REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0738.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: posterior capsule opacification, experimental studies, cell cultures, tissue cultures, animal model of PCO
Online: 28 April 2021 (10:08:38 CEST)
Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication of cataract surgery. It causes a gradual deterioration of visual acuity, which would otherwise remain improved after a successful procedure. Despite recent advances in ophthalmology, this complication has not been eradicated and the incidence of PCO can be as high as 10%. This article reviews the literature concerning the pathomechanism of PCO and examines the biochemical pathways involved in its formation and methods to prevent this complication. We also review the reported tests performed in cell cultures under laboratory conditions, in experimental animal models, and in ex vivo human lens capsules. Finally, we describe research involving human eyes in the clinical setting and pharmacological methods that may reduce the frequency of PCO. Due to the multifactorial eti-ology of PCO, in vitro studies make it possible to assess the factors contributing to its complica-tions and search for new therapeutic targets. Not all pathways involved in cell proliferation, mi-gration, and contraction of the lens capsule are reproducible in laboratory conditions; moreover, PCO in humans and laboratory animals may be additionally stimulated by various degrees of postoperative reactions depending on the course of surgery. Therefore, further studies are necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: glaucoma surgery; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; minimally invasive glaucoma surgery; glaucoma surgery patterns; COVID-19; trabeculectomy; canaloplasty; iStent
Online: 30 December 2021 (17:09:06 CET)
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. Surgical and pharmacological treatment of glaucoma aims to lower the intraocular pressure (IOP) and preserve visual function. The severe acute res-piratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has placed a strain on the healthcare system. We aimed to compare the quantity, type of anti-glaucoma surgeries, and the disease stage before and during the coronavirus disease pandemic. We analyzed 362 eyes of 306 patients and 172 eyes of 149 patients from the pre-pandemic and pandemic groups, respectively. The number of an-ti-glaucoma surgeries was halved during the pandemic compared to a similar pre-pandemic pe-riod, with a significant difference in the procedural structures between the two groups (p<0.001). The most common procedures in the pre-pandemic group were Ex-Press implantation (33.7%) and trabeculectomy (31.5%). Within the pandemic group, half of the eyes underwent tra-beculectomy (50.0%), followed by Preserflo microshunt (11.6%). A significant difference in the average IOPs was revealed among patients who qualified for surgery 22.21 ± 7.83 mmHg in the pre-pandemic group and 25.16 ± 9.48 mmHg in the pandemic group; p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the best corrected visual acuity between the groups (p=0.263). Glaucoma treatment remained relatively accessible during the pandemic.