advertising. The survey was conducted on the example of Okrug municipality on the Čiovo peninsula in the period from February 2017 to April 2017. 278 private renters participated. The aim of the research was to show that the Program for the Education of Foreign Languages, a specific English language that was organized by the Municipality, contributed to the advertising of its tourist units, thereby contributing to the revenue, ie the occupancy in the number of reservations. The paper used a quantization method, a questionnaire survey. point to the fact that it is necessary to invest in the Education Program so that the older population, in particular, acquires the general level of digital literacy and foreign language learning, for the purpose of finding an adequate media for advertising and strengthening the tourist capital of a municipality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Sustainable gender equality; self-efficacy; gender mainstreaming; STEM higher education; STEM student teachers’ perceptions; scale validation, Spain, Creece
Online: 21 November 2022 (03:38:01 CET)
In the context of the Education-2030 Framework for Action, an important goal for initial STEM teacher education is to provide professional development on equality and gender awareness. This study explored whether STEM prospective secondary teachers are prepared to implement a sustainable gender-sensitive practice upon graduation. To this end, we cross-culturally validated the TEGEP (Teacher Self-Efficacy for Gender Equality practice) scale and compared STEM student teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy by country and sex. Participants were 205 STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) secondary school student teachers (136 Greek and 69 Spanish) drawn from seven public universities (six Greek, one Spanish). Statistical analysis confirmed the structure and factor invariance of the TEGEP across country and between sexes showing evidence that gender equality self-efficacy level is only moderate and that perceived competence in gender knowledge was significantly higher in Greek than in Spanish STEM student teachers, while the latter felt more competent than the Greek in developing values and attitudes in regards to gender. The study provides a cross-validated instrument to measure gender equality self-efficacy in STEM teacher education and evaluate sustainable changes after planned interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0082.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Active learning; professional skills; civic education; higher education; e-learning; serious games; critical thinking; sustainability
Online: 9 January 2020 (11:39:36 CET)
This study assesses the development of professional skills in university students using serious games (SG), from a sustainability perspective. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were set by the United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Universities are strategic agents in the transformation process towards sustainability. This way, they should be committed to promoting such sustainable values in the students through curricular sustainability, implementing active methodologies and SG for that purpose. Transversal skills are essential for the development of future graduates. The objective of this study was to assess which professional skills should be developed through the SG called The Island, to improve the degree of student satisfaction with the incorporation of a sustainable curriculum. The data were obtained using a questionnaire, and then analysed using linear regression models, with their inference estimated through the goodness of fit and ANOVA. The first results indicated that the implementation of the SG promoted a strengthening of the students' sustainable curriculum through the development of those skills. It was concluded that the key to success in education for sustainable development is improving the development of strategic thinking, collaborative thinking, and self-awareness, in addition to encouraging systemic, critical, and problem-solving thinking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0452.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Higher Education; teachers; motivations
Online: 17 June 2021 (09:16:56 CEST)
Background: The university must take on the challenges that arise at all levels. Within this mechanism, university professors play an important role as facilitators of knowledge. Aim: To analyse the motivations that influence the professional performance of Spanish university professors. Methods: 102 university professors from 9 Spanish public universities participated in the study. [Male: 54 (52.9%); Female: 48 (47.1%)]. A questionnaire of 22 closed-ended Likert-type questions was designed, scoring from 0-10 (do not agree at all, strongly agree). Results: The questionnaire, finally composed of 17 items, showed good internal consistency. (Cronbach's alpha=0.858). The validity analysis showed a value of 0.822 (>0.5) ) in the sample adequacy measure KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) and Bartlett's sphericity test (p<0.0001). The exploratory factor analysis showed a clustering in 4 factors (2 for internal goods and 2 for external goods), explaining 64.33% of the total variance. Comparisons between each factor scores by gender (male and female) showed differences statistically significant by gender for factor F1 (higher for females) and F2 (higher for males). Finally, Q1 and Q13 showed a statistically significant correlation (p≤0.05) with years of teaching experience. Conclusions: The motivations of Spanish university professors seem to be associated with the age and gender of the teacher.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Poverty; Financial development; Education; Trade openness; Export product concentration
Online: 3 November 2020 (09:57:05 CET)
Numerous studies in the literature have investigated the effect of financial development on poverty, and tend to report a poverty reduction effect of financial development. The present paper considers the issue in the other way around, by examining the effect of poverty on financial development. In particular, it has investigated the financial development effect of poverty that passes through three main channels, including the education level, the level of trade openness, and the degree of export product concentration. The analysis is carried out using a sample of 97 developing countries over the period 1980-2017, and the two-step Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM). Results have shown that poverty genuinely affects financial development through these three channels. Specially, lower poverty rates induce greater financial development in countries that experience higher education levels. Similarly, a rise in poverty rates in the context of restrictive trade policies (that eventually result in lower levels of trade openness) undermines the development of the financial sector. Finally, higher poverty levels adversely affect financial development in countries that experience an increase in the level of export product concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social and moral education; preschool age; communitarian approach
Online: 27 November 2019 (08:46:55 CET)
The article deals with issues related to social and moral education and development of preschool children. The theoretical understanding of the current state of this field is reflected in the modern normative documents "On education in the Russian Federation", the state educational standards. Analysis of theoretical and practice-oriented research in this area shows that the phrase "moral education" today is gradually replaced by "social and moral education", "social and moral development". This trend is found in preschool pedagogy (work L. V. Abramova, R. S. Bure, S. M. Zyryanova, N.A. Karataeva, G. M. Kiseleva, I. F. Sleptsova, etc.). It is the study of social and moral representations of preschool children that many relevant diagnostic methods are aimed at: to explain the actions of children, their relationship with each other and adults, to assess these actions (i.e. to correlate the situation with the moral norm). The presented research was based on the method of research of moral representations of children of senior preschool age, developed by G. A. Uruntaeva and Yu.A. Afon'kina. The analysis of the results showed that children of senior preschool age willingly included in the retelling of the actions described in the situation, but find it difficult to assess what is happening from a moral point of view. It is obvious that psychological and pedagogical work is necessary in this direction, taking into account the age characteristics of children, as well as social and moral guidelines relevant to the current situation of development of society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: University; emotional education; social ambit; cognitive domain; physical education degree
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:21:11 CET)
The objective of the present study was to apply an intervention program based on emotional ed-ucation and self-knowledge, in students of the degree in Education to verify changes in wisdom. For this, the 3S-WS questionnaire was administered before and after 8 weeks of intervention, an-alyzing aspects related to affective, cognitive and reflective wisdom. The sample consisted of 100 students (40 men and 60 women, aged between 20 and 29 years). After the intervention program, students improved reflective wisdom without difference between sexes. On the other hand, men had higher values in all variables than women. In conclusion, the program to improve personal development and self-awareness could be useful to improve wisdom (especially reflective wis-dom) in 3rd and 4th year students of the degree in Education, specializing in Physical Education. At the same time, it is intended that these students understand the foundations of the intervention so that in the future it can be replicated in their classrooms and contribute to the sustainable de-velopment of the 2030 Agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0436.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable feedback; peer feedback; higher education; peer receiver; peer provider
Online: 19 October 2018 (06:14:18 CEST)
Students who had been actively engaged in mediated collaborative activities, were asked for their perceptions about the sustainable peer feedback they had received and provided. Their views were then analyzed and categorized in terms of receiver and provider feedback, cognitive feedback and previously acquired feedback to further knowledge about sustainable education processes. A peer supported feedback questionnaire was created and validated, and its categories were correlated. The questionnaire was then aligned with the activities used to foster peer feedback between the pre-service students from the three bachelor’s degrees. The perceptions the students had of the feedback processes were analyzed using defined peer support feedback categories and the results showed a correlation between cognitive feedback and both provider and receiver self-efficacy feedback. In addition, there was a further correlation between both provider and receiver self-efficacy feedback as well as provider and receiver involvement and feedback structure. However, the results also revealed that neither receiver nor provider autonomy support were significant categories for supportive feedback.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0264.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Design for Sustainability; Responsible Design; transdisciplinary design; design education; social design; ecological literacy; transition; disciplinary fragility; defuturing; sustainability
Online: 19 May 2022 (16:11:35 CEST)
Sustainable and Responsible Design (SRD) harnesses design’s potential to address eco-social problems and in doing so challenge the status quo of design education by reframing the social and ecological consequences, boundaries and agencies of design. This critical and transdisciplinary approach frays the edges of traditional design disciplines with embedded and reflexive modes of learning. We describe characteristics of SRD education and present theories of learning to empower students in this complex terrain. The learning associated with SRD education is ecologically engaged, participative, critical, expansive and designerly. We recount case studies of our own experiences advancing sustainable and responsible undergraduate design education in the UK. We identify path constraints such as disciplinary fragility, appropriation, and power dynamics in the design school. The push for a revision of priorities generates tensions where there is often greenwashing rhetoric of sustainability and inclusivity. We describe strategies and tactics to address these tensions. We highlight the agency we have as educators and designers and argue that design education can only meaningfully participate in response to the challenges presented by climate change, other types of ecocide, and social problems when educators make substantive commitments to supporting sustainability literacies and design approaches that serve the interests of diverse stakeholders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Medical Education; Simulation; Low-Cost; Task trainers; procedural trainers
Online: 7 September 2021 (12:06:27 CEST)
Background: Simulations have historically aided training programs by providing a realistic and holistic replication of professional scenarios and procedures. Simulations have developed over the past 40 years to include varying fidelities and modalities of simulation. Learning in a simulation-centered environment has benefits, ranging from improved patient care to specific skills acquisition while catering to students’ numerous and varied learning approaches. Simulation is a multifaceted field that benefits all parties, the teachers, the learners, and the patients. The application of simulation to medical education and its amalgamation with other modes and substitutes allows for a more integrated learning and testing curriculum that advances the current trajectory of medical education. Such developments, however, are limited to resource rich areas, leaving behind low-middle income countries to use traditional, less evolved methodologies and practices. This review aimed to explore different aspects of simulation and focus specifically on low-cost task trainers and their accessibility. Method: The purpose of the study was to assess the accessibility of low-cost task trainers in terms of cost-effectiveness, distribution, validation, and frequency within specific specialties. To do so, 84 PubMed publications have been screened, and 39 filtered research studies have collected the necessary data. After analyzing the papers, we classified the following information – process, specialization, validation (y/n), costs, development location, and year of publication. Results: After carefully analyzing the accumulated data from the selected 39 publications, we found that most studies (i.e., 6 out of 39) were published in 2020. Emergency Medicine was the most common specialty for which low-cost trainers were developed (9 out of 39 procedural simulators); Otolaryngology followed this with 8 out of 39 trainers and general surgery with 7/39 of the task-trainers. The price ranges fluctuated and fell within the price bracket of USD 0 to USD 400 collectively. Our review also uncovered the concentration of development of such innovations solely in high income countries (HICs). Conclusion: Simulation is an invaluable tool applicable to a diverse range of phases of medical education. Future conjunction of simulation with low-cost substitutes along with increased encouragement and enthusiasm towards developing cost effective simulation-based learning environments (SBLEs) with the reserves and requirements of these areas in mind may prove to be a reliable option for low and middle resource settings
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education; Mozambique; Quality; Development; Millennium Development Goals.
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:39:48 CEST)
In order to meet the Millennium Development Goals set forth by the United Nations’ Millennium Summit that took place in 2000, in New York, particularly in the area of education, the Mozambican Government decided that, from 2003 onwards, during their primary school formation, students should be passed automatically even if they do not have enough intellectual capacities that justify their progress. In fact, this decision was made during a period when there were many pupils being failed, due to various reasons. After more than 15 years of its implementation, this paper aims to analyzing the results acquired from this decision, from the point of view of the quality of education. This will be done taking into account the prevailing situation of education in Mozambique. Having considered these aspects, the paper will move on to presenting some of the challenges and opportunities that the country should consider in the area of education, as a way to bring about better outcomes and promote development, in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0599.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Survey; children; health knowledge; chronic pain; pain education.
Online: 26 February 2021 (09:30:20 CET)
(1) Background: Research has shown that thoughts about pain are important for the management of chronic pain in children. In order to monitor changes in thoughts about pain over time and evaluate the efficacy of treatments, we need valid and reliable measures. The aims of this study were to develop a questionnaire to assess a child’s concept of pain and to evaluate its psychometric properties; (2) Methods: This is a cross-sectional, two-phase, mixed-method study. A total of 324 individuals aged 8 to 17 years old responded to the newly created questionnaire. The Survey of the Concept of Pain (SOCOPA) was calibrated using the Rasch model. The chi-square test was used for the fit statistics. Underfit and overfit of the model were determined and a descriptive analysis of infit and outfit was conducted to identify who responded erratically. Internal consistency was measured using the Person Separation Index (PSI); (3) Results: Fit to the Rasch model was good. Suitable targeting indicated which items were simple to answer; Person Fit identified 9.56% children who responded erratically; PSI=0.814; (4) Conclusions: The findings suggest that SOCOPA is a measure of a child’s concept of pain that is easy to administer and respond to. It has a good fit and a good internal consistency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable competencies; holistic competency; teacher training; project-oriented learning; cross-disciplinary workshop on sustainable food; sustainable food; higher education
Online: 1 September 2018 (13:37:48 CEST)
Since the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) came into effect, both UNESCO and other international organisations recommend empowering youth to implement the SDGs in universities. Getting started with the SDGs at university level is of special relevance in pre-service teacher training since future teachers are powerful agents of change in the lives of young people. Future teachers need to acquire competencies in sustainability to be able to promote meaningful changes in sustainable behaviour. To that end, holistic approaches to facilitate their acquirement need to be developed. The aim of this study is to explore which teaching methodologies are suitable for the development of competencies in sustainability in Higher Education (HE) and how to empower students to take a leading role in implementing the SDGs in universities. The participants in the study are a group of 23 students in pre-service teacher training. The experimental educational model used for the development of sustainable competencies consists of a methodological sequence of Project-Oriented Learning (POL) and a Cross-disciplinary Workshop on Sustainable Food. This study provides evidence that a holistic approach is appropriate for developing sustainable competencies and contributes to empowering students to implement SDG 12 at their university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; neuroscience; neuropedagogy; neuroeducation; higher education; design thinking; learning management system
Online: 19 May 2023 (03:32:57 CEST)
Higher education teaching staff members need to build a scientifically accurate and comprehensive understanding of the function of the brain in learning to optimize teaching and achieve excellent student learning. An international consortium developed a professional development six-module course on educational neuroscience and online community of practice applying design thinking. A mixed methods research design was employed to investigate the attitudes of thirty-two (N=32) participating academics using a survey comprising eleven closed and open questions. Data analysis methods included descriptive statistics, correlation, generalized additive model and grounded theory. The overall evaluation demonstrated a notable satisfaction level with regard to the quality of the course. Given the power of habits, mentoring and peer interactions are recommended to ensure the effective integration of theoretical neuroscientific evidence into teaching practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Executive functions; music education; cognitive development; planning; inhibition; decision making; working memory
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:44:19 CET)
In recent years, music education in Ibero-America has been losing ground within the school environment in favor of the development of curricular systems that benefit academic results in standardized tests. Despite this, several studies in the field of cognitive neurosciences have found evidence of great relevance and in which it can be observed how music education can favor cognitive development and performance in practically all stages of human development, with important results in language tasks, attention, and executive functions such as planning, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and working memory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0697.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Engineering education; Engineering-centered PjBL; Power generation systems; Sustainable energy; Sustainability
Online: 24 August 2021 (16:35:23 CEST)
(1) Background: Due to the high proportion of disadvantaged students in a rural school in Taiwan and the gap between students’ concepts and practices of environmental protection and sustainable energy, four science and mathematics teachers in this school planned an engineering-centered PjBL of sustainable energy curriculum in a Makers Club to enhance students’ creativity, engineering skills, practices of environmental protection and sustainable energy, and learning attitudes; (2) Methods: This study is four-year action research. Teachers and students initiated the idea from rebuilding an old fan in a classroom; (3) Results: The students in the Makers Club improved their engineering skills and created various green-power generation devices (evolved from ventilation ball generator, hydropower, ocean current power generators to tiny, 3D-printing wind power generators). They turned environmental protection and sustainable energy concepts into actions during practices and won awards from science and engineering fairs every year. This creative and supportive atmosphere spread from the club to the whole school and improved the students’ practices of environmental protection and learning attitudes after long-term implementation; (4) Conclusions: The design principles of the engineering-centered PjBL of sustainable energy curriculum played a critical role and were outlined at the end of the study.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0373.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: geological fieldwork; virtual field trips; geoscience education
Online: 20 November 2021 (20:19:12 CET)
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and resultant cancellation of geoscience fieldwork, as well as outstanding accessibility issues inherent in conducting fieldwork, we developed a virtual geological fieldtrip (VFT) to the Huronian age deposits in the Whitefish Falls area, Ontario, Canada. This region is a geologically significant site in which many Ontario universities conduct undergraduate teaching due to the high-quality exposures. In this contribution we describe and comment on the development of this openly available resource, the motivations in doing so, the challenges faced, its pedagogical impact and relevance, as well as provide suggestions to others in the development of such resources. Our multimedia VFT combines 360° imagery, georeferenced data on integrated maps, and multi-scale imagery (aerial/drone, outcrop, and thin section images). The VFT was built using the Esri Storymaps platform, and thus offers us the opportunity to review the effectiveness of building such resources using this medium, as well as our approach to doing so. We conclude that the Esri Storymaps platform provides a sound medium for the dissemination of multimedia VFTs, but that some aspects of in-person fieldwork remain hard to replicate. Most notably, ‘hands on experience’ and specific activities such as geological mapping. In addition, while VFTs alleviate some accessibility barriers to geoscience fieldwork, substantial barriers remain that should remain the focus of both pedagogical and geoscience work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0286.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: 21st Century Skills/Thinking Skills; Computational Thinking; Critical Thinking; Robotics for Education
Online: 13 May 2021 (11:34:37 CEST)
A new teaching method under the name of STEM, integrating the disciplines of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, is now taught by teachers in their classes. Considering that the generation that grows up in the 21st-century has grown up with technology, it is thought that integrating technology into lessons helps students learn the subject. The study aims to develop five STEM activities for the human body systems lesson by integrating the coding-based Arduino into STEM education. The activities were implemented to 6th-grade students for seven weeks and the effects on students' skills of establishing a cause-effect relationship. The study method was pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design, and the cause-effect relationship scale was used as a data collection tool. As a result of the study, a significant difference was found between the Arduino-supported STEM activities developed and the students' skills of establishing a cause-effect relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0283.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: cognitive rehearsal; coping skills; nursing education; simulation training; workplace bullying
Online: 16 February 2023 (09:36:05 CET)
Bullying makes learning difficult for nursing students, and using real-life scenarios during training can improve the understanding of workplace bullying. Thus, to mitigate bullying experienced by nurses, this study developed and evaluated a cognitive rehearsal education program that constituted of training nursing students through role-play simulations. A mixed-method research design was used to evaluate 39 nursing students from two universities. A quasi-experimental research design was applied to assess symptoms, knowledge, and perceptions of bullying, and a focus group interview was conducted with six participants. Quantitative analyses revealed that the program improved participants’ knowledge and perceptions, but not their symptoms. The focus group interview revealed that the program improved participants’ coping skills and desire for education. This program could be effective in raising awareness of workplace bullying and increasing relevant coping skills. It can be further developed as part of an overall strategy to manage workplace bullying and its consequences in hospital settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0299.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Intermediate care unit; Middle care; Education; CPAP; Noninvasive ventilation; rehabilitation
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:41:43 CEST)
The different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic caused dramatic issues regarding the organiza-tion of care. In this context innovative solutions have to be developed in a timely manner to adapted the organization of the care. The establishment of middle care (MC) units is a bright example of such an adaptation. A multidisciplinary MC team, including expert and non-expert respiratory nurses, physicians, physiotherapists, psychologists, nutritionists and social workers, was built and trained to work in the COVID-19 MC unit. Important educational resources were set up to ensure rapid and effective training of the MC team, limiting the admission or delaying transfers to ICU and ensuring optimal management of palliative care. We conducted a retrospec-tive analysis of patient data in the MC unit during the second COVID-19 wave. Fifty-two COVID-19 ‘step-up’ patients admitted to the MC unit were included in the study. Thirty-four (65%) patients worsened, of which 12 (23%) were not eligible for ICU access. In total, 42% of the ICU-eligible patients were managed in the MC unit to avoid the ICU. Among the 22 patients transferred to the ICU, 15 were intubated. The establishment of an MC unit during a pandemic, mixing expert and non-expert respiratory team members, is feasible and needed. MC units possi-bly relieve the pressure exerted on ICUs. A highly trained multidisciplinary team is key to ensur-ing the success of an MC unit during a pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0011.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: intercultural education; intervention programs; Roma student; systematic review; PRISMA
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:04:28 CEST)
Intercultural education can be seen as a cornerstone in the sustainability of the current culturally diverse society. In addition, through the establishment of policies and strategies to reverse situations of discrimination and exclusion, there is a consensus on the importance of the social inclusion of groups at risk of exclusion. In this context, actions are suggested to reverse high dropout rates and school failure within the Roma population. The aim of this systematic review in the educational context is to analyze investigations of programs and interventions that have been made to promote the educational inclusion of Roma students. Three databases are used, Scopus, Web of Science, and Eric, to examine 419 articles, which after a selection, based on an inclusion criterion which follows the guidelines given by the Declaration PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes), 17 articles were chosen for the analysis. The main findings shed light on data for programs and interventions developed mostly within the school setting and for students of elementary and secondary education. These programs provide answers for the molding of intercultural education and the policies for educational inclusion of Roma people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0769.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economics education; Sustainability
Online: 31 March 2021 (14:40:02 CEST)
The goals of the Agenda 2030 require a significant effort to educate and train new generations on sustainability issues. This article presents an initiative in favor of the evolution of the contents and the pedagogy of economics at the University level. We present the new “Ecological Money and Finance” textbook developed by SDSN France. We detail the assumptions, contents and learning objectives proposed in this new textbook. Then, we describe how it can be used in the framework of an experiential pedagogy of economics, taking as a case study the fundamental economics course of the Grande Ecole program at KEDGE BS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0077.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: questionnaire development; lactation; breastfeeding; analgesics; education; knowledge assessment; midwife; nurse
Online: 5 October 2021 (10:57:49 CEST)
There is a need to assess the knowledge of healthcare providers on the use of maternal analgesics during lactation, while a valid instrument is not yet available. This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire on the knowledge of analgesics (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, aspirin, tramadol, codeine, oxycodone) during lactation, using a prospective, stepwise approach. To generate a pool of item subgroups, literature was assessed as first step. This preliminary version was subsequently reviewed in two focus groups [midwives (n=4), pediatric nurses (n=6)], followed by an expert panel (n=7, 2 rounds) to confirm content validity [item-level and scale content validity]. This resulted in a instrument consisting of 33 questions, and 5 clincial case descriptions specific for both disciplines. Based on known-groups validity between midwives and pediatric nurses (assuming an a priori difference related to their curricula), high construct validity was subsequently demonstrated in a pilot e-survey (86 midwives, 73 pediatric nurses). We therefore conclude that an instrument to assess knowledge on lactation-related exposure to analgesics was generated, that can be further developed and validated. Furthermore, pilot findings suggest suboptimal knowledge for both professions, so that adaptations in their curricula and postgraduate training are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Catholic education; Catholic schools; Religious Education; de-traditionalised culture
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:37:19 CEST)
Philip Phenix’s (1964) book Realms of meaning started the ever growing movement concerned with how school education might help young people in their search for meaning in times of rapid social change. Today, in globalised, digital, secularised, de-traditionalised culture, the importance and urgency of this role have never been greater. Cultural change has accelerated exponentially, and for many – including students in religious/Catholic schools – traditional religious sources of meaning are no longer prominent or plausible reference points. Catholic schools, whether independent or semi-state institutions because of government funding, can make a valuable contribution young people’s spiritual/moral education, no matter what their level of religious affiliation or practice. This article argues that such a contribution requires change to the discourse or narrative of Catholic school Religious Education, with corresponding adjustments to content and pedagogy. Its present trajectory, which is excessively concerned with promoting a Catholic identity in students, needs to be modified. Both the religious and non-religious students, especially in the senior classes, would derive greater spiritual and religious benefit from the inclusion of more life-relevant and issue-related content, together with a critical, research-oriented pedagogy. Such an approach proposes that the Catholic Church’s schools should offer unconditionally a meaningful spiritual/moral education that is relevant to all students, rather than a traditional one which seemed to presume that all students are, or should be practising Catholics. This does not minimise attention to the Catholic tradition, but it allows for a study of how people negotiate the task of constructing meaning and values in a complex culture. The article also looks at the ‘headwinds’ that hinder the implementation of this approach. The article is focused specifically on the Australian context where Catholic schools are semi-state institutions because they are funded by both state and federal governments. The issues are still likely to be pertinent to Catholic education in other countries, while taking into account significant contextual differences.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0328.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: eye-tracking; virtual reality; education and VR; education and eye-tracking
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:11:43 CEST)
The concept of using eye-tracking in virtual reality for education has been researched in various fields over the past years. With this review, we aim to discuss the recent advancements and applications in this area, explain the technological aspects, highlight the advantages of this approach and inspire interest in the field. Eye-tracking has already been used in science for many decades and now has been substantially reinforced by the addition of virtual and augmented reality technologies. The first part of the review is a general overview of eye-tracking concepts and its applications. In the second part, the focus shifted towards application of eye-tracking in virtual reality. The third part is the description of the recently emerged concept of eye-tracking in virtual reality when applied to education and studying, which has not been thoroughly described before. We describe the main findings, technological aspects and advantages of this approach.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: science communication; scale; education; toolkit
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:31:14 CET)
A naked human eye can perceive objects down to a millimeter length. While lenses and microscopes have overcome this limit, the human mind still lacks perspective when navigating conventional scales (1), especially in the range that are less palpable to naked human eye (2,3). This problem is particularly acute in the context of science communication, where the conventional scale bar units facilitate little comprehension regarding the perception for factorial size differences (3). Here we aim to bridge the gap of scale factors and perspectives using a universal toolkit of objects, which can help comprehend the relative change in length dimensions up to 13 orders of magnitude difference. We further have demonstrated the use of such a universal object toolkit as a length perceptive scale by illustrating and narrating biological phenomena. The meter to picometer ‘length perceptive scale’ proposed here has the potential to cover majority of length scales present in the biological realm, and is analogous to the time compression methods widely used in explaining cosmos timeline (4). Our toolkit can also be calibrated according to the users need in their scientific communication and illustrations, which will aid the readers’ benefit in understanding the length scale perception of illustrated phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: geography education; tourism education; curriculum; textbook; secondary education
Online: 19 December 2022 (10:09:48 CET)
Since the mid-20th century, tourism has become a strategic activity for the economy of the Balearic Islands, causing profound social, territorial and environmental transformations. This fact challenges local society, which must be aware of its environment in order to better face the future challenges posed by this economic activity. With this goal, the official curriculum has been analyzed, making it possible to ascertain the approach with which this subject is taught by the administration and what objectives are set. Furthermore, a review was carried out of the contents of geography textbooks in the third year of ESO and the second year of Baccalaureate, which correspond to the educational stages in which tourism aspects appear. The results obtained represent a fundamental strategic diagnosis in order to improve the teaching and learning of this key activity for the Balearic Islands, giving it more importance and adapting its approach to the current times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: General education; Basic education; School governance; Secondary education.
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:45:45 CEST)
In Vietnam, general education includes primary education, lower secondary education (the period of basic education) and upper secondary education (the period of vocational orientation education). In particular, primary education is compulsory for all children from 6 to 14 years old, is implemented in 5 school years, from first grade to fifth grade. The age of students entering first grade is six years old. Primary education aims to help students form the initial foundations for proper and long-term development of morality, intelligence, physicality, aesthetics and basic skills for students to continue high school. Secondary education is conducted in four school years, from grade six to grade nine. Students entering sixth grade must have an elementary school diploma. Secondary education aims to help students consolidate and develop the results of primary education; have basic secondary education and initial knowledge about technology and career to continue high school, vocational high school, vocational training or enter a working life. High school education is conducted in 3 school years, from grade ten to grade twelve. Students entering tenth grade must have a junior high school diploma. High school education is aimed at helping students consolidate and develop the outcomes of lower secondary education, complete high school education and common knowledge about technology and career guidance for further college education, college, professional secondary school, apprenticeship or enter the working life. Thus, the term general education is a term with broad connotation including primary education, lower secondary education (basic education period) and upper secondary education (education period) career orientation. Within the scope of this research, we use the term school governance used to mean a mode of action, which is directed toward the goal of being accomplished effectively, by and through others. Governance activities are indispensable activities that arise when people work together to accomplish goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: ChatGPT; artificial intelligence; chatbot; education technology; machine learning; dental education; natural language processing
Online: 28 February 2023 (08:18:33 CET)
Background and Purpose: Open-source Artificial intelligence (AI) applications are fast transforming access to information and allow students to prepare assignments and offer quite accurate responses to a wide range of exam questions which are routinely used in assessments of students across the board including undergraduate dental students. This study aims to evaluate the performance ChatGPT, an AI-based application, on a wide range of dental assessments and discusses the implications for undergraduate dental education. Methods: This was an exploratory study investigating the accuracy of ChatGPT to attempt a range of recognized assessments in undergraduate dental curricula. ChatGPT was used to attempt ten items based on each of the five commonly used question formats including single-best answer (SBA) multiple-choice questions (MCQs); short answer questions (SAQs); short essay questions (SEQs); True/False questions and fill in the blanks items. In addition, ChatGPT was used to generate reflective reports based on multisource feedback (MSF); research methodology; critical appraisal of the literature. Results: ChatGPT application provided accurate responses to majority of knowledge-based assessments based on MCQs, SAQs, SEQs, Tue/False and fill in the blanks items. However, it was only able to answer text-based questions and did not allow processing of questions based on images. Responses generated to written assignments were also of good quality apart from those for critical appraisal of literature. Word count was the key limitation observed in outputs by ChatGPT as it was only able to produce reports limited to approximately 650 words. Conclusion: Notwithstanding their current limitations, AI-based applications have the potential to revolutionize virtual learning. Instead of treating it as a threat, dental educators need to adapt teaching and assessments in dental education to the benefits of the learners whilst mitigating against dishonest use of AI-based applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: NEP; new education policy; Indian education system; technology in education; outcome based education
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:39:53 CEST)
Bridging the gap between traditional education and matching the pace of education with the rest of the world, Govt. of India implemented a new education policy this year which was much awaited for a long time. The new education policy is a big step to change India's overall education scenario by changing the examination pattern. However, this new type of decision-making process seeks to ensure that it achieves great benefits covering all uncovered elements while keeping technology as a parameter, so this new policy in the previous education system is also missing some key issues that must be addressed in the next amendments. Making it an example of impact, this paper describes salient issues where new educational policies are silent or those grey areas have been only superficially touched upon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0333.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: practical engineering education; remote practicals; blended learning
Online: 15 September 2020 (06:13:10 CEST)
At the start of 2020 the rapid onset of the coronavirus pandemic forced higher education institutions across the world to pivot from face to face to remote teaching. For teaching methods that involve the transmission and dissemination of verbal/visual information between academic staff and students, video technologies provided immediate methods to respond to the restricted access to campus. Practical activities, that usually involve interaction with equipment, presented a greater challenge to adapt for remote delivery. With restrictions on higher education being partially lifted, many institutions worldwide intend to offer blended learning, prioritizing in-person activities that are troublesome to deliver online, such as practicals. Social distancing measures are reducing capacity and placing increased pressure on space, creating a need to optimise limited time students have in the lab and strategies to determine which activities can best utilize this limited resource. Time is constrained, leaving little opportunity to make radical changes to learning and teaching structures. In this publication, The department of Mulicdipalnary Engineering Education (MEE) at the University of Sheffield, utilise their experiences in practical teaching to provide simple, implementable ideas for blended practicals which maximize students’ learning and experiences within the envelope of available resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0771.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: scientific competence; competence-based education; educational planning; Education for Sustainable Development; evaluation of digital resources
Online: 29 November 2019 (03:17:18 CET)
Educating for Sustainability involves promoting sustainable competences in students. Not in vain, wider societal changes that ensure a balance between economic growth, respect for the environment and social justice must start with individual actions, implying knowledge, capacity and willingness to act. However, and although there is wide consensus that education should promote the development of competences for life, putting this theoretical tenet into may entail more problems. Competence is most often expressed in general terms without a specific definition of the intervening elements (knowledge, skills, values, attitudes), which may collide with the necessity of teachers – as learning planners - concrete entities on which to base their process of design. So that, in this work we propose a series of indicators that serve to characterize the four dimensions of scientific competence – contents of science, contents about science, value of science and utility of science-. Although they are primarily intended to be used to filter multimedia resources in an educational platform, this proposal of indicators can be extrapolated to the management and selection of a variety of resources and activities, and for sharing the objectives and evidences for the acquisition of competencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sexual education; affective education; health education; school; qualitative research.
Online: 4 February 2021 (15:30:56 CET)
Sexual education is a part of the teaching-learning process that addresses cognitive, psychological, physical and social aspects of sexuality. The purpose of sexual education is to provide people with knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values that will help them to have good sexual health, well-being and dignity. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and opinions of primary school teachers regarding Sexual Education in school. A descriptive qualitative study was designed based on content analysis. Twelve open-ended interviews with primary school teachers were carried out, followed by inductive data analysis using ATLAS.ti software. Two key themes emerged from the analysis: ‘In search of a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education’ and ‘Barriers to Sexual Education in schools: From the lack of training to fear of the families’. We conclude that despite the efforts to implement a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education that recognises sexuality as a right, primary school teachers face difficulties in delivering Sexual Education in schools due to a lack of training and the fear that parents will reject their children being spoken to about sexuality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: System dynamics; Education; Teaching; Learning; Systemsthinking
Online: 19 October 2022 (02:13:49 CEST)
This article addresses a challenge modeling novices face in model conceptualization: the recognition of behavior modes. Despite behavior modes being at the heart of system dynamics modeling, there is no unifying taxonomy for them, making them harder to learn for beginners. The article proposes criteria a taxonomy should satisfy, critically reviews previous taxonomies in the literature, and then introduces a new consistent taxonomy based on slope and curvature with mode names that refer only to visual cues and free of references to prior mathematical or domain-specific knowledge. Evidence from an exploratory experiment suggests that novices actually have difficulties classifying curves when using previous taxonomies. Links from these elementary modes to analogous terms in other taxonomies in diverse disciplines allow this taxonomy to be related to other ones. The article concludes by mentioning relevant limitations and future steps.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0511.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: review; misinformation; online education; research; discipline
Online: 30 August 2021 (10:26:50 CEST)
Misinformation research has grown to become a critical topic in all disciplines. Since the expanding of online media, misinformation has been spreading rapidly across the globe through social media and other information systems. Paralleling the rise of academic interest in misinformation, is the emergence of online education scholarship. Interest in the online educational implications of misinformation and its impact attracts an increase in scholarship on misinformation. This article presents the results of a review of 1172 publications with “Misinformation” across disciplines and a subset of 174 misinformation literature in online education that were published between 2009 and 2021. This review answers three questions: (1) What is the overall distribution of publication activity with "misinformation" publications? (2) What methodologies have scholars used to investigate misinformation involving online education? (3) What have scholars reported about the results of studies involving misinformation in online education? The review reveals that various methodologies were used in literature focusing on misinformation online education with leading numbers of content analysis and quantitative studies. This systematic review is particularly relevant to those online educators in various disciplines who are interested in learning what scholars from their own academic disciplines are writing about misinformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: learning management system; integrated planning and advising system; information system; field education; social work; graduate education
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:28:58 CEST)
In graduate programs such as social work, field education is the signature pedagogy of education. As such, student placement with an appropriate field education agency is critical to ensure academic success and career readiness. A variety of Learning Management System (LMS) and Integrated Planning and Advising Service (IPAS) technologies have been developed to fully integrate technology into the educational system and streamline and improve the learning experience for students, educators, and administrators. Few (if any) of the existing solutions have capabilities to match students with field educators on the basis of an individual student’s completed coursework and area of specialization, as well as field educator needs and opportunities. This paper describes our experience developing a custom LMS/IPAS system—the School of Social Work information System (SSWiS)—that was designed specifically for student learning, faculty advising, and academic administration within our social work graduate program. We present the challenges that motivated the design of the SSWiS before describing the architecture and functionality of our solution. We then discuss our preliminary evaluation results. We conclude with a discussion of the benefits and limitations of our system in the context of today’s technical needs in graduate education in social work and other fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0515.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Positive education; Pygmalion effect; learned helplessness; lifelong education; adult education
Online: 29 November 2021 (07:52:15 CET)
Positive education is seen as a transformative methodological approach capable of improving the act of teaching and learning and, above all, essential for the development of students' personal skills and competences. However, few studies have been carried out on this subject in the field of lifelong and adult education. This study works with a sample of 399 people over 16 years of age and students of the Universidad Popular de Dos Hermanas in order to show the relationship between the Pygmalion effect and learned helplessness in the process of acquiring knowledge in adulthood. In this way, three tools were used: a questionnaire that showed teachers' perceptions of students' qualities and behaviour and two that provided information on self-concept, self-esteem, personal and social skills and other variables directly related to emotional intelligence and positive education. It shows how exposure to negative operational conditioning factors influences the psychosocial and socio-educational development of students in every possible way, while on the other hand, it indicates the importance of positive education to compensate for this phenomenology by improving the development and growth of those who study and participate in non-formal education. Likewise, the factorial interrelation of both positive and negative conditioning factors and their incidence on learning is shown; the importance of neutralising the negative components and strengthening the positive reinforcement and the role played by the community and education professionals as catalysts and behavioural modulators at any stage of learning and age group for the achievement of the objectives of the student and of education itself in a broad sense
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0562.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: ICT; digital competence; innovative education; primary education; early childhood education
Online: 23 March 2021 (10:40:16 CET)
Digital Educational Recourses (DER) have undergone a rapid evolution and integration into the educational contexts. Teachers play a fundamental role in incorporating technology into their classrooms, so it is important to identify the value that teachers on DER and reflect on the implications for their practice. Through the qualitative methodology the necessary data is obtained with open-response inter-views with teachers. This dataset was analysed and categorised using AQUAD. The results suggest that teachers acknowledge the importance of integrating digital re-sources into their classrooms, although there was no consensus regarding the appropriate level at which to do so. Further the inter-views revealed that younger teachers tend to use more self-elaborated or selected resources. Teachers noted the benefits of using technology, especially in regard to maintaining student motivation, how-ever they also highlighted a number of extrinsic challenges and limitations. The results indicate there is a relationship between teachers’ perceptions and their practice, although this could be improved.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0125.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: escape rooms; education; student engagement; game based learning
Online: 3 March 2021 (10:52:16 CET)
It’s always a challenge for a teacher to get their students to be more engaged or active in the classroom. Engagement happens when students are interested in the subject, have fun, and feel welcome in the classroom. But how do we make students more engaged? To make this happen, Educational escape rooms were introduced into studies. In this paper, we will discuss about the creation and evaluation of educational escape rooms within an engineering learning context. As part of our research project, four educational escape rooms were created for students and surveys were conducted among them to evaluate the success of our project. Our ﬁndings indicate that the escape room learning model is well accepted by the students. As a result of the activity, high levels of dedication and enthusiasm are recorded and students shows the eagerness to do more escape room activities.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: knowledge; attitude; education; gender; preparedness
Online: 16 April 2020 (05:48:53 CEST)
The aims of the study to analyze the influence of knowledge, attitude, education and gender of the head of the family for household preparedness against flood from Bengawan Solo River in Kedungdowo Village, Balen District of Bojonegoro Regency. The method used in this study is survey method. This study is explanatory observational research. Population studied is 85 head of families from Kedungdowo Village, Balen District, Bojonegoro Regency. The sampling method for collecting the data from the families is stratified random sampling. Data analysis methods used in this study are descriptive statistical analysis and logistic regression analysis with a 95% confidence level to identify the level of preparedness and the relationship between factors that affect preparedness. The findings shows that knowledge, attitude, education and gender significantly influence household preparedness against Bengawan Solo flood. Attitude is the most dominant variable that influenced household preparedness
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0176.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: bioethics; health promotion; higher education
Online: 15 May 2019 (15:33:00 CEST)
This research is part of the Doctoral thesis "Perceptions of university professors on Health Promotion and Sustainability: a research proposal based on Health Promoting Universities (HPU) / World Health Organization (WHO) ", University Fernando Pessoa (UFP) / Porto - Portugal, authored by Ivaní Nadir Carlotto: (1) Background: Universities are essential institutions for health promotion (HP). Bioethics, as a transversal discipline, seeks to analyse and systematise these values in an ethical way, strengthening the synergy between health and HP. Ecological models are a possibility to develop health actions in a holistic, sustainable and salutogenic way, stimulating positive aspects related to ethics, well-being and quality of life; (2) Methods: Exploratory-descriptive methodology and quantitative-qualitative approach. Sample: Teachers from 9 higher education institutions (HEI), random sample, probabilistic for convenience, CI = 95%, n = 1400 persons; (3) Results: Production of 6 main components through Factorial Analysis categorized and interpreted by Qualitative Content Analysis and MAXQDA® software; (4) Conclusions: Universities function as research and learning venues to strengthen HP's activities. Bioethics and HP aim to build qualified actions in health, to defend and promoting well-being, quality of life, equity, inclusion, sustainability and social justice, with the proper conceptual clarity that distinguishes it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0245.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Pan-Africanism; history; colonialism; globalization; education
Online: 14 August 2018 (05:57:51 CEST)
Our paper examines the place of Pan-Africanism as an educational, political, and cultural movement which had a lasting impact on the on the relationship between liberation and people of African descent, in the continent of Africa and the Diaspora. We also show its evolution, beginning with formerly enslaved Africans in the Americas, to the colonial borders of the 1884 Berlin Conference, and conclude with the independence movements in Africa. For formerly enslaved Africans, Pan-Africanism was an idea that helped them see their commonalities as victims of racism. That is, they realized that they were enslaved because they came from the same continent and shared the same racial heritage. They associated the continent of Africa with freedom. The partitioning of Africa at the Berlin Conference (colonialism) created pseudo-nation states out of what was initially seen as an undivided continent. Pan-Africanism provided an ideology for rallying Africans at home and abroad against colonialism, and the creation of colonial nation-states did not erase the idea of a united Africa. As different African nations gained political independence, they took it upon themselves to support those countries fighting for their independence. The belief, then, was that as long as one African nation was not free, the continent could not be viewed as free. The existence of nation-states did not imply the negation of Pan-Africanism. The political ideas we examine include those of Marcus Garvey, W.E.B. Du Bois, Kwame Nkrumah, and Thabo Mbeki.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0551.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; preschool education; inclusion; public policies
Online: 9 May 2023 (03:41:10 CEST)
In this study, we analyze the perspectives of Early Childhood Educators, working in various teaching sectors, on Inclusion in Preschool Education, following the publication of Decree-Law No. 54/2018, of July 6th, at a time when Learning and Inclusion Support Measures are being extended to all children, and when the SARS-CoV-19 (COVID-19) pandemic prevails in Portugal and worldwide. Based on a mixed-methodological approach and the application of a questionnaire survey to 250 Early Childhood Educators, we reflect on the implementation of the legal framework, the involvement of the Multidisciplinary Learning and Inclusion Support Team (EMAEI), teacher training, pedagogical/collaborative work, and support mobilized for Preschool Education children. The results obtained indicate quality and effectiveness in the pedagogical plan and collaborative work between teachers and specialist technicians, although higher education in the field of Inclusive Education does not seem to provide professionals with the necessary and in-depth knowledge on the subject. They also indicate that, alongside dissatisfaction with the insufficient support provided to Preschool Education children, the relevant Diploma is not fully applied, with doubts still remaining about its application.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Medical education; Linking research and education
Online: 10 July 2020 (15:59:53 CEST)
On the 30thanniversary of the Karolinska Institutet Summer Research School for High School students an evaluation was carried out of the school’s activities. The evaluation was performed by questionnaire sent to 533 former students and also by searching the KI course registration database for all former students who went on to register in under- or postgraduate education at KI. Approximately half of all former Summer School students performed their undergraduate studies at KI, predominantly in the medical program. Those were far more likely to choose a research-oriented education than their peers. KI Medical students who previously attended the Summer School were also more likely to later register for PhD education than their peers who did not attend the summer school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0528.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education; Health; Emotions; Materials; Physical Education; Emotional Intelligence; Emotional Education; Elderly
Online: 31 August 2022 (02:46:14 CEST)
This research is aimed at the knowledge of the effectiveness of the material resources in the sensa-tions of exploratory procedures in 365 older people who take part in the physical activity that the Sport Municipal Institute (SMI) offers in the different sports centers assigned to it in the city of Se-ville, using a descriptive design and with a questionnaire developed and validated previously by the Delphi method; showing the relationship between the basic emotions that seniors experience when handling sport, and the materials. So it is claimed that exist a relation between older people, which practice exercise with the materials that they use on it.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: mathematics education; special education; problem solving; critical mathematics education; disability studies
Online: 13 April 2017 (10:11:23 CEST)
Students with disabilities are often framed as “the problem” and have limited opportunities to engage in standards based mathematics, leading to persistent underachievement. In this paper, we investigate a research divide between mathematics educational research for students with and without disabilities, a divide with significant differences in the theoretical orientations and research methodologies used to understand learners. Based on an analysis of 149 mathematics educational research articles published between 2013 and 2015, we found significant differences between articles focused on learners with and without disabilities. For those with disabilities, mathematical problem solving was understood primarily from behavioral and information processing theoretical perspectives, while for those without disabilities, problem solving was understood primarily through constructivist and sociocultural perspectives. While 86% of research on problem-solving including students with disabilities was quantitative, only 35% of research on students without disabilities was quantitative. Fifty percent of problem-solving research on students without disabilities was qualitative, compared to only 6% of research on students with disabilities. Problem solving, then, is studied in very different ways for learners with and without disabilities. Students without disabilities are studied through close analysis of learning, often individual. Students with disabilities are most often studied quantitatively, in groups, with little analysis of individual thinking. By offering only a limited range of methods and theoretical orientations, this research divide reifies deficit constructions of students with disabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0032.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: model based diagnosis; applications; diagnosis; physiotherapy; education
Online: 4 January 2020 (06:34:25 CET)
Many physiotherapy treatments begin with a diagnosis process. The patient describes symptoms, upon which the physiotherapist decides which tests to perform until a final diagnosis is reached. The relationships between the anatomical components are too complex to keep in mind and the possible actions are abundant. A trainee physiotherapist with little experience naively applies multiple tests to reach the root cause of the symptoms, which is a highly inefficient process. This work proposes to assist students in this challenge by presenting three main contributions: (1) A compilation of the neuromuscular system as components of a system in a Model-Based Diagnosis problem; (2) The PhysIt is an AI-based tool that enables an interactive visualization and diagnosis to assist trainee physiotherapists; and (3) An empirical evaluation that comprehends performance analysis and a user study. The performance analysis is based on evaluation of simulated cases and common scenarios taken from anatomy exams. The user study evaluates the efficacy of the system to assist students in the beginning of the clinical studies. The results show that our system significantly decreases the number of candidate diagnoses, without discarding the correct diagnosis, and that students in their clinical studies find PhysIt helpful in the diagnosis process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Childhood experiences; Adolescent experiences; UAE; Women; Leadership de-velopment; Qualitative research; Semi-structured interviews; Document analysis; Diary writing; Family upbringing; Cultural values; Education; Societal expectations
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:45:33 CEST)
This research paper aimed to explore the impact of childhood and adolescent experiences on the leadership development of Emirati women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Using a qualitative research methodology, the study utilized in-depth narrative semi-structured interviews, document analysis, and diary writing to understand the complex issue of leadership development. Findings indicate that childhood and adolescent experiences, including family upbringing, education, culture, and societal expectations, have significant impacts on the leadership development of Emirati women. Specifically, family upbringing and cultural values shape Emirati women's leadership aspirations and behaviors, while education and societal expectations provide opportunities and barriers for women's leadership development. The implications of these findings for policymakers and practitioners seeking to promote women's leadership development in the UAE are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Gamification education; manufacturing shopfloor; virtual reality; student engagement
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:01:29 CEST)
This paper shares our work in developing and implementing an immersive gamification training platform for students who undergo manufacturing shopfloor training at the School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore. In this gamification training platform, we developed a virtual manufacturing shopfloor that is identical to the actual shopfloor located in the school. Students have the freedom to learn the manufacturing shopfloor operations and safety acts through the various game scenarios and training tasks which include workshop safety, CNC machine introduction, CNC machining dynamics, MES, etc. In addition, the assessment feature with immediate feedback were embedded within the gamification platform, which aim to help students to assess their level of understanding and help teachers to monitor the learning progress of their students. To investigate the impact of this gamification training platform on students’ learning outcome and motivation in manufacturing shopfloor technologies and safety acts, a pilot study was conducted in AY2018 semester 2 for a total 134 students from 4 classes of digital & precision engineering diploma. It is found that gamification can be integrated effectively into manufacturing education to motivate students and enhance their learning effectiveness. Based on the collected data from the technical quizzes and satisfactory survey, the results showed that the integration of gamification into the classroom learning not only added a stimulating and captivating game-like layer to the learning experience of the students, but also provided a safe environment for students to learn without fear of making errors. Challenges faced in implementing this gamification training platform will also be discussed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0340.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cyberlearning; educational innovation; higher education; online learning; student voice
Online: 25 February 2022 (15:20:55 CET)
Many assumptions exist about online learning and its impact on college students. Hitherto, the views of those meant to be the beneficiaries of this technology have been given little consideration despite the fact that students use cyberspace for academic work and beyond. This qualitative case-study report is based on research conducted by college students at a private university in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The aim was to examine the online learning experiences of their peers during the first wave of the coronavirus global pandemic, with a view to understand how prepared their university is for an academic genre located in cyberspace. The findings are based on the perspectives of 2,298 college students responding to a survey administered to the entire student population comprising around 9,000 individuals. They suggest that increasing opportunities for cyberlearning could have positive effects on students. Also provided is cautionary advice about the need to improve teaching pedagogies and combat academic dishonesty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0380.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Chatbot technology; Artificial intelligence; Computer Science Education
Online: 18 August 2021 (13:57:15 CEST)
The number of AI applications in education is growing every day. One recent AI application in the educational sector is Chatbot technology, which is used to support teaching and administrative tasks. This document presents the design and implementation of a Chatbot called Tashi-Bot that helps applicants and university students to obtain information from an educational institution about certain academic and administrative processes. Among these are processes related to well-being, tuition, costs, admission, and other services. In order to design the Chatbot, an analysis of the state of the art, methodologies, and suitable tools was carried out, and a survey was conducted to discover the needs of users and their preferences in the use of a Chatbot for this specific purpose. Tashi-Bot was implemented on the SnatchBot platform and later deployed on a Telegram channel. In its evaluation, a final survey was carried out to check on the satisfaction of the users. The results suggest that Tashi-Bot could help applicants and university students to find information on academic and administrative processes with great certainty and without the need for human interaction. Tashi-Bot can be found at: https://web.telegram.org/#/im?p=@TashiE_Bot..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0752.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: education; human machine interaction; azure kinect; mathematics
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:36:37 CEST)
The way in which the human being learns certain complex contents has always been a focus of interest and a challenge for researchers. Given the fact that children's cognitive abilities do not fully develop until a certain age, this topic is particularly important in the young children's learning scope as they do not correctly and easily learn some content of abstract nature, such as contents in math class. This work presents the results of the use of an application called "Mathematics Learning System with Augmented Reality based on Kinect" (SAM-RAK by its acronym in Spanish), which was designed to cover basic topics of mathematics in the Basic General Education level (EGB by its acronym in Span-ish) in Ecuador. The research was carried out under an experimental quantitative approach with 30 children (18 girls and 12 boys), who study in third grade of EGB level, from 2 different educational in-stitutions in Riobamba city. In order to obtain the results that evaluate the developed application, a pre-test and a post-test were applied, which were contrasted with the student’s t-test for paired samples. The statistical evidence suggests that the proposed computer system had a positive effect on children's performance, when it was used as a support tool in the classroom. The system was more effective in low performance children compared to those of high performance. It was also proved that children were motivated and showed positive attitudes when using the proposed System.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: circular economy; eco-design; business education; economics education; competencies; Management Education; ADKAR
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:57:09 CEST)
The Circular Economy is matter of recent discussions and quite popular, however the meaning has not been understood by most Business stakeholders. This Case study proposes to illustrate the Circular Economy importance and its status now. The contribution that UAE education sector can make to the Circular Economy is immense and is the focus of this study. Circular Economy awareness and its inner meaning can be only spread by the education sector and the author emphasizes the role of the education can play in implementing the Circular Economy. The study shows the way for the future Managers and Business stakeholders to participate in this crucial endeavor of Businesses to follow the Circular Economy. The ADKAR change management can be adopted to inspire the CE initiatives of the UAE Education sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0010.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Project Based Learning; Scientific education; Preservice primary teacher; Emotions; Active Methodologies; Higher Education for Sustainable Development
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:13:23 CET)
The emotional dimension in education has become increasingly important in recent decades. Enhancing the emotional dimension of prospective teachers in science subjects is higher education stuff responsibility. The implementation of active methodologies could modify the traditional student-teacher roles that are encouraged by the educational policies implemented in the Bologna Process. The principal aim of this work is to describe a Project Based Learning methodology and to introduce it as potential resource for the emotional and cognitive improvement of 19 prospective primary teachers enrolled in a scientific subject. This is a qualitative study with a transversal sustainability approach in the context of a research line focused on Higher Education for Sustainable Development. A questionnaire was designed and filled by the students at two different times, before and after implementation of the activity. The initial feedback from students was surprisingly enthusiastic by the fact that they were working with rockets, despite of this is not a common emotion in the science field. The results show the emotional improvement of prospective teachers after the implementation. It is concluded that a correct science education is necessary during the training of teachers taking into account their emotional dimension and the social repercussion due to the future transmission.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0279.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: global health; planetary health education; climate change; healthcare professionals; curriculum development; sustainable healthcare education; mini review
Online: 16 August 2022 (05:36:28 CEST)
The emerging concept of planetary health needs to be discussed in a more organized and sustainable way within the global public health and healthcare disciplines. Therefore, planetary health should be considered a cardinal component of the global academic framework for healthcare professionals. The availability of related curricula and courses is crucial to equip health professionals in this relatively new discipline of planetary health. In this review article, we aimed to explore published articles and online databases of courses to summarize the available planetary health education opportunities and discussions for health professionals, to identify the gaps in resource allocation and to suggest future recommendations. We observed a visible re-source inequity in global south with the lack of a universal planetary health module for healthcare professionals. Additionally, there is minimal inclusion of allied health disciplines in this learning process. We, therefore, recommend a dedicated network of motivated healthcare professionals and regional hubs with an agenda to ensure a comprehensive, uniform, and inclusive planetary health education curriculum and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0348.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: character education; the millennial generation; digital era
Online: 14 June 2021 (10:36:05 CEST)
Character education is essential for the current millennial generation and must be applied in everyday life in the surrounding community. The character of the millennial generation is different from the previous generation, which requires us to pay more attention to character education which is starting to erode along with the times. The Millennial generation is a generation that in everyday life can never be separated from science and technology. In this digital era, the millennial generation has a social function of strength in technology. In this study, there are research questions that will be discussed in this article, namely the first regarding what problems occur in the millennial generation who occupy the digital era?. Second, what is the important role and influence of the digital era on character education for the millennial generation in Indonesia?. Writing this article uses a qualitative research method, namely a literature review study, where researchers use or look for references from journals or books. Samples of respondents were taken randomly from each region, and there were ten respondents. From this research, it is found that the millennial generation in the digital era chooses to use social media to access the latest news and information rather than reading print media that contains education. This article aims to find out the importance of character education for the millennial generation, which is starting to erode with the times in the digital era. Many people underestimate character education, especially for the current millennial generation. Therefore, we must implement educational programs at any level, especially in Indonesia, because the character shows the national identity. This article will discuss the vital role and influence of character education for millennials who live in the digital era to be aware of the importance of character education in citizenship.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: beginning teachers; teaching induction; teacher education
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:53:20 CEST)
The objective of this research-action, teaching and extension project was to support the beginning teacher, who graduated from the Pedagogy courses at UFF-INFES and UFRRJ/IE, raising the difficulties and solutions of this teacher's pedagogical practice, as well as implementing and analyzing strategies of professional induction of the newly graduated professor by the proposed pilot course with a focus on promoting dialogue between university and school. This project was aimed at graduates of Pedagogy courses who started as teachers in the early years of elementary school and early childhood education (with less than 5 years as a teacher). These teachers participated in two pilot courses (one in 2021 and the other in 2022) to help recent graduates in their professional induction through innovative actions that help them to take a leading role in their practices. For this, we seek to investigate: the impact of this program on their professional induction through narrative interviews, accompany them in this process and analyze the difficulties and solutions they found in their pedagogical practice as a result of the help that the project offered them; the role of mentors (teachers running the school) and the University at the beginning of their professional activities. Finally, we concluded that this course worked as a support for beginning teachers, allowing for greater reflection and better professional performance, as well as a way to reduce the shock of reality, demotivation and teacher abandonment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0237.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Higher Education Act; Higher Education; Zambia; Universities
Online: 13 January 2023 (06:33:31 CET)
The higher education act of 2013 with its amendment act of 2021 was enacted to guide and regulate the provision of higher education in Zambia. This conceptual paper sought to assess the impact of this act in the higher education sector. It was qualitative in design and data was collected using content analysis. In this regard, literature regarding the Zambia higher education act and higher education provisions were scrutinised. The findings show that the higher education act has resulted in the creation of the higher education authority (HEA) which has brought sanity to the higher education sector by compelling all higher education institutions to be registering themselves and programmes with HEA. Further, the HEA has developed a policy for the promotion of academic staff in the higher education sector. However, the higher education act (the amended act of 2021) has negatively impacted the higher education sector. The amended act outlawed the spirit of accountability in the running of universities by removing stakeholders such as unions from sitting on the university council. Further, the act has reduced the number of councillors to sit on the council to run public universities from 16 to 8, thereby limiting the diversity of membership to the council. Furthermore, the higher education act has opened higher education institutions' affiliations to even private universities with little or no capacity, thereby further compromising the quality of higher. The Act has also increased the cost of running universities by introducing additional administrative structures in universities. Based on the above findings, the paper recommends that the Act be amended to remove the retrogressive clauses highlighted in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0257.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: health education; secondary school; physical education teacher
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:42:33 CEST)
Preparation of students for adult life also includes the area of health care. Health education is part of the core curriculum of Polish schools. The leading role of the health educator is assumed by the physical education teacher, but many other educational tasks are carried out by all school staff. The present study attempts to answer the question: How is health education implemented at school? The research project was carried out among students of various colleges in the city of Szczecin in Poland. At the same time, similar studies were conducted among students from other university in other cities. The research method was a diagnostic survey, with the main assessment tool being the ‘Questionnaire for Assessment of Implementation of Physical Education at Secondary School’ by Krystyna Górna-Łukasik from the Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice. On the basis of the study results, an attempt was made to determine the forms and methods of work and the involvement of various types of teachers in health education. The statistical analysis sought correlations between the students' opinions about the ways in which the curriculum content was implemented, university majors, and PE teachers’ sex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0450.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable education; gender effect; physics education; sustainability
Online: 27 August 2018 (10:58:59 CEST)
Determination of the parameters of the movement of surrounding objects, and in particular their speed, is one of the basic skills of a human being. The study of development of basic concepts of motion has been done for years with different methods and in different contexts. We have analyzed the effect of the physical/scientific image of the world introduced to children by school education and its long- and short-term cognitive consequences. Our studies showed that children differentiate the concept of speed into two more specific concepts: average speed and instantaneous velocity. In the present work we present how the gender context is superimposed on this general picture. We found that initial, genuine pre-school concept of speed of girls and boys is, on average, different. Our analysis shows also that this gender effect vanishes quickly together with the appearance of physical definitions of kinematical quantities in physics/science curricula. We discuss also methodological aspect of the statistical ‘gender gap’ measure and we calculated the gender effect chance probability, p-value, to be slightly less than 0.001. The importance of observed effect for the sustainable science teaching processes is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: physical education, emotions, social skills, primary education
Online: 19 April 2018 (16:43:03 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to explore the intensity of emotions and social skills in a physical education teaching unit (PE). Two instruments of analysis are used: the GES (Games and Emotion Scale) to evaluate emotions and an ad-hoc questionnaire to measure the social skills of 21 students in the sixth year of primary education. The data analysis was carried out using a generalised estimating equation model (GEE), taking into account the correlation between the different scores of the same subject and the asymmetry of the data. The results show positive emotions to be significantly more intense than negative ones and ambiguous emotions are revealed throughout all the PE sessions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: competition; trust; team; evaluation; vocational training; leadership education
Online: 1 March 2023 (07:59:24 CET)
The research question in this article concerns how a competitive environment affects the learner (officer cadet's) personal leadership development and their relationship to their team and with future civilian foundations. More specifically, what are the possible learning effects of the “hidden” curriculum? This article investigates how a more than 250 years of leadership education provides new army officers with new skills and how such an environment may affect the cadets' leadership training. The paper builds on ethnographic data gathered during the three-year education program in most of the relevant practical locations and contexts. Findings regarding trust in their learning environment, cadets have reported scores of (Mean 2.83) on a 1 (low trust) to 5 (high trust) Likert scale, underpinning interviewdata regarding the lack trust in the academy and in their fellow cadets. Cadets also point out that competition has hindered their learning (Mean 2.50). These findings are interpreted in relation to possible negative effects stemming from internal competition and the evaluation system as a whole. The overall output of this system is a zero–sum game, and thus effects evaluative practices and learning processes. This study is of relevance to higher education officers responsible for designing learning environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: earth buildings; residential construction; awareness; education; New Zealand
Online: 15 July 2022 (05:48:48 CEST)
The construction of earth buildings, both throughout history and in the current day, is well-established worldwide. Despite New Zealand's pre- and post-colonial history of earth construction, earth buildings as residential homes have not been well-received or popularised throughout present-day New Zealand. This research aims to identify the reasons for this lack of awareness and to determine methods that promote earth buildings in New Zealand. This research is based on data collected from semi-structured interviews conducted with subject matter experts and via an online questionnaire completed by members of the Earth Building Association New Zealand (EBANZ). The data collected revealed the experiences and perceptions of all participants regarding the advantages, challenges and promotion of earth buildings specific to New Zealand. Upon analysing these responses, key reoccurring themes were identified and compared. Regarding New Zealand's lack of awareness of earth buildings, interview and questionnaire participants responded that this shortcoming was due to earth construction being a very niche market and lacking commercial marketing. Education was the most frequently reoccurring theme raised by all participants as the top promotional tool for raising awareness of earth buildings. The results of this research can be applied to future work regarding obstacles that limit the growth of New Zealand's earth building industry, as well as research on the role of New Zealand's education system in exposing the next generation of builders, designers, and consumers to earth construction.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: inter-professional; education; pharmacist; medical; undergraduate; PSA
Online: 11 June 2018 (04:53:22 CEST)
Five years after the introduction of the Prescribing Safety Assessment (PSA) in the UK, the role pharmacists play to help prepare medical students for this challenge is uncertain. Our study explored pharmacists’ perceptions about their role in undergraduate medical training for the Prescribing Safety Assessment (PSA). Study participants were emailed a qualitative questionnaire aimed at ascertaining their current involvement in undergraduate medical education, particularly the preparation for PSA. Responses received were thematically-analysed. A total of 27 UK hospital pharmacists and 3 pharmacists from local education and training boards completed the questionnaire. Pharmacists were positive about their involvement in medical student training, recognising the added value they could provide in prescribing practice. However, respondents expressed concerns in relation to resource availability and the need for formal educational practice mentoring. This research highlights the potential value of pharmacists’ input into medical education and the need for a discussion on strategies to expand this role to maximise the benefit from pharmacist skill mix in teaching safe prescribing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1627.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Human Development Index; Education Index; Health Index; Standard of Living Index; Gross Domestic Product; Complex Adaptive Systems; Logarithmic Transformation; Sine Wave; Amplitude
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:40:39 CEST)
The complex adaptive systems (CAS) research study investigates into the theoretical link of a sustained economic growth as a critical pathway to lift people out of poverty and improve their quality of life. The results show a left-skewed global behavior of an economy-driven human development of 189 countries with 20% or 27 countries obtaining low human development; 80% or 162 countries obtaining medium to very high human development of which 21.16% or 39 countries with medium HDI, 53 or 28.04% or 53 countries with high HDI, and 31.22% or 59 countries with very high HDI. Using the Log (GDP) for visual transformation, closer investigation into the scatterplot diagram reveals that there are also bimodal patterns where countries in the high amplitude and low amplitude groups obtained different human development outcomes despite less or more on economic growth variances mirror on the government policy priorities resulting in four differentiating conditions. Very few countries experience virtuous cycles where both growth and human development are successful; few countries with vicious cycles where both are weak; and many countries with lopsided conditions where the economy is strong but human development is weak, or conversely ones where human development is strong but the economy is weak. The global pattern of economy and human development illustrated by an upward sinusoid or sine wave refutes the conventional linear approach. Uniquely and most importantly, the sinusoidal wave illustrates a decreasing amplitude and decreasing periods as countries manifest apparently complex behaviors that emerge as a result of often nonlinear spatio-temporal interactions among a large number of component systems at different levels of organizations and governments leading to an emergence of a behavior characterizing of a complex adaptive system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0176.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Virtual Reality; Learning Analytics; STEM Education; Instructional Design.
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:02:32 CEST)
The commercial popularity of Virtual Reality attracted educators’ interest and brought new opportunities to the educational landscape. At the same time, Learning Analytics emerged with the promise to revolutionise the traditional practices by introducing ways to systematically assess and improve the effectiveness of instruction. However, the collection of ‘big’ educational data is mostly associated with web-based platforms as they offer direct access to learners’ activities with minimal effort. On the antipode, the nature of VR limits the opportunities for such data collection. Hence, in the context of this work, we present a four-dimensional theoretical framework, that accounts the information that can be gathered from VR-supported instruction, and propose a set of structural elements which can be utilised for the development of a Learning Analytics prototype system. The outcomes of this work are expected to support practitioners to maximise the potential of their interventions and provide inspiration for new ones.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Zambia’s Higher Education Policy; Policies in Higher Education; Education and Policies in Zambia
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:46:40 CET)
Policies are adopted and implemented to achieve specific goals. In this regard, the Government of Zambia in 2019 adopted the higher education policy with many objectives which include, the expansion of access to higher education; reduction of gender and other forms of inequity in accessing higher education; the improvement of quality of higher education by increasing funding to higher education institutions, construction, and repair of infrastructure in higher and improvement in the provision of learning materials in higher education institutions (HEIs).This paper, therefore, sought to evaluate the higher education policy of 2019. The four criteria were used namely; effectiveness, equity, policy sustainability, and consistency. Other principles such as political and social acceptability of a policy were not used because the policy is already adopted and being implemented. Further, the principle of efficiency was not used because it would have been problematic to gauge the expenditure against the outcomes.The findings have revealed that the policy to some extent has been effective; some of the objectives such as increased access to higher education and reduction of inequality have been partially achieved. It has been established that the number of students pursuing higher education has been increased to 114,049 in 2020 from 91,969 in 2017. Further, in 2021, 48.5% of scholarships in public universities were awarded to female students while 51.5% were awarded to female students. Further, more students are encouraged to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and more women are pursuing studies in STEM-related fields. However, the policy has not helped to achieve the quality of higher education as funding in public HEIs has not improved. Further, infrastructure remains very poor and inadequate; and access to update and relevant learning materials also remains a challenge in HEIs. However, the policy seems to be duplicated by the recent re-launched Technical Education Vocation Entrepreneurship Training (TEVET) national policy.Given the above findings, it has been recommended that the government among other things improve funding and build infrastructure in public HEIs. There is also a need to harmonise the TEVET national policy with the higher education policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0026.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: reflective evaluation tool; pre-service teacher education; teaching competency; pre-service phys-ical education teacher; Delphi survey
Online: 2 June 2022 (04:44:37 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to develop a reflective evaluation tool that can enhance the teaching competency of pre-service physical education teachers. A Delphi survey was conducted to modify the questions based on the evaluation tool for the teaching competency of physical education teachers, and each evaluation standard based on teaching competency was developed. The evaluation tool consisted of 46 questions for class preparation (the creation of the learning environment), the introduction (routine activities, learning goals, and task presentation), development (class strategy, observation and interaction, and the maintenance of the learning environment), and conclusion (routine activities, summary, and closure). It was designed to increase the accuracy of evaluation by developing evaluation criteria for each question. An evaluation tool including quantitative and qualitative methods for use in pre-service physical education teacher education was developed. The significance of this study was the development of an effective evaluation tool that can evaluate the core teaching behaviors in the field of physical education. This evaluation tool should be used as a learning tool that includes planning, operation, evaluation, and seeking improvement measures through reflective activities. If pre-service teacher education institutions apply this evaluation tool in their teacher training programs, it would be a great chance to learn how to develop and sustain teaching abilities and effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: information technologies (I.T); sign language; hearing impairment; traditional games; primary school teaching; inclusive education; physical education
Online: 2 November 2021 (11:54:47 CET)
This article propose a didactic, through games, tool based on information and communication technologies, in order to eliminate possible communication barriers and to promote the inclusion of students with hearing impairment in Physical Education classes. To this end, a dossier of traditional games has been developed. These are structured in turn into objectives, materials, organisation, graphic description and a QR code for each game. These codes are linked to different videos hosted on the YouTube platform, in which the explanation of the games, mentioned above, can be visualised graphically using sign language. The whole creative process is described in the article, as well as possible pedagogical applications of the use of the tools created for this purpose in other educational contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0320.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Telecommunications Education; Active Learning; Educational Escape Rooms; Modulation
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:17:35 CET)
Traditional education, particularly at a university level isn’t necessarily very engaging1 or strong at building teamwork skills. Educational escape rooms are a recent game based learning2 approach which combines team based problem solving with a story-line and cryptic clues. In this3 paper we apply the concept of educational escape rooms to the telecommunications engineering4 classroombycreatingaseriesoftwoseparatescenarios,eachcontainingthreepuzzles. Ourevaluation5 is based on beta tester survey results which suggest that this will be an engaging and challenging6 tool for teaching telecommunications engineering. Although educational escape rooms are rapidly7 being deployed in education, these are the ﬁrst educational escape rooms that speciﬁcally addresses8 the ﬁeld of telecommunications engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0050.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Religious Education; Catholic schools; Catholic education; ecclesiastical drift
Online: 2 November 2022 (08:39:55 CET)
Just when Catholic school Religious Education (RE) needs to be more outwardly focused on the contemporary search for meaning, its discourse has ‘drifted’ almost so exclusively into ecclesiastical terminology that its value as a spiritual/moral subject is being eroded –creating an ever widening discontinuity with classroom realities and young people’s spirituality. Religious educators’ perceptions of this problem, labelled as ‘ecclesiastical drift’, were investigated. While ecclesiastical terms were respected, issues related to their excessive usage were identified. By contrast, the unanimous, positive endorsement of educational terms raises the question why such language is largely missing from many Catholic accounts of RE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Diversity; Equality; Dental Education; Career Progression; Higher Education
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:40:53 CET)
IntroductionDiversity is known to be important but diversity of staff working in dental schools in the UK and Ireland is low in comparison with the dental profession and the overall population. AimsTo provide a detailed snapshot of the diversity of dental academic staff in 2021 including staff working in academic and clinical roles.MethodsAn online survey was circulated to dental schools by Dental Schools Council. Questions included dates of graduation and key career milestones, demographics and indicators of esteem. Free text questions were also included.ResultsThere was a high degree of variability in dental academic careers which made direct comparisons difficult. Neither gender nor race appeared to be associated with a faster career progression. Females and those of racialised minority were less represented at the most senior grades. For those who had completed specialty training, racialised minority staff were far less likely to be working at consultant grade than their White equivalents.ConclusionThere are differences in career progression between staff in dental schools. The high amount of individual variability makes these difficult to quantify except at the most senior positions. Qualitative information is needed to contextualise the results and provide additional information.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Anatomy; Medical Education; Teaching; Students; Graduate Medical Education
Online: 14 June 2020 (04:20:42 CEST)
Background: During anatomy (topographic) chair, we prepared an anatomic piece of an older female pelvis (unknown causa mortis). Here, we present an anatomic piece prepared by medical students that helped us to better understand hypertrophic bladder pathophysiology. Methods: A traditional corpse dissection guided by an assistant professor. Results: Corpse dissection enhanced our personal experience during the medical course. It also helped us to better visualize how big a hypertrophic urinary bladder can become as the etiologic cause is not taken care. Conclusions: Despite virtual and 3D anatomy lessons, we believe corpse dissection must remain as a teaching strategy that can help to build a new generation of surgeons as well as honor the History of Medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0418.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: academic stress; psychological and physical well-being; adolescence; secondary education; validity; reliability; gender and age differences
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:32:43 CEST)
This study presents the validation process of the Questionnaire on Academic Stress in Secondary Education –QASSE-, designed to assess the wide variety of school sources and situations related to academic stress in adolescence, and their relationship with students’ physical and psychological well-being. Participants were 860 Spanish high school students (52.9% girls) with an average age of 14.62 years (SD = 1.8). Through a cross-validation process, EFA and CFA supported QASSE multifactorial structure with four first-order factors -academic overload, interaction with classmates, family pressure, and future-oriented perspective- and a second-order factor of academic stress, showing a significant and intense relationship with adolescents’ psychological and physical well-being. Results also highlight the effects of the gender*educational level interaction on the students’ stress, with girls showing higher levels of stress in the transition courses between educational phases (sophomore and junior years). The QASSE demonstrates good validity and reliability, showing potential for both research and educational application. The results show the high impact of the QASSE dimensions on psychological and physical well-being in adolescence, highlighting its special usefulness for designing and adjusting educational prevention and intervention actions in this area to the students’ specific characteristics and needs