SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1079.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: waterfall development; agile development; hybrid development; development models
Online: 17 July 2023 (08:38:44 CEST)
Diverse development models, including waterfall development, iterative development, and agile development, have been put forth and implemented across real-world contexts. When engaging in discussions on project management, the examination and exploration of development models assume paramount importance and are integral. This paper embarks upon an investigation and scrutiny of these development models, culminating in the proposition of "Quasi" Development Models: Quasi-Waterfall and Quasi-Agile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0648.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: sustainable development; systemic sustainable transport development; systemic development
Online: 26 September 2020 (16:23:05 CEST)
The concept of sustainability and sustainable development, especially systemic sustainable development, still raises controversy in literature. The article makes an attempt to re-examine these concepts from a systems perspective, seeking foundations and applications in the selected sector. It is becoming increasingly clear that sustainability and sustainable development are aimed at integrated economic, social, cultural, political, and ecological factors [1[, (pp.641-642). This causes that the constructive approach to the issue is required, taking into account all the actors, areas and dimensions involved in the pursuit of systemic sustainable development. As a result, both local and global dimensions and the way they interact must be explored in a multi-faceted manner in order to offer a perspective more useful than other analytical approaches, because the systems view is a way of thinking in terms of connectedness, relationships, and context . The article aims to review selected publications and studies so as to form the general idea of systemic sustainable development and define the systemic development of sustainable transport, including in particular the perspective of the actors of the sector, transport providers (passenger, urban) and transport development program, implemented both by local governments and on the European scale. An attempt was made to identify elements of the systemic sustainable development model, setting it in the reality of the following subcategories: “Society”, “Economy” and “Environment” in sectoral terms. It is supposed that, systemic sustainable development is a conglomerate of public administration entities, companies operating in the sector, individual and corporate customers, acting in certain conditions for economic, social and environmental well-being, and a number of their initiatives of major or minor significance, grouped in six sub-areas, undertaken to achieve systemic value in the examined sector, with a positive or negative business/economic, social and environmental impact.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Islamic development; economic development; waqf
Online: 7 March 2020 (02:38:25 CET)
Muslim countries witnessed outstanding intellectual and socio-economic prosperity up to the 18th century when they fell into a period of regression following the Ottoman’s global decline. Currently, economically Muslim societies lags behind the modern western world. Scholars hold different views, including the radical notion that Islam is inherently anti-development and thus resists progress. This study discusses the Islamic philosophy and principles of development in the context of institutional economics. The basic principles of Islamic economic development drawn from the Islamic sources and historical experiences will be explored for a better understanding of Muslims’ current condition. This study addresses questions including whether basic religious precepts caused Muslims’ economic underdevelopment, while examining the development process according to Muslim perspectives. The institutions, the organizations, rules, and applications will also be explored in addition to the impact of those institutions on development. The context of development will also be evaluated according to Western value perspective. A model of Islamic economic development will be discussed in addition to the discussions of institutions that contributed to the early development of the Islamic world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0478.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Software development; SDLC; Secure software development challenges; security development lifecycle
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:48:42 CEST)
The main focus of this paper is to analyze and discuss the secure software development practices currently being adopted in the industry along with their significance, as well as to identify the challenges faced by developers when undertaking measures and techniques in writing secure software. It is a well-known fact that software security has been the top priority of many software companies such as Google and Facebook to thwart attackers and protect user data in this world full of cybercriminals. Understanding how most software companies in the industry operate to ensure security helps developers to identify strengths and weaknesses in their current security frameworks. Hence, by researching into previous literature and papers that are relevant to the topic and by conducting an interview with a professional in the field, this paper provides insights on the most popular secure software development framework and practices in the world as well as problems faced by companies when adopting these practices. Several security practices and activities that are required to create secure software are discovered alongside the problems that arise when companies are trying to apply these practices. This paper also proposes a few solutions that can be used to resolve these problems, which can be easily understood and implemented by software companies to transition into a truly secure software development environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0473.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: team development; society development; maturity models
Online: 7 November 2022 (03:45:56 CET)
There are different Maturity, Motivation, and Development models. The models can be applied to the development of organizations, businesses, information technology infrastructure, human resources, and so on. This paper discusses society patterns that can be used in modeling society and team development. The model discussed has many advantages over existing ones. It assumes the Age of Creativity and the Creative Society Pattern as the upmost level of development. The patterns are juxtaposed with the 16 levels Simple Learning Motivation Hierarchy Model that allow modeling of dynamic processes with Expansion and Totality as the upmost levels. This approach eliminates the limitations of existing models and allows detailed modeling and planning. Explanation of the future development of humanity (up to the Age of Creativity) is one of the advantages of the model. The paper contains the description of the main peculiarities of society patterns and creates a basis for practical implementation of the model for society and team development. Organizations and teams can benefit from this model through its implementation in consulting and coaching processes. The model can be used in regional/organizational development and investment planning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Parenting; brain; development; fmri; child development
Online: 14 October 2020 (15:22:41 CEST)
Parenting has been robustly associated with offspring psychosocial development, and these effects are likely reflected in brain development. However, the claim that parenting influences offspring brain development in humans, as measured by structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), is subject to numerous methodological limitations. To interpret the state of the parenting and brain development literature, we review these limitations. Four limitations are common. First, most literature has been cross-sectional. Where longitudinal, studies rarely included multiple assessments of brain structure or function, precluding measurement of actual brain development. Second, parenting has largely been measured via selfor parent-report, as opposed to observational assessment. Third, there has been a focus on extreme forms of developmental adversity which do not necessarily lie on a continuum with normative parenting. Fourth, although not a limitation per se, studies have generally focused on negative as opposed to positive parenting behaviours. While not all studies are subject to all these limitations, the study of parenting in relation to offspring brain development is in its infancy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Community Radio; Holistic Development; Integrated Development; Sustainable Development; Community Radio Practices
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:59:05 CET)
Community radios play a paramount role in the development of the community. Community radio stations have been highly engaged in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, environmental, sanitation, and disaster issues effectively and strategically using local languages in context. Community radios are also used to express, and share indigenous views, thoughts, ideas, problems, and perspectives of local people. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the role of community radio for integrated and sustainable development in Ethiopia. It used a systematic narrative review. Nine research works and five assessments report were selected purposively and analyzed in a quantitative approach. Currently, in Ethiopia, there are 50 community radio stations that received broadcast licenses from Ethiopian Broadcast Authority with four types of licensing and broadcasting in 29 local languages. Community radio helps the community to identify their common goals, create holistic plans, monitor the progress of their developmental activities, and guide on sustainable development. It contributes to integrated and sustainable development in a collaborative and creative process that cultivates the social, economic, and political conditions needed for the community to succeed which aimed to improve and sustain the livelihoods of the community. However, the media can’t achieve its target goal to support the development activities and bring holistic development of the community. As a result; this review paper focuses on reviewing how Ethiopians use community radios for holistic development. And it suggested the way how we can use community radios for the prospective holistic development in Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1319.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: attention development; socioeconomic status; bilingualism; cognitive development
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:01:58 CEST)
Abstract: For decades, researchers have suggested the existence of a bilingual cognitive advantage, especially in tasks involving executive functions such as inhibition, shifting, and updating. Recently, an increasing number of studies have questioned whether bilingualism results in change in executive functions, highlighting conflicting data published in the literature. The present study compared the performance of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade bilingual and monolingual children on attentional and cognitive tasks. Participants were 61 monolingual and 74 bilingual children (M = 114.6 months; SD = 8.48 months) who were tested on two versions of the Attention Network Task (ANT), with and without social stimuli, as well as tests investigating working memory, short-term memory, narrative memory, and receptive vocabulary. Data on families’ socioeconomic status and children’s reasoning abilities were also collected. The results showed that bilingualism and socioeconomic status affected attentional networks in tasks involving social stimuli. In tasks involving non-social stimuli, socioeconomic status only affected the alerting and executive conflict networks. Consistent with the literature, a positive relationship emerged between socioeconomic status and executive control in the context of social stimuli, and a negative relationship emerged between socioeconomic status and the alerting network in the context of non-social stimuli. Interestingly, neither socioeconomic status nor social attentional networks correlated with working memory. Therefore, although more investigations are required, the results suggest that differences in social contexts mainly affect attentional functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education; Mozambique; Quality; Development; Millennium Development Goals.
Online: 18 October 2021 (15:39:48 CEST)
In order to meet the Millennium Development Goals set forth by the United Nations’ Millennium Summit that took place in 2000, in New York, particularly in the area of education, the Mozambican Government decided that, from 2003 onwards, during their primary school formation, students should be passed automatically even if they do not have enough intellectual capacities that justify their progress. In fact, this decision was made during a period when there were many pupils being failed, due to various reasons. After more than 15 years of its implementation, this paper aims to analyzing the results acquired from this decision, from the point of view of the quality of education. This will be done taking into account the prevailing situation of education in Mozambique. Having considered these aspects, the paper will move on to presenting some of the challenges and opportunities that the country should consider in the area of education, as a way to bring about better outcomes and promote development, in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Positive youth development, youth sport, realist evaluation, life skills, personal development, psychosocial development.
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:39:46 CET)
Sport has the potential to support psychosocial development in young people. However, extant studies have tended to evaluate purpose-built interventions, leaving regular organised sport relatively overlooked. Moreover, previous work has tended to concentrated on a narrow range of outcomes. To address these gaps, we conducted a season-long ethnography of a youth performance sport club based on a novel Realist Evaluation approach . We construed the club as a social intervention within a complex system of agents and structures. In this - Part 1 - account we detail the perceptions of former and current club parents, players and coaches, using them to build a set of programme theories. The resulting network of outcomes (i.e. self, emotional, social, moral and cognitive) and generative mechanisms (i.e., the attention factory, the greenhouse for growth, the personal boost, and the real-life simulator) spanning across multiple contextual layers provides a nuanced understanding of stakeholders’ views and experiences. This textured perspective of the multi-faceted process of development provides new insights for administrators, coaches and parents to maximise the developmental properties of youth sport, and signposts new avenues for research in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1876.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Sustainable regional development; EU funds; Development projects; Absorption
Online: 28 June 2023 (04:04:18 CEST)
The research paper comprehensively and consistently addresses all relevant theoretical areas related to the topic and includes an extensive empirical analysis of the absorption of EU funds and their impact on the sustainable development of Croatia, Slovenia, Hungary, and Poland. The analysis aims to investigate the efficiency of the absorption of funds from the EU, the impact of these funds on regional development of countries, as well as the reasons for such impacts. The "Regional Development Model Based on EU Funds" was tested with the aim of applying the model to the Republic of Croatia, countries in the region, and other European countries to achieve a higher level of absorption of financial resources from the available EU funds. Data for the empirical analysis were collected using a highly structured survey questionnaire on a sample of 244 respondents involved in the preparation and implementation of EU-funded projects. The contribution of economic science in theoretical terms arises from the development of scientific knowledge and ideas about the importance of increasing the number of development projects that will increase the absorption of funds from the European Union, thereby increasing economic activities in Croatia and the region. The expected contribution of economic science in the applied sense is based on the formulation of the "Regional Development Model Based on EU Funds," which is based on the application of knowledge, good practices, and stakeholder experiences, considering relevant indicators from available sources. The greatest contribution is demonstrated through testing the "Regional Development Model Based on EU Funds," which is applicable to the Republic of Croatia, countries in the region, and other European countries over a longer period. Finally, research of the impact of EU funds on the regional development of recipient countries is considerably less represented and very modest, only in the "upswing" of systematic scientific research. The research aims to fill the gaps in research and encourage thinking of key stakeholders responsible for regional development, who should eventually realize the importance of defining a regional policy aimed at EU funds as a key to regional development and reducing regional disparities within countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0958.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: rural development; sustainable development; planning; working with people
Online: 12 May 2023 (13:48:27 CEST)
The contribution of academics and researchers to the discussion around sustainable rural development planning and its impact on rural communities has grown exponentially in recent years. Understanding trends in sustainable rural development research requires considering the different factors involved and affecting people from a holistic approach. This review examines, through bibliometric studies, the scientific knowledge generated on sustainable rural development planning in the last 50 years, analyzing 6,895 articles published in journals between 1970 and 2020. The results reveal the existence of three clusters and an important growth is observed to respond to the continuous needs in relation to sustainable rural development. This research shows the evolution of a new approach for the planning of sustainable rural development projects in postmodernity: Working with People (WWP). This WWP model, as a conceptual framework from social learning has been validated as a novel proposal in numerous contexts. The bibliometric analysis shows an evolution "From Putting the Last first" to "Working with People in Rural Development" research and the contributions of influential teachers such as Chambers and Cernea. These bibliometric analyses demonstrate the correct approach of WWP model, and open new fields of research in the planning of sustainable rural development projects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Obesity; gut microbiota; placenta; brain development; fatal development
Online: 14 October 2022 (10:15:21 CEST)
Obesity in pregnancy induces metabolic syndrome, low-grade inflammation, altered endocrine factors, placental function, and the maternal gut microbiome. All these factors impact fetal growth and development, including brain development. The lipid metabolic transporters of the maternal-fetal-placental unit are dysregulated in obesity. Consequently, the transport of essential long-chain PUFAs for fetal brain development is disturbed. The mother’s gut microbiota is vital in maintaining postnatal energy homeostasis and maternal-fetal immune competence. Obesity during pregnancy changes the gut microbiota, affecting fetal brain development. Obesity and a high-fat diet in pregnancy can induce placental and intrauterine inflammation and thus influence the neurodevelopmental outcomes of the offspring. Several epidemiological studies observed an association between maternal obesity and adverse neurodevelopment. This review discusses the effects of maternal obesity and gut microbiota on fetal neurodevelopment outcomes. In addition, the possible mechanisms of the impacts of obesity and gut microbiota on fetal brain development are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Nuclear; nuclear energy; nuclear reactors; nuclear waste management; iMAGINE; strategic development; vision development; mission development
Online: 13 February 2023 (11:26:53 CET)
Nuclear technologies have the potential to play a major role in the transition to a global net-zero society. Their primary advantage is the capability to deliver controllable 24/7 energy on demand. However, as a prerequisite for successful worldwide application, significant innovation will be required to create the nuclear systems of the 21st century, the need of the hour. The pros and cons of nuclear are discussed and analysed at different levels – the societal and public recognition as well as the scientific/engineering and economic level – to assure a demand driven development. Based on the analysis of the different challenges a vision for the nuclear system of the 21st century is synthesised consisting of three pillars – unlimited nuclear energy, zero waste nuclear, and accident free nuclear. These three combined visions are then transformed into dedicated and verifiable missions which are discussed in detail regarding challenges and opportunities. In the following a stepwise approach for the development of such a highly innovative nuclear system is described. Essential steps to assure active risk reduction and the delivery of quick progress are derived as answer to the critique on the currently observed extensive construction time and cost overruns on new nuclear plants. The 4-step process consisting of basic studies, experimental zero power reactor, small scale demonstrator, and industrial demonstrator is described. The 4 steps including sub-steps deliver the pathway to a successful implementation of such a ground breaking new nuclear system. The potential sub-steps are discussed with the view not only onto the scientific development challenges, but also as an approach to reduce the regulatory challenges of a novel nuclear technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0260.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: sustainable development; SMEs; competitiveness, enterprises development; innovation; emerging economy
Online: 30 March 2018 (06:29:48 CEST)
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the biggest group of enterprises in the European Union (EU); they are also characteristic for emerging economies. Given this situation, there is a need to provide instruments such as processes, which allows them to realize a model of sustainable development. The ability to classify processes and occurrences happening inside these processes often affects the condition of the enterprises. The implementation of innovations, as identified process, enables the directions of SME development towards sustainable development. The purpose of this article is to find out if the identification of processes such as innovations, have any influence on the competitiveness and sustainable development of SMEs. This study was based on pilot research, which examined small and medium enterprises at the regional level, at the example of Polish emerging economy region. It was researched under the angle of the identification of processes and changes happening inside enterprises in terms of understanding the sustainable development concept. Research composition allows to present an understanding by the SMEs of the problems analyzed. The novelty was in the new questionnaire, the definition of sustainable development, and matching those processes identified by the enterprises analyzed with the particular sustainable development dimensions suggested by the authors. In light of the analysis of the literature and the results of this research the important contributions of this study are as follows. This approach pointed the understanding and practical meaning of the identification of processes to be understood. The most important finding was that there is a need to make entrepreneurs aware of the fact that innovations are also processes in themselves, which often constitutes the sum of other supporting processes occurring in the enterprise. Support in the form of knowledge transfer from experts to SMEs would also be recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1228.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: development; nudibranch; acidification
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:21:39 CEST)
The body of knowledge on ocean acidification gives a better understanding of biological sensitivity to low pH. Key parameters such as life-history strategies or local adaptation were identified as keys to predict species sensitivity and resolve previously some of the unexplained species- and population-specific differences. Encapsulation has been suggested as one of these keys as it exposed the embryo to low pH conditions, or ontogenetic hypercapnia, leading to physiological adaptation. We tested this hypothesis on the nudibranch Aeolidiella glauca by exposing their egg-strings containing large number of eggs to two different pH (8.1 and 7.3). The fertilized eggs developed 1 egg-cell, over early cleavage up to morula, blastula, gastrula, rhomboid-shaped rotating gastrula, early rotating veliger larvae with developed shell, to free-swimming well developed veliger larvae. Despite a corrosive environment, the exposure to low pH had no significant effect on the developmental rate. The only significant effects were a slightly smaller and narrower shell in larvae raised at low pH as compared to the high pH. Our results showed a remarkable resilient to low pH in a calcifying mollusc and support the idea that ontogenic hypercapnia is leading to low sensitivity to ocean acidification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0071.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; precision medicine; new treatment; drug development; method development
Online: 25 May 2022 (04:59:01 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, abnormal inflammatory immune response. It is characterized by the involvement of the synovium and multiple organs and the destruction of joints and articular cartilage. Over the past 30 years, several promising novel compounds and antibodies have been developed for the treatment of RA. The introduction of new drugs and precision medicine for all forms of RA raises several issues related to access to novel treatments by patients, optimal regimen selection, cost-effectiveness, prognosis monitoring and outcome surveillance, particularly with regarding to the development of low drug response rates, drug resistance and adverse side effects. Tremendous attention has been given to the identification of optimized drug combinations for the treatment of RA, particularly in early high-risk vulnerable and early individuals. Addressing these issues requires novel therapeutic approaches with new mechanisms and the establishment of accurate guidelines for drug selection, drug recombination, and non-chemical therapeutic efforts. In this study, we reviewed the most exciting recently established or ongoing novel drugs and methods according to the clinical trial database maintained by the United States National Library of Medicine and discussed the trends in RA drug development and challenges in the treatment, providing a reference significant for the accurate treatment of RA and the research direction in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0628.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainable Development Goals; Public Policy; Agrarian Policy; Ecuador
Online: 2 February 2021 (10:29:00 CET)
This study reviews how policy and agricultural laws relate to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2 and 12, sustainability and rural development, in Ecuador. Policy aligns itself with goals 2 in terms of increased productivity and income (target 2,3) to interna-tional markets (targets 2b y 2c), rural infrastructure, research, agricultural extension and technological development (target 2a), agrobiodiversity and traditional knowledge (target 25). It is related with SDG 12 to sustainable production and consumption targets 12.1, 12.2 and 12a). Laws highlight public procurement, research, seeds, and efficient resource management through sustainable practices. It is concluded that policy is aligned with SDGs 2 and 12 but is necessary to establish others that surpass the emphasis on produc-tivity towards export markets that leave AFC production and achieve a transition to sus-tainable production and consumption. The study of laws indicates that it is necessary to strengthen local governance for food sovereignty, including the peasant sectors within the framework of existing laws with participation in spaces of debate and formulation of ac-tions.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: global learning; global learning for sustainable development; South/North perspectives; sustainability; sustainable development; education for sustainable development
Online: 24 September 2020 (07:59:39 CEST)
Despite continued efforts by educators, UN declarations and numerous international agreements, progress is still limited in handling major global challenges such as ecosystem collapse, accelerating climate change, poverty and inequity. The capacity to collaborate globally on addressing these issues remains weak. This systematic review of research on global learning for sustainable development (GLSD) aims to clarify the diverse directions research on GLSD has taken, to present the historical development of the research area, and highlight emerging research issues. The review summarises key findings of the English language literature in the period 1994-2020 identified with the search terms “global learning” and “sustainable development”, sustainability or GLSD, respectively. The review documented a gradually growing knowledge base, mostly authored by scholars located in the global North. Conclusions point to what we might achieve if we could learn from one another in new ways, moving beyond Northern-centric paradigms. It is also time to re-evaluate core assumptions that underlie education for sustainable development more generally, such as a narrow focus on formal learning institutions. The review provides a benchmark for future reviews of research on GLSD, reveals the emerging transformative structure of this transdisciplinary field, and offers reference points for further research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0614.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; education for sustainable development; sociology of education; sustainability literacy; higher education; sustainable development goals
Online: 25 October 2018 (16:31:16 CEST)
Sustainability, sustainable development and education for sustainable development are increasingly central concepts, both in social practice and in the field of scientific knowledge. Sociology, and in particular Sociology of Education as a specialised Sociology, can provide relevant contributions in its promotion. This article aims to explore the importance of Sociology of Education in promoting sustainability literacy in higher education, using the Sustainable Development Goals and key competencies (United Nations and UNESCO) as the central reference in this field, and intends, thus, to become an added contribution for this discussion. The article seeks to demonstrate that the learning of sustainability literacy would benefit from the use of a sociological stance throughout this whole process that considers dimensions that are often not directly emphasised and articulated between each other, such as: interconnection of scale levels, sociological imagination, multi-paradigmatic nature, heuristic interdisciplinarity, reflexivity and use of Sociology for action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: sustainable product development; sustainable design; product development practice; corporate sustainability practices
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:12:47 CEST)
There is a growing recognition of the need to incorporate sustainability considerations early-on in the product development (PD) process (PDP). As part of a case study at an engineering consultancy firm, this paper identifies considerations that influence the integration of sustainable design practices into real-world PD practices. This is informed by the first author getting embedded in the firm as an intern, and closely observing the PD workflow across various projects, conducting interviews and group discussions with a wide range of practitioners, and iteratively designing and testing various potential interventions. From literature and observation, we find that designers and engineers often struggle to identify and apply the right sustainable design methods and tools (SDMTs) to tackle the environmental impacts associated with their products. Through a human-centered design process, we co-created a reusable, modular framework of practices that aids the selection of relevant strategies, based on the environmental hotspots, stage of the PD process, and the client’s sustainability priorities. The paper further presents insights related to the framework’s real-world application and impacts in the firm, based on results of longitudinal engagement with the firm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0039.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Positive youth development, youth sport, realist evaluation, life skills, personal development.
Online: 5 January 2022 (12:40:59 CET)
Part 1 of this 2-paper series identified a wide and deep network of context, generative mechanisms and outcomes responsible for psychosocial development in a performance basketball club. In this – part 2 – study, the stakeholder’s programme theories were tested during a full-season ethnography of the same club. The findings confirm the highly individualised nature of each young person’s journey. Methodologically, immersion in the day-to-day environment generated a fine-grain analysis of the processes involved, including: i) sustained attentional focus; ii) structured and unstructured skill building activities; iii) deliberate and incidental support; and iv) feelings indicating personal growth. Personal development in and through sport is thus shown to be conditional, multi-faceted, time-sensitive and idiosyncratic. The findings of this two-part study are considered to propose a model of psychosocial development in and through sport. This heuristic tool is presented to support sport psychologists, coaches, club administrators and parents to deliberately create and optimise developmental environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0554.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Pilot; competency; competency development; competency development model; Indonesian Naval Aviation Center
Online: 21 November 2020 (10:44:23 CET)
The Indonesian Navy's military condition in facing the globalization era of the industrial revolution 4.0 underwent many significant changes, both in policies and coaching practices that were implemented in regulating developments over the past decade. The competency model was an important basis of human resource functions such as recruitment, training and development, and performance management. The purpose of this study was to identifying and analyzing the pilot competency development model in the Naval Aviation Center. This research was a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The results of this study concluded that the pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center requires the development of competency models that were quite significant in various areas of competence such as 1.) Interpersonal Pilot Communication Competencies; 2.) Competence of Aviation Security Personnel; 3.) Competency Constraint Satisfaction Optimization Problem; 4.) Competency of Flight Control Systems that have been tested, licensed, and well implemented.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: maternal mortality; Pakistan; Millenium development goals; sustainable development goals; antenatal care
Online: 30 June 2020 (07:15:28 CEST)
Background: Maternal mortality (MM) is a matter of serious concern in low income developing countries (LDCs). Perspective: A great reduction has been observed regarding the maternal deaths globally after huge efforts since 1990 todate. However, the situation continues to be either stagnant or worsening in developing countries, suggesting that the efforts to cope with this issue are either insufficient or not properly implemented. We need to first diagnose the problem areas that are a great hurdle in the road to success towards the reduction of MM. Postpartum haemorrhage and preeclampsia are one of the most common causes of MM. Malnutrition, neurological dysfunction and cancer are among the non-obstetric causes. Trained medical and paramedical staff can be of great help in this regard by increasing awareness among masses at grass root level. Target set by Millennium Development goal has minimized the MM by 44%. But it has not met the target set by Millenium Development Goals 5 and a lot of measures need to be taken in this regard. Conclusions: Majority of the MDs are preventable and can be avoided by adopting appropriate frameworks, linked data sets, surveillance, birth attendants training, preparation for births, etc. Delay in decision to get healthcare, access to healthcare center and receiving these facilities are the main factors in MM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0210.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: coordinated development degree; agricultural water resources; socio-economy development; Shanxi Province
Online: 20 August 2019 (10:20:33 CEST)
Conflict between agricultural water resources and socio-economy development is a global problem. Accurate evaluation of coordinated development of agricultural water resources and socio-economy and risk mitigation is necessary for sustainable development. An evaluation method, including selection of criteria, data collection, determination of weight, evaluation of coordinated development, prediction of parameters, and judgment of coordinated development state, has been proposed to study coordinated development degree. To deal with uncertainties, Monte Carlo method and fuzzy set method were used. The method is demonstrated to solve a real-world evaluation problem in Shanxi Province in the middle of China. Results show that coordinated development degrees were (0.7, 0.8) for most of the cities of Shanxi in 2015, indicating that coordinate development state was intermediate coordinate. To achieve balanced development, more attention should be put on socio-economic development in Taiyuan and Yanquan, and agricultural water resources utilization in Jinzhong, Yuncheng and Xinzhou. The average coordinated development degree is 0.758, and coordinate development state was intermediate coordinate from 2006 to 2015. Coordinated development degree has a trend of decreasing markedly, coordinate development state will be barely coordinated, and agricultural water resources utilization lags behind socio-economic development in 2020. The study demonstrates the practicability of the improved method, by evaluating coordinated development degree under uncertainty and forecasting future risks, which will conduce to promote sustainable development of agricultural water resources and socio-economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0475.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: sustainable development goals, urban sustainable development, indicators, evolution of sustainability assessment
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:20:59 CEST)
With growing urbanisation the sustainability of cities has become increasingly important. Although cities have been using indicators for a long time it is only in the last decades that attempts have been made to collate indicators into indicator sets with the aim of reflecting the many different aspects that need to be covered to assess the sustainability of a city. The aim of this paper is to review how indicators for monitoring sustainable urban development have evolved over time and compare them to the indicators suggested by the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The review reveals that previous indicator sets emphasised environmental sustainability, health and economic growth. It is also shown that indicator sets that pre-date the SDGs lacked dimensions such as gender equality and reduced inequalities. In all, the SDG indicators provide the possibility of a more balanced and integrated approach to urban sustainability monitoring. At the same time, a methodology is needed to facilitate the adaptation process of localising the SDGS, targets and indicators. Challenges of local application include their large number, their generic characteristics and the need to complement them with specific indicators that are more relevant at the city level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0354.v1
Online: 4 August 2023 (03:15:26 CEST)
Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway which occurs between adjacent cells to distinguish them. The Notch signaling cascade operates in a simple mechanism, yet Notch plays remarkably diverse roles in development to regulate cell fate determination, organ growth and tissue patterning. Originally isolated and characterized in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies in various insect species have revealed that Notch signaling is broadly involved in the construction of insect tissues. This review focuses on providing a molecular mechanistic and developmental picture regarding the roles of Notch pathway in insects. The functions of Notch in the formation and patterning of insect embryo, wing, leg, ovary and several specific structures as well as in stress responses are summarized. These results are discussed in developmental context with an eye toward understanding the functionality of Notch signaling pathway in different insect species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0330.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: digital marketing; sustainable development
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:38:41 CEST)
A Digital marketing allows brands to disseminate information in a targeted way towards their clients and consumers, making bidirectional communication and interactions between organizations and audiences feasible. This reality not only allows companies to pass on messages about sustainability associated with processes and products with the aim of launching trends and shaping behaviour, but also allows consumers to share their experiences, needs, preferences and expectations. In this sense, the techniques used in the context of digital marketing make it possible not only to communicate products and services but also to show that brands are working to be more sustainable and to disseminate new sustainable trends that help to change consumer mindsets. This research paper employs a Systematic Literature Review with Bibliometric Analysis (SLBA) methodology to explore and synthesize data about how digital marketing can be used to promote and communicate sustainability. In this study, the results show that digital marketing strategies contribute to promoting sustainable development by encouraging sustainable consumption patterns. This scenario is possible by understanding consumer behavior, communicating key messages through the best channels and effectively evaluating green marketing campaigns on consumer attitudes and purchasing decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0490.v2
Online: 1 February 2022 (12:50:50 CET)
Simple Learning Motivations Hierarchy Model (SLMHM) is a theory that attempts to structure the path of learning “growth” with 16 levels where each next level corresponds to higher aims, motives, results, and satisfaction of needs. The SLMHM has been developed to simplify design, control, and evaluate the learning processes. The SLMHM was first presented at IES-2020 Conference (Gakh, 2020). More detailed research including analysis of internal structure shows that the model should be corrected. The “Plan-Do-Check-Act” cycle (PDCA Cycle) is popular in management. This paper describes the SLMHM improvements based on analyses of its similarities with the PDCA Cycle. The description of this research makes SLMHM more comprehend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0147.v2
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:39:14 CET)
Postdocs who land faculty jobs at research-intensive institutions need to juggle several new large-scale tasks: identifying space and equipment needs for their lab, negotiating the hiring package, outfitting the lab with supplies, building a team, and learning to manage time in ways that can promote productivity and happiness. Here we share tips to help new hires think clearly about each of these tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0298.v1
Online: 13 August 2020 (10:22:24 CEST)
Green development ensures the socioeconomic development that incorporates environmental issues while remaining economically viable for owners and tenants. Government as the authority of the state should provide favorable incentives, policy and regulatory pressure for green development. The present study aims to investigate the government policies and regulations for green development in Bangladesh and make a critical discussion of the initiatives. The study is descriptive in nature and collects secondary information. Evidence suggests that environmental degradation and climate change related risks and vulnerabilities have intensified in Bangladesh. The government of Bangladesh (GOB) is concerned about green development and formulates various Acts, regulations and policy initiatives since 2010. Major green development initiatives observed in the financial institutions due to the mandatory requirements by Bangladesh Bank but green bond and green insurance in capital market are yet to be developed. The GOB required taking proper policy initiatives for the garments and leather industries to ensure pollution free production system which ensures green trade initiatives. The environmental taxes and ecological compensation mechanisms should be revised. Urban green space and Government green procurement are still less concerning matter. The GOB should make effective collaboration with all related stakeholders to ensure the green development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0144.v1
Online: 13 March 2019 (09:36:39 CET)
This lecture aims to survey the existing literature on the dynamic urban growth. Theapplication in this lecture is a small step in the long iterative process between theconstruction of a model and its use for practical purposes. In this lecture, we follow thenotion of urban development and conduct an analysis of conceptual modeling phases ofurban development by Paeliuck (1970).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0180.v1
Online: 9 August 2018 (08:25:45 CEST)
We present three studies which investigated the relations between cognition and personality from 7 to 20 years of age. All three studies showed that general cognitive ability and the general factor of personality are significantly related throughout this age span. This relation was expressed in several ways across studies. The first investigated developmental relations between three reasoning domains (inductive, deductive, and scientific) and Eysenck’s four personality dimensions in a longitudinal-sequential design where 260 participants received the cognitive tests three and the personality test two times, covering the span from 9-16 years. It was found that initial social likeability significantly shapes developmental momentum in cognition and vice-versa, especially in the 9 to 11 years period. The second study involved 438 participants from 7 to 17 years, tested twice on attention control, working memory, reasoning in different domains, and once by a Big Five Factors inventory. Extending the findings of the first, this study showed that progression in reasoning is affected negatively by conscientiousness and positively by openness, on top of attention control and working memory influences. The third study tested the relations between reasoning in several domains, the ability to evaluate one’s own cognitive performance, self-representation about the reasoning, the Big Five, and several aspects of emotional intelligence, from 9 to 20 years of age (N=247). Network, Hierarchical Network, and Structural Equation modeling showed that cognition and personality are mediated by the ability of self-knowing. Emotional intelligence was not an autonomous dimension. All dimensions but emotional intelligence influenced academic performance. A developmental model for mind-personality relations is proposed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0170.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: evolution; development; physiology; structure
Online: 8 August 2018 (15:02:58 CEST)
That form and function relates, is the maxim to anatomy and physiology. Yet form-function relations can be difficult to establish. Human subjects with excessive trabeculated myocardium in the left ventricle, for example, are diagnosed with non-compaction cardiomyopathy, but the extent of trabeculations may be without relation to ejection fraction. Rather than rejecting a relation between form and function, we may ask whether the salient function is assessed; is there a relation to electrical propagation, mean arterial blood pressure, propensity to form blood clots, or all? And how should extent of trabeculated muscle be assessed? While reviewing literature on trabeculated muscle, we applied Tinbergen’s four types of causation - how does it work, why does it work, how is it made, and why did it evolve - to better parse what is meant by form and function. The paper is structured around cases that highlight advantages and pitfalls of applying Tinbergen’s questions. It further uses the evolution of lunglessness in amphibians to argue lung reduction can impact on chamber septation, and it considers the evolution of an arterial outflow in fishes to argue that reductions in energy consumption may drive structural changes with little consequences to function. Concerning trabeculations, we argue they relate to pump function in the embryo in the couple of weeks before the onset of coronary circulation. In fetal and postnatal stages, a spectrum of trabeculated-to-compact myocardium makes no difference to cardiac function and in this period form and function may appear unrelated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0484.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: public finance; sustainable development
Online: 29 June 2018 (12:13:05 CEST)
The striving for sustainable development has become the goal of actions undertaken not only by representatives of public authorities and institutions representing this sector, but also representatives of private entities who are increasingly recognizing the benefits and sources of long-term development based on the principles and objectives of sustainable development. These are mainly based on the pursuit of synergy in the three basic areas of activities, i.e., in the economic, social, and environmental dimensions as well as in the maintenance of natural resources. The implementation of these activities is connected with the necessity of incurring financial expenditures, which the government (public sector) does not have in the required value. Therefore, in the process of sustainable development for which the government is responsible, the active participation of the financial sector (banks) is necessary. Achieving results within the alliance of the concept of sustainable development requires the setting of a kind of contract, the parties of which are the government, society, and financial institutions. The purpose of the conducted research is to indicate by which means the government can stimulate economic growth towards its sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Women Leadership; leadership development; identity; experience; role model; narrative; social; culture development
Online: 12 April 2023 (03:07:14 CEST)
This qualitative research study explores the experiences of three Emirati women who have achieved significant success in their higher education institutes in the (UAE). The study aims to understand how childhood and adolescent experiences shape the leadership development of these women, both positively and negatively. The study also includes interviews with family members and close colleagues of the participants to gain additional perspectives. The findings the importance of family support, role models, and mentors in shaping the leadership development of women in the UAE. The study also sheds light on the challenges and barriers that women face in leadership positions, including gender bias and discrimination. Overall, the study contributes to a deeper understanding of the experiences of Emirati women in leadership positions and provides insights into how to support their leadership development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0158.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainability; Sustainable development goals; Environmental Sustainability; Economic Sustainability; Social Sustainability
Online: 9 February 2023 (08:30:18 CET)
“Sustainable development” (SD) is a term that has gained prominence in the international dia-logue around development. Many, however, continue to misunderstand the concept, its principles, its development, and its operationalization. The wide variety of definitions and interpretations of SD lean toward institutional and social prerogatives rather than unifying the essence of the con-cept, which is rooted in conventional ideas and values. By delving deeper into the paradigm, its history, and its potential, this research sought to contribute to ongoing discussions about sus-tainable development. The literature was thoroughly analyzed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020. This historical and conceptual analysis sought to update the body of knowledge on sustainability and sustainable development by examining the metaphorical and epistemological underpinnings of SD’s various definitions, evolutions, and principles. The research concludes and argues that intergenerational justice, based on the environment, economy, and society, is the central tenet of the entire sustainable develop-ment argument. The focus and consideration of interested parties are moving from the protection of the environment to social sustainability. The future of SD is likely to continue to focus much more on the social pillar and integrate digitalization in implementing the SD concept, especially in the fourth industrial revolution. To promote ethical human behavior and activities worldwide, at national and local levels, decision-makers must be continuously cognizant of the interdepend-encies, direct interactions, and balance between the three core constructs of SD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0302.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Development economics; China’s fishery industry; development quality; spatio-temporal differentiation; panel data
Online: 20 January 2022 (11:14:26 CET)
By reviewing the research of development economics in recent years, five key terms of ‘innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing’ are extracted, corresponding to the five dimensions of the New Development Concept advocated by China. Based on this, an evaluation index system of the development quality of China's fishery industry is constructed. The spatio-temporal characteristics of China's fishery industry development quality were analyzed by using the provincial panel data from 2007 to 2017. The results show that: i) China's fishery industry overall development quality continues to grow, while the variation of provincial quality is also increasing, and the contribution of innovation quality and sharing quality is increasing, becoming an important sub-dimension leading the overall development quality.ii) there is a significant spatial dependence among provincial quality, and the significance is further strengthening. The Hangzhou Bay area and Bohai Bay area have gradually become a dual-core area where the high-quality development of China's fishery industry agglomeration, and the radiation from the dual-core area to the peripheral areas may still be in the process of enhancement. The spatial and temporal distribution of China’s fishery industry development quality keeps the trend of ‘from northeast to southwest’, which is almost parallel to Hu Huanyong line. The gravity center of its distribution is close to the gravity center of Chinese population and economy, and the development quality experienced a process from relatively concentrated to dispersed and then returned to concentrated, and the development speed in the later period was higher than that in the earlier period. iii) Capital accumulation level is the dominant positive influencing factors, while government support level is the dominant negative influencing factors respectively, and both have significant spatial differentiation among provinces.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0342.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy; Sustainable Development Goal 7; Sustainable Development Goals; Paris Agreement; 2030 agenda.
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:50:10 CEST)
Accessing energy in the world is crucial nowadays. Energy is an essential factor to achieve other SDGs including SDG7. However, the determination and evaluation of the relationship between different energy scenarios to achieve SDG 7 and other SDGs have not done yet. This paper seeks to fill this gap by investigating how energy seniors can contribute to achieving SDG 7 and other SDGs. Web of Science, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases were utilized for conduction a systematic review. A total finial 25 from 249 papers were filtered from 2015 to December 2020 via inclusion and exclusion criteria. This review involves six seniors of energy which primary linked to achieving the SDG 7 and other SDGs: modern energy 20% (n = 5/25), energy access 16% (n = 4/20), energy efficiency 8% (n= 2/16), renewable energy 28% (n= 7/14), energy services 8% (n= 2/7), and miscellaneous energy 20% (n= 5/5). This systematic review explores the opportunities, constraints and limitations, recommendations, and new directions. The results show that different energy scenarios contribute to achieving mainly (SDG7) and other SDGs. The outcomes from this systematic review provide a sense of direction for future researchers for future studies in this domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0207.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Green Initiatives; Economic Growth; Social Development; Green Economic Development Plan; Financial Performance
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:25:02 CET)
This study was conducted to propose the Green Economic Development Plan for Manufacturing S.M.E.s based on financial performance and operations thru Green Initiatives. The descriptive survey method used to gather data to determine the green initiative's implementation of small and medium (S.M.E.s) manufacturing enterprises. Green initiatives use as a basis for crafting a green economic development plan. Document analysis was also employed to obtain data from any available printed materials and records provided by the respondents. Such methods of gathering information used to validate data gathered from local and foreign-related literature. The observation also employed to survey the assets owned and validate any green initiatives practiced, including their implementation. The study's findings show that among the green initiatives implemented by SMMEs, which resulted in the reduction of total costs and expenses, were the proper disposal and segregation of waste materials, water management by recycling wastewater and using water-efficient equipment, natural resources, and raw materials management. SMMEs should encourage active participation and support of suppliers and customers in achieving G.E.D.'s objectives by developing incentive schemes.Furthermore, SMMEs should continue to benchmark with G.E.D. Practitioners are operating locally and abroad to adopt best greening strategies and regularly network with concerned government agencies for continuous updating on G.E.D. Initiatives that may benefit the firm. Further research may be conducted on green initiatives implemented by small and medium enterprises in other industry sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teachers’ training; teachers’ competences; intercultural dialogue; education for sustainable development; professional development.
Online: 6 October 2020 (10:58:25 CEST)
The present research is embedded in the professional development and research line and in the needs of secondary education and first-year university teachers. We focussed on evidencing the importance of teachers’ professional training to include some specific adaptation and skills in intercultural dialogue and understanding -often called Intercultural Competence- because of its direct impact on the sustainable development of human beings, groups, and ecosystems. We investigated the role played by each of the main competencies linked to the following intercultural dimensions: Professional Identity, Ethics and Axiology, Methodology, and Inclusive Education. We used an integrated methodology and a cross-study of data, performed after the obtention of a three-cornered evaluation of results collected in focus groups, interviews, and questionnaires. We were able to show the impact of intercultural dialogue and understanding in the education for a sustainable development pattern. This is fundamental to set up a new ecology of forms, knowledge, attitudes, and educational meanings, further used to update teachers and students’ training in sustainable ecology and cultural diversity. Progress made in these complementary competencies -Professional Identity, Ethics and Axiology, Methodology- were appraised by teachers participating in the present study; the latter showing an increased interest and demand for the intercultural competence, after increasing their proficiency in the other complementary competencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0347.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: local economic development (LED) index; basic infrastructure; rural development; Romania; impact assessment
Online: 20 August 2018 (08:01:18 CEST)
This article investigates if public investments in rural basic infrastructure represent the best strategy for boosting the local economy of rural communities from Romania. The article focuses on one specific program implemented under the Cohesion policy in the framework of the National Plan for Rural Development called Measure 322. Geographically, the research included a sample of rural communes from the North-Western Region of Romania. Moreover, the study also looks at other determinants of local economic development (LED) than infrastructure investments, with a focus on certain feature characterizing Romanian rural communities such as population size, isolation from urban centers, connection with European and national roads networks, educational stock, etc. The research included three steps, namely the construction of the LED Index, a cvasi-experimental research, and a regression model. Our main findings seem to suggest that while investments in infrastructure help the development gap between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries remains relatively the same. In terms of determinants of LED, percentage of population with a university degree and connection to a European road are the most significant in the Romanian rural context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0194.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economic growth, Principal Component analysis, Cointegration, Stock market development, financial market development
Online: 12 June 2018 (14:05:09 CEST)
Does the choice of proxy for stock market development matter? This paper suggests that the growth effect of stock market development is sensitive to the choice of proxy and using alternative financial development indicators have practically no influence on the results. We found that using either the stock market capitalization to GDP ratio or the stock market returns; have a positive and significant effect on growth. However, we cannot make same conclusion when one uses either the ratio of total value of trades on the major stock exchanges to GDP or stock market turnover ratio to proxy for stock market development as the coefficient on these variables were found to be statistically insignificant. The indexes extracted from principal component analysis confirm the sensitivity of the effect to the choice of proxy. This finding suggest that stock market development is a conceptual terms, thus, representing it with single indicators make it impossible to identify which stock market development indicators have a significant positive growth effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0117.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: development process, high-rise, condominium, development control, city sustainability, Planning Authority, planner
Online: 12 January 2018 (15:57:05 CET)
This paper presents an experimental scenario aimed at bridging the gap between the cities we have and the cities we need, not only in the 21st century but also beyond, using the integrated tools of development control and holistic land development model to achieve a planner-led vision of city sustainability. Due to scathing criticisms against the development control system, the paper contends that planners as development approving officers and public interest specialists are better positioned than allied professionals to increase city sustainability through a holistic development process that benefits from the concept of strong sustainability posited by ecological economists. The paper adopts a seven-stage, 56-cell land development matrix (model) to simulate the development of the typical high-rise residential condominium in Ontario, supported with secondary data and the author’s ground experience as a planner and realtor with condominium customer service experience across Toronto and Mississauga cities between 2008 and 2017. Findings reveal that planners can seize the opportunity of being leaders of the development team to synergize the risks and value creation in land development that are key drivers of strong sustainability. The paper suggests some policy implications for averting disasters like fire hazards and terror attacks in high-rise residential buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0292.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: development; time perception; neuropsychological assessment; zone of proximal development; duration of an event
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:12:41 CET)
We aimed to investigate the ability of children aged 5–14 years old (preschoolers, primary schoolers, and preteens) to assess and anticipate time intervals. 287 Russian children aged 5–14 years old and 26 adults of control group participated in our study. The neuropsychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and a battery of time-related tests were applied. All groups of children overestimated the event’s duration, although the accuracy of the second estimations increased among the participants aged 6–8 years after a prompt was offered. A zone of proximal development for time anticipation task was detected for children aged 9-11 years, when the prompt could significantly improve the accuracy of time perception. The participants overestimated the duration of both upcoming and past events, with the degree of overestimation being found to be negatively correlated with age. Further, a higher degree of accuracy in terms of time estimation was found to be correlated with higher scores on the attention and memory tests, and accuracy of time anticipation was associated with scores of praxis test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0349.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: humanity; culture; development and language; globalization; indigenous capabilities; knowledge creation and technological development
Online: 19 July 2018 (06:34:37 CEST)
Humanity, culture, societal development and language issues are mutually reinforcing much as they are intricately interwoven in a non-ceasing dynamic interrelationships within the matrix defined by language standardization or development, acquisition and use that mostly take up central place as unifying and propelling forces in language discourse. Within the confines of globalization which is neither homogenization nor convergence; but the beginning of drawing on the strength of indigenous capabilities to create knowledge ecology that would enliven socio-economic and scientific development of the world in far reaching interconnectivities and relationships across every clime, issues pertaining to language development, acquisition and use become imperative. It is against this background that this paper examines the development/standardization, acquisition and use of Esan language as one of several Nigerian indigenous languages to promote scientific and technological development through knowledge creation, preservation and dissemination. The obsession of using western model and epistemological outlook to achieve appropriate scientific and technological development to the utter neglect of home grown and culturally distilled efforts were also examined. In the light of the dare consequences and the harsh conditions globalization imposes on developing nations, this paper highlights standardization and use of indigenous languages in chatting appropriate trajectory for effectual developmental efforts in fast shrinking contemporary world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0241.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: COVID-19; Child Development; Children
Online: 5 September 2023 (09:10:58 CEST)
Background: As a result of the pandemic, families and children have faced physical, emotional, and mental challenges. However, there has been little attention given to the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and child development. This systematic review aims to identify the impact of the pandemic on child development, globally. Methods: This study follows the PRISMA guidelines for the systematic review of 16 quantitative and qualitative studies conducted between 2020-2023. Results: This systematic review suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic played a crucial role in hindering child development in early childhood. Conclusion: Therefore, it is important to promote and implement the use of policies and strategies to overcome these obstacles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0345.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Neuroarchitecture; schools; cognitive development; Pronoei
Online: 5 July 2023 (15:00:07 CEST)
The objective of this research is to propose archetypes of accessible design with a neuroarchitec-ture approach for the design of initial level educational centers, in Peru, especially in areas of ur-ban growth, many children do not manage to access initial education, there is even school drop-out. . At this educational level, with an increase of 4.4% in recent years, the process of developing mental abilities such as memory, perception, thinking, reactions, attention, language, among oth-ers, is of the utmost importance. in the first years of life. As a methodology, sensory design strate-gies were applied, likewise through instruments such as interviews, observation, photographic taking and measurement carried out during the field visit for the analysis of the space-child in-teraction and spatial stimuli, supported by digital tools (Autocad, Google Earth, Andrés Marsh). As results, accessible design archetypes were obtained based on neuroarchitecture based on 10 spatial indicators (Lighting; Green area; roofs; shape; size; distribution; accessibility; scale; colors; materiality). In conclusion, the provision of adequate spaces that provide exploratory facilities greatly contributes to cognitive development in early childhood. The environment where these cognitive activities take place needs to be conditioned to allow children to develop, bond and ap-propriate the space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0118.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: accelementer; muscle thickness; growth; development
Online: 7 February 2023 (04:00:41 CET)
Purpose: Physical activity (PA) is likely the most important modifiable element for the growth of skeletal muscle. However, a detailed investigation of PA’s impact on preschoolers’ of skeletal muscle development is lacking. This study aimed to determine whether PA level is related to skeletal muscle thickness among preschool children. Methods: 275 healthy preschoolers between the ages 4–6 were instructed to wear an accelerometer for 4 consecutive days. The daily steps and minutes spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and total PA (TPA) were examined. Muscle thickness (MT) was measured by B-mode ultrasonography. The MT was measured at the anterior (AT) and posterior thigh (PT) and the anterior (AL) and posterior lower leg (PL). Results: Boys were more physically active and engaged in significantly more TPA and MVPA on weekdays compared with girls. Compared with that on the weekends, more physical activity, and significantly greater number of daily steps and higher TPA and MVPA were recorded for both boys and girls on the weekdays. Multivariable regression analyses, after adjusting for daylight duration, indicated that a daily increase in the TPA and MVPA would lead to higher muscle size in AT (β=1.11 and β=1.37, p<0.05), and PL (β=1.18 and β=0.94, p<0.05) among preschool children. Conclusions: The time spent involved in most of the different categories of MVPA was significantly higher for boys than for girls on the weekdays and weekends. MVPA was positively correlated with greater skeletal muscle development in the lower body.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0227.v1
Online: 12 January 2023 (10:51:17 CET)
The paper presents a theoretical and empirical assessment of this social phenomenon. The achieved scientific solution-result (Main Finding) is presented a theoretical model of the develop-ment of public citizenship in a sustainable environment has been created for the case of Lithuania. First of all, the paper discusses the conceptual issues of the expression of modernisation of civil society, highlighting and justifying the interaction of social changes and sustainable environment in economic, social, political, environmental and cultural aspects, presenting the case of Lithuania (The Case of Lithuania). On the other hand, following the United Nations Sustainable Development Strategy document, the field of progress and resilience of Lithuanian society in modern society is discussed, identifying and analysing various criteria that have been empirically tested. The authors noted that the democratic cube model was used to create a theoretical model of the development of public citizenship in a harmonious environment, and the HDI (human development index model) was also integrated. The model created by the authors systematically explains the analysis of the relationship between the expression of modernisation changes identified in the research and the formation of civil society; secondly, it substantiates the process of interaction between modernisation changes and public citizenship, discussing four fields of expression. Practical applicability of the model: it will help researchers to conceptually analyse and empirically study public citizenship; will help public policymakers and implementers to manage effectively, ensuring quality changes in society and managing new challenges, and it will also contribute to the conceptual formation of the country's long-term development strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0002.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: formulation; deconcentration fund; health development
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:09:28 CET)
The allocation for the use of Deconcentration Funds focuses on the seven priority health programs listed in the Regulation of the Minister of Health for the Republic of Indonesia. Therefore, this study aims to formulate a budget allocation for deconcentration funds in the health sector. Secondary data were analyzed using reports from the Ministry of Health for five years (2014-2018) on the Human Development Index (HDI), population, area, number of health workers, as well as amount and percentage for the realization of deconcentration funds. The results showed that the variables which had a significant effect were the number of districts/cities, the area, and HDI, while those without a significant effect were population, the number of health workers, and the percentage of budget realization. Political factors and regional commitment to implementing as well as using the budget were shown to also affect the deconcentration of funds both from the central and regional sources. Generally, deconcentration funds are used for non-physical tasks, including coordinating and synchronizing planning, facilitation, technical guidance, training, outreach, supervision, investigations and surveys, direction, and control. Based on the results, the budget allocation for deconcentration funds for health development needs to be calculated according to regional capacities by considering the number of districts/cities, land area, and the HDI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Metazoans; gene family; evolution; development
Online: 17 October 2022 (10:38:56 CEST)
Hox genes represent an important gene family that is involved in the segmentation pattern and identity of the segments during the formation of the body plan in metazoans. For many years, several studies have sought to establish a correlation between the evolution of these genes and the evolution of large groups of metazoans. Here, we use publicly available sequences of Hox gene clusters to reconstruct the evolutionary history of anterior Hox genes. We show that information harbored by these genes, in part, reflects the evolution and diversification of most animal archetypes, but in many cases, there were conflicts between the evolutionary history of some genes and the history of large groups, these cases may have occurred due to specific and similar selective pressures in relatively distant groups, which may have led to evolutionary convergences. Our findings also reveal that the evolution of Hox genes (and clusters) as a multigene family is consistent to a birth-and-death model constrained by development, where there is a trade-off between a relatively fast gene turnover and their central developmental roles
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0153.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Career Development; Job Training; Employee
Online: 5 April 2021 (16:28:18 CEST)
Objective: This paper aims to test the effect employee job training has on employee career development in the company.Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a quantitative approach with the process of finding the knowledge by using data in the form of numbers as a tool that can be generalized to prove hypotheses. The population in this study was 135 employees by sampling 100 employees using sampling method probability by using random sampling type samples to use slovin formula. Analysis techniques use multiple linear regressions.Findings: The results showed that job training influences the career development of employees in companies with a significant rate of 0.00 less than α=0.05.Practical Implications: The results of the study are recommended for company employees to conduct job training as a tool to improve career development.Originality: Previous research has been conducted to test job training on employee career development in large companies; the findings conclude that employee job training affects employee career development. This research researchers try to research medium-scale companies down.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0035.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: EuAP2 genes; Flowering; Plant Development
Online: 24 October 2019 (11:04:57 CEST)
EuAP2 genes are famous for their role in flower development. A legacy of the founding member of this subfamily of transcription factor, whose mutants lacked petals in Arabidopsis. However, studies of other euAP2 genes in several species have accumulated evidence highlighting the diverse roles of euAP2 genes in other aspects of plant development. Here, we emphasize other developmental roles of euAP2 genes in various species and suggest a shift from regarding euAP2 genes as just flowering genes to consider the global role they may be playing in plant development. We hypothesize that their almost universal expression profile and pleiotropic effects of their mutation suggest their involvement in fundamental plant development processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0106.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: sustainability; sustainable development; sustainable marketing
Online: 9 October 2019 (11:20:24 CEST)
The purpose of this article is to draw attention to the challenges faced by business organizations implementing sustainable solutions in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the wider Gulf Coast Countries (GCC) region. To this end, our study examines an academic theory supporting the implementation of responsible solutions to the market. Ultimately, the authors hope to inspire the reader to consider what he or she can do to ameliorate the existing challenges encountered by sustainable businesses. The analysis presented in this article implies that in recent markets, the implementation of the sustainability theory is essential for further development. The research project contributes to the increase of knowledge about corporate and organizational challenges related to running a responsible business, as well as challenges related to the application of environmental, social and economic aspects of sustainable business practices. The research is currently limited to conceptual analysis, literature review and a survey conducted during the Sustainability Week 2019 in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Nevertheless, this is the first stage of the research project conducted by the research team in cooperation with enterprises that implement responsible solutions in many global markets, and in UAE market. The scope of the first stage of the study was limited to the analysis of data clarifying the concept of the model specified in the research. To prove the validity of the model it will be implemented and tested in cooperation with organizations participating in the research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0305.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: SDGs; sustainable development; Umranic theory
Online: 29 August 2019 (05:24:45 CEST)
This paper aims to suggest an integration of dimensions, especially economic, social, environmental, and politics that are embedded in Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) within a framework called Umran. This Umranic framework hails from the idea of distinguished Muslim philosopher, historian and sociologist Ibn Khaldun, that is based on Islamic doctrines. As the present integration of the dimensions seems to be problematic, an exploration into the integration within Umranic framework is believed to be potentially a contributive endeavor. Based on an overview of literatures and a content analysis, this paper found that integrating dimensions of SDGs within the Umranic framework appears in the triangle of relationship between God, humans, and environment. This triangle exists in the form of an Islamic economic system. In this system, economic activities of natural resource utilization in various types of ownership undertake the sustainability dimension, that is the environmental protection and the promotion of equitable distribution, followed by the implementation of management of ownership and distribution rights according to Islamic rules. The pre-requisite on the part of the players is the high levels of spirituality. The application of this Islamic economic system followed by its political dimension will guarantee the achievement of SDGs even though it needs adjustment to a number of SDGs’ indicators that are not in accordance to Islamic teachings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0271.v1
Online: 28 February 2019 (12:49:31 CET)
The majority of the population in developing countries resides in the rural area. Development itself cannot address the challenges of the rural area since its economic, political and environmental landscape is different from an urban area. The paper attempts to assess the rural dimension aspect of Nepali Agriculture Policy since rural development and agricultural development is closely resembled due to an agrarian-based economy of the country and a large rural population. Therefore, a critical review of National Agriculture Policy, 2004 (NAP-2004) was carried out under “Commercialization of Agriculture”, “Food Security”, “Rural Infrastructure”, “Gender”, “Climate Change” and “Social Inclusion” thematic area. The results showed that NAP-2004 satisfactorily address rural development albeit ample space for improvement. The findings of the paper could be beneficial to policymakers and development workers in the field of rural development and agriculture along with academicians having interest in it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0022.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Synthetic biology; Sustainable Development Goals
Online: 3 January 2019 (13:14:42 CET)
Advances in genetic engineering have placed synthetic biology at a prime position to develop new products, materials, and services that could contribute to the 2030 UN Sustainable Development goals. These include novel materials for water purification, new bio-based products to replace toxic industrial chemicals, and engineered organisms for bioremediation. Supporting the development of synthetic biology initiatives in developing countries is needed to ensure these benefits are open to all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0520.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: GDP; nighttime lights; agriculture; development
Online: 21 November 2018 (07:13:10 CET)
Uganda is one of the poorest nations in the world. To address the developmental challenges and understand social and economic status, it is important to obtain accurate data in a timely manner. Many studies have demonstrated that nighttime lights (NTL) can be used to measure human activities. Nevertheless, methods developed from these studies (1) suffer from coarse resolutions, (2) fail to capture the nonlinearity and multi-scale variability of geospatial data, and (3) perform poorly for agriculture-dependent regions. This study proposes a new enhanced light intensity model (ELIM) to estimate the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at sub-national scales for Uganda. This model is developed by combining the NTL data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS), the population data from the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL), and information on agricultural production and market prices across several commodity types. This resulted in a gridded dataset for GDP and GDP per capita for Uganda at 1 km spatial resolution and district level to capture the spatial heterogeneity in economic activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0141.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: volunteer tourism; development; participation; commodification
Online: 6 November 2018 (12:58:59 CET)
Volunteer tourism or ‘voluntourism’ packages development and poverty as culturally exotic and ethical experiences for tourists from industrialized countries. In the university sector study abroad tours network voluntourism agencies, local actors, e.g. NGOs, universities and government funding to offer students ‘life changing’ experiential and community development learning. Recent criticism of the commodification of development and poverty through such tours points to multiple pernicious effects of such travel, especially the failure to deliver community impact. Following review of current criticism of voluntourism, this illustrative case study of a purported sustainable housing project in rural Maharashtra employs multiple data sources and covert research to explore the multiple gaps between participatory community sustainable development and voluntourism. The study finds signal lack of financial transparency, incompetent assessment of material needs, and limited local participation and control, failure to deliver on objectives, and recommends that socially responsible short term international exchanges should be carefully monitored and prefer knowledge exchange.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: cultural space; cultural sustainability; culture indicators; sustainability indicators: cultural policy; development policy; sustainable development.
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:42:29 CEST)
Few assessments and indicators on cultural sustainability have been applied to national and local development policies in Indonesia. Said policies have had the notion of space solely defined through its physical aspect. This study aims to establish the cultural aspect of space as a workable indicator for sustainability in development planning. The study grounds itself in the coastal area of Kalibaru Subdistrict, North Jakarta, a region characterized by dense and culturally diverse residential areas located in between heavy industrial development. Primary data are gathered from 10 informants of varying occupations with residence in the area for more than 20 years. In-depth interviews and Spatial Cognitive Mapping were conducted to articulate the cultural spaces of their everyday activities. Prevalent themes of spatial practice were identified and described in 3 categories of 1. core cultural spaces, 2. tactical cultural spaces, and 3. spaces of cultural conflict. The participatory procedures to identify cultural spaces as described in the study were concluded to be operable within existing indicator or index frameworks for sustainability policy. The availability of cultural spaces and its enumeration may be incorporated into national surveys for effective data collection and use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0102.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Asperger; Atypically development; Covid19; Children; Adolescents; typically development; Parents; Adaptation; Well-being; Multi-informant
Online: 5 January 2023 (09:19:13 CET)
Mental health could worsen in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder during the Covid19 pandemic. In addition, their parents could be more at risk for an increase in anxiety and depression symptomatology. This study aims to understand the adaptation and the psychosocial well-being in a sample of 16 males aged 10-21 years old with Asperger syndrome after the quarantine for Covid19 when they return to school and partially to their activities in September 2020, The approach adopted is multi-informant with a battery of questionnaires on psychological health and adaptation given by a secure online web data Qualtrics both to adolescents and also to their parents. Paralleling matched peers with typically development were assessed adopting the same methodology. The results evidenced several difficulties in Asperger’s psychological health, especially in anxiety and socialization. Also adaptation is put in crisis, even if they reported a good comprehension and adoption of the behaviors anti-Covid19. Parents of children with Asperger reported similar psychological difficulties and general health than those of the group of children typically developing. Some clinical indications could be discussed for psychologists who follow children and adolescents with Asperger.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0328.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Transit-oriented development (TOD); Transaction cost; Property development process; Institutional Arrangement; Land Value Capture.
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:07:48 CET)
Land and property development process include a series of multifaceted activities ranging from purchasing to converting it for development purposes and everything in between. The process itself encompasses multiple stakeholders, drivers, and contributions from diversified public and private actors and transaction cost arises out of their complex interaction. Transaction costs incurred during any kind of human interactions (i.e. transactions). Every actor involved in the process wishes to maximize his achievement under various constraints and hence institutional arrangement (i.e. set of humanly devised rules to administer the constraints) is necessary for efficient management of the development process. Therefore, to devise an optimum outcome out of economic and social transactions in the property development process, cooperative and competitive relationships between individuals should be understood from a broader socio-political and governance structure. In this research, it is critically argued that land and property development process should implicate a multifaceted set of formal and informal rules or institutional arrangement to govern the intrinsic interaction, action and thereby reducing the related transaction cost. The argument is further reproachfully evaluated and implicated in the urban development process through the myopic lens of Transit-oriented development (TOD) pathway. A vigilant combination of descriptive and explanatory research approach is adopted to analyze the connection between theory and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0600.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: development controls; physical planning; regulations; cities; urban development; polarization; infrastructural deficit; Kaduna; Abuja; Lagos
Online: 24 November 2020 (08:09:30 CET)
The paper makes a critical assessment of urban development in Nigeria against the backdrop of a rapidly changing population and growth rate. The Authors interrogated the effects of development control- mechanisms through the lenses of identified social anomalies in three selected pilot cities of Nigeria (Kaduna, Abuja FCT, and Lagos). Thematic areas examined include, the state of critical infrastructure, population dynamics, urban sprawl, city polarization, transportation, waste management systems, security/crime and economics. The Authors identified structural transformation of three Nigerian cities with focus on the causes and attendant consequences on urban development. The study found that urban growth has over-stretched the state of critical infrastructure in the cities and the mechanisms of development control seem ineffective in stemming unregulated growth, compromises and unplanned ‘development’. The paper noted that the impact of these developments has overstretched the state of critical infrastructure with far-reaching consequences. The authors conclude with some recommendations for strategic planning and sustainable development strategies aimed at mitigating the problems of urban development in Nigeria.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Poverty and environment, poverty and conflict, conflict and development, conflict and environment, unequal development
Online: 21 August 2018 (10:51:26 CEST)
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of an International conflict, i.e. East Pakistan Crisis, 1971, and reveals that unequal development creates conflict in society. Natural resource scarcity and environmental degradation can also become a source of conflict, so marginalised and excluded people fight for their rights through non-peaceful means. This essay supports the theoretical approaches of poverty, environment, and conflict nexus and reveals that unequal development and resource scarcity deepens the poverty and creates conflicts in the society, causing harm to the environment. The degraded environment increases the poverty as environment and poverty are interlinked, and the poor have limited choices other than to degrade the environment for their survival. This vicious downward spiral link between poverty and degradation of the environment requires working extensively for poverty alleviation to reverse the environmental decline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0107.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: intelligence; development of intelligence; cognitive development; network models; factor models; psychometrics; latent variable models
Online: 25 January 2017 (03:14:34 CET)
Cronbach’s (1957) famous division of scientific psychology into two disciplines is still actual for the fields of cognition (general mechanisms) and intelligence (dimensionality of individual differences). The welcome integration of the two fields requires the construction of mechanistic models of cognition and cognitive development that explain key phenomena in individual differences research. In this paper we argue that network modeling is a promising approach to integrate the processes of cognitive development and (developing) intelligence into one unified theory. Network models are defined mathematically, describe mechanisms on the level of the individual, and are able to explain positive correlations among intelligence subtest scores - the empirical basis for the well-known g-factor - as well as more complex factorial structures. Links between network modeling, factor modeling and item response theory allow for a common metric, encompassing both discrete and continuous characteristics, for cognitive development and intelligence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Impacts; Nurturing Care; Early Childhood Development (ECD); Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health; Child Growth Development; Early Brain Development; Vulnerable Children and Families
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:54:37 CEST)
In Kenya, millions of children have limited access to nurturing care. With the COVID-19 pandemic, it is anticipated that vulnerable children will bear the biggest brunt of the direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic. This review aimed to deepen understanding of the effects of COVID-19 on nurturing care from conception to four years of age, a period where the care of children is often delivered through caregivers or other informal platforms. The review has drawn upon the empirical evidence from previous pandemics and epidemics, and anecdotal and emerging evidence from the ongoing COVID-19 crisis. Multifactorial impacts fall into five key domains: direct health; health and nutrition systems, economic, social and child protection, and child development and early learning. The review proposes program and policy strategies to guide the re-orientation of nurturing care, prevent the detrimental effects associated with deteriorating nurturing care environments, and support the optimal development of the youngest and most vulnerable children. These include the provision of cash transfers and essential supplies for vulnerable households, and strengthening of community-based platforms for nurturing care. Further research on COVID-19 and the ability of children’s ecology to provide nurturing care is needed, as is further testing of new ideas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainable Development Goals; Sustainability; Postdevelopment; Degrowth; Disaster Risk Reduction; United Nations; Permacrisis; Metadisaster.
Online: 13 May 2022 (07:48:45 CEST)
This transdisciplinary review of research about international cooperation on social and environmental change builds the case for replacing Sustainable Development as the dominant framework for an era of increasing crises and disasters. The review is the output of an intentional exploration of recent studies in multiple subject areas, based on the authors’ decades of work in related fields since the Rio Earth Summit 30 years ago (rather than a keyword search of databases). It summarizes the research which documents failure to progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Consequently, the extensive scholarship critiquing the conceptual framework behind those ‘Global Goals’, and the economic ideology they arose from and support, is used to explain that failure. Although the pandemic set back the SDGs, it further revealed the inappropriate strategy behind those goals. This suggests the Global Goals constitute an ‘own-goal’ scored against people and nature. From this conclusion, alternative frameworks for organizing action on social and environmental issues become more important and are therefore briefly reviewed. It is argued that such a future framework must relate a new eco-social contract between citizen and state, and engage existing organizations and capabilities that are relevant to an increasingly disrupted world. Therefore, the case is made for considering an upgraded form of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) as an overarching framework. The proposed upgrades include detaching from economic ideologies, and recognizing that a wider metadisaster from climate chaos may reduce the future availability of external support. Therefore, self-reliant resilience and locally-led adaptation are identified as important to the future of DRM. Some options for professionals continuing to use the term sustainability, such as this journal, are discussed.
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: definition of agritourism; comparative studies; rural development; sustainable tourism; mountain development; alpine regions, Chinese mountains
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:25:21 CEST)
After World War II, the economic recovery of Western Europe implied a swift economic transition for all regions, including the area of the Alps, although affecting various parts at different pace and stages. The resulting out-migration led to population decline in some mountain valleys and regions already since the 1950s. A similar out-migration movement began in China after its rural reform started in the 1970s. The effect was in some cases even more significant than in the Alps, with the first village being deserted in the 1980s. Current estimations report of about 380,000 abandoned rural villages in China between 2000 and 2016, particularly in its mountain regions. While lower population densities might alleviate the pressures on ecology and contribute to environmental benefits, these movements aggravate a spiraling-down process of local economies and culture. In the Alps many regions facing challenges of out-migration and economic changes elaborated agritourism schemes that provided both economic incentives and stability to involved mountain farmers, and continuation of local land management systems. In contrast, in China hardly any comparable trends of rural tourism developed. However, in recent years China's interest for tourism-oriented farm diversification increased and a range of rural tourism and agricultural tourism initiatives emerged. This paper focuses on the analysis of successful initiatives, problems and development prospects in the Alps and China's rural areas, redefining agritourism as a systematic integrated activity. Agritourism might therefore be assessed as a core element of the future sustainable development of the Alps and the Chinese countryside.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0363.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: bisphosphinates; phosphonite; Lewis acid; methodological development
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:48:33 CEST)
Among phosphorylated derivatives, phosphinates occupy a prominent place due to their ability to be bioisosteres of phosphates and carboxylates. These properties imply the necessity to develop efficient methodologies leading to phosphinate scaffolds. For the past years our team have explored the nucleophilic potential of silylated phosphonite towards various electrophiles. In this paper, we propose to extend our study over other electrophiles. We describe here the implementation of a cascade reaction between (trimethylsilyl)imidates and hypophosphorous acid mediated by a Lewis acid allowing the synthesis of aminomethylenebisphosphinate derivatives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: epicardium; heterogeneity; cardiac development; cardiac repair
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:39:22 CEST)
The outermost layer of the heart, the epicardium, is an essential cell population that contributes, through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), to form different cell types and provide paracrine signals to the developing heart. Despite its quiescent state during adulthood, in response to cardiac injury, adult epicardium reactivates and recapitulates many aspects of embryonic cardiogenesis supporting cardiac tissue remodeling. Thus, the epicardium has been considered as a crucial source of cell progenitors with important contribution to developing and injured heart. Although several studies have provided evidence about cell fate determination in the epicardium, to date it is unclear whether epicardial-derived cells (EPDCs) come from specific, and previously predetermined, epicardial cell subpopulations or if they are derived from a common progenitor. In recent years, different approaches have been used to study cell heterogeneity within the epicardial layer by using different experimental models. However, generated data are still insufficient to understand the complexity of this epithelial layer. In this review, we summarize the previous works supporting the cellular composition, molecular signatures and diversity within the developing and adult epicardium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1897.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: GmCAMTA; circadian rhythm; development; drought stress
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:14:59 CEST)
The calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs) mediate transcriptional regulation of development, growth, and responses to various environmental stresses in plants. To characterize the biological processes of soybean CAMTA (GmCAMTA) family members in response to abiotic stress, we identified 15 GmCAMTA genes from soybean (Glycine max L.) and investigated their roles in the abiotic stress response. The transcriptions of GmCAMTAs exhibited distinct circadian regulation patterns and were expressed differently in response to salt, drought, and cold stresses, except ABA. Interestingly, the expression levels of GmCAMTA2, GmCAMTA8, and GmCAMTA12 were higher in stem tissue than in other soybean tissues. To determine the roles of GmCAMTAs in the regulation of developmental processes and stress responses, we isolated GmCAMTA2 and GmCAMTA8 cDNAs from soybean and generated Arabidopsis overexpressing transgenic plants. The GmCAMTA2-OX and GmCAMTA8-OX plants showed hypersensitivity to drought stress. The water in the leaves of GmCAMTA2-OX and GmCAMTA8-OX plants was lost faster than that in WT plants under drought stress conditions. In addition, stress-responsive genes in the GmCAMTA2-OX and GmCAMTA8-OX plants were down-regulated under drought stress conditions. Our results suggest that GmCAMTA2 and GmCAMTA8 genes are regulated by circadian rhythms and function as negative regulators in development and drought stress responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0632.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Society; Economy; Environment; Development; Maturity Model
Online: 9 May 2023 (10:03:22 CEST)
The Societal Patterns Evolution Model (SPEM) (Gakh, 2023a) has been developed to apply to socio-technical systems. It contains patterns representing stages of societal development. Mapping of these patterns to the development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and Information Systems was presented at FedCSIS 2022 conference (Gakh, 2022c). This paper discusses the application of SPEM to model the development of three pillars of sustainability: economic, social, and environmental (Purvis, et al., 2019; United Nations, 2023).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0566.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Risk; resettlement; governmentality; development; river communities
Online: 31 January 2023 (02:36:54 CET)
Based on ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in marginal, low-income, Belenino river communities located in Iquitos, a fluvial city in the Amazon basin. By using ethnographic methods and semi-structured interviews, this article traces how risk is associated with life in Belenino communities and how the identity of Beleninos and the river at the heart of a resettlement project are politically constructed rather than empirically constructed. In this case study of resettlement, understandings of risk and development by Belenino river communities and the government both conflicted and overlapped, I identified three elements that help to shape the concept of risk in both groups that highlight the disjunctive meanings provided by culture and demonstrate the complexity of the analysis of both populations. Finally, by putting the state’s weak presence after a developmental project failure under ethnographic approximation, the article reveals an imbalance in validity and power in terms of the perspectives of the river and Belen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0042.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Bad Behavior; Institutions; Heterodox Economics; Development
Online: 5 October 2022 (12:43:21 CEST)
How important are institutions for the development of nations? Are there any existing measures which quantify the behavior of institutions? Is there any theoretical justification for measuring their behavior? This paper introduces a framework influenced by Plato’s needs theory to provide justification for measuring the behavior of institutions. This involves introducing the humanization hypothesis which states that the behavior of institutions can be measured as they, similar to human beings, are living entities with similar hierarchical needs which are essential for their survival. The paper employs an explanatory and descriptive research design which is highly theoretical in nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0335.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: children; digital media; attention; development; cognition
Online: 18 August 2022 (09:03:44 CEST)
Using digital media has become the most popular leisure activity for children and adolescents. The effects of digital media use on the developing brain and cognitive processes of children are subject to debate. Here, we examine the effect of digital media use on attention subdomains in children aged 6 to 10 years. In total, 77 children participated in the study. Selective and divided attention as well as switching between attentional demands were quantified by the SwAD task. Parents were asked to assess the screen time of their children (TV, smartphone, laptop/PC, game console, tablet). Results show no main or interaction effects of screen time on any of the attention conditions investigated. Based on the present findings, as well as previous studies, we suggest a possible non-linear relationship between the amount of screen time and attention function. Furthermore, we emphasize the relevance of considering the socio-economic background of children and a need for longitudinal studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: competency framework; reporting guideline; competency development
Online: 13 April 2022 (13:37:11 CEST)
Competency frameworks outline the perceived knowledge, skills and other attributes required for professional practice. Competency frameworks have gained in popularity, in part for their ability to inform health professions education, assessment, professional mobility, and other activities. Previous research has shown inadequate reporting within reports describing their development and that may jeopardize their use and application. We aimed to develop a set of minimum criteria that provides guidance to authors (and consumers) in an effort to improve reporting of the development of competency frameworks. The checklist was developed by a 35-member expert panel and a five-member research team following published guidance from the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research (EQUATOR) Network. The final checklist contains 20 essential reporting items including guidance on reporting title and abstract, framework development, the development process, testing and funding/conflicts of interest. The intent of the COmpeteNcy FramEwoRk Development in Health Professions (CONFERD-HP) reporting guideline is to help readers (including researchers, educators, regulators, health professionals, and patients) develop a greater understanding of relevant terminology, core concepts, and key items to report for competency framework development in health professions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0115.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: tourism; islands; impact; economic development; sustainability
Online: 8 March 2022 (02:45:35 CET)
Tourism may not sustainably support territories with limited natural resource stock as islands. The volume in visitor arrivals and the industry investments can increase the pressure even beyond sustainable levels. There is an evident and unresolved tension between these two great polarities, sustainability and economic growth driven by tourism. The aim for policymakers is to find an acceptable equilibrium between these two dimensions. This paper investigates the tourism evolution between 2007 and 2019 in 15 Mediterranean islands, comparing the tourism pressures through statistical indicators. The analysis will compare tourism demand and supply trends in these contexts. The performances will be evaluated to identify the Islands positioning between sustainability needs and tourism development opportunities considering post-covid-19 challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0254.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Morphology; insects; biodiversity research; ontology development
Online: 18 January 2022 (11:49:54 CET)
The spectacular radiation of insects has produced a stunning diversity of phenotypes. During the last 250 years, research on insect systematics has generated hundreds of terms for naming and comparing those phenotypes. In its current form, this terminological diversity is presented in natural language and lacks formalization, which prohibits computer-assisted comparison using semantic web technologies. Here we propose a Model for Describing Insect Anatomical Structures (MoDIAS) which incorporates structural properties and positional relationships for standardized, consistent, and reproducible descriptions of insect phenotypes. We applied the MoDIAS framework in creating the ontology for the Anatomy of the Insect Skeleto-Muscular system (AISM). The AISM is the first general insect ontology that aims to cover all taxa by providing generalized, fully logical, and queryable, definitions for each term. It was built using the Ontology Development Kit (ODK), which maximizes interoperability with Uberon (Uberon multi-species anatomy ontology) and other basic ontologies, enhancing the integration of insect anatomy into the broader biological sciences. A template system for adding new terms, extending and linking the AISM to additional anatomical, phenotypic, genetic, and chemical ontologies is also introduced. The AISM is proposed as the backbone for taxon-specific insect ontologies and has potential applications spanning systematic biology and biodiversity informatics, allowing users to (1) use controlled vocabularies and create semi-automated computer-parsable insect morphological descriptions; (2) integrate insect morphology into broader fields of research, including ontology-informed phylogenetic methods, logical homology hypothesis testing, evo-devo studies, and genotype to phenotype mapping; and (3) automate the extraction of morphological data from the literature, enabling the generation of large-scale phenomic data, by facilitating the production and testing of informatic tools able to extract, link, annotate, and process morphological data. This system will allow for clear and semantically interoperable integration of insect phenotypes in biodiversity studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Development; area; livestock; beef cattle; corporation
Online: 21 December 2021 (11:31:54 CET)
Livestock is an integral part of agriculture which significantly contributes to the economic and socio-economic development. Based on its potential in natural resources and human resources, East Kalimantan Province has opportunity to become a beef cattle development area. The development of a corporate-based beef cattle breeding area is an approach which taken toward industrial and business-oriented beef cattle breeding. The concept of breeder corporation will create new strengths such as strengths in human resources, capital, and banking in business development, which can more open the opportunities for the success and growth of the breeder's business. The development of a corporate-based beef cattle breeding area provides opportunities, including: 1) improving the competitiveness and added value of the region and beef cattle commodities in order to support national sustainable food security; 2) strengthening the livestock business system in one area management in a holistic manner; and 3) strengthening breeders institutions in accessing information, technology, public facilities and infrastructure, capital, processing and marketing, so that the concept is expected to be applied in East Kalimantan Province.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0480.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: architecture; sustainability; sustainable development; sustainable design
Online: 25 November 2021 (14:43:15 CET)
Sustainability is a concept shrouded in abstraction. While we have definitions in existence, it is often difficult to explain the concept itself. The current definition of ‘sustainable development’ was given by the Brundtland Commission’s report in 1987. The Earth Summit at Rio in 1992 gave us Agenda 21, an action plan to achieve sustainable development. Now in the 21st century, philosophers, academicians, and researchers across the globe are paving the way for a new understanding of the term ‘sustainability’, its contextual nature, and its relation to humans, politics, and ecology. This article investigates the origins of the term ‘sustainability’, its derivatives, and the concept of sustainable development. A semantical analysis is carried out to understand the differences between ‘sustainability’ and ‘sustainable development’. Next, the development of the three pillars of sustainability and the application of these concepts in the field of architecture and design is also investigated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0522.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Dementia; prevalence; Tanzania; sustainable development goals
Online: 21 June 2021 (15:22:37 CEST)
As a result of an increasing population of aged people in sub-Saharan Africa, dementia is predicted to surge up to 90% by 2030. This review is set to assess the prevalence of dementia, for 65+ aged population in sub-Saharan states and particularly in Tanzania. Subsequently, the review will identify the possible risks factors – age, gender, level of education, cardiovascular problems, diabetes and mild cognitive impairment – and will lay out the challenges of reducing the dementia burden in Tanzania. Additionally, the review explores the current approaches in solving dementia disorders, including a general view of the public understanding of dementia. Also, the review recognises the gaps in government funding to mental health, a barrier to service access and the need for further research on Alzheimer’s and other dementias. Lastly, the review links the sustainable development goals (SDGs) addressed and appreciate the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the fight against dementia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0519.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Polyethylene terephthalate; Microbial degradation; Sustainable development
Online: 21 June 2021 (14:52:03 CEST)
Plastics are extensively used due to their versatility, durability, and low cost. PET stands for Polyethylene terephthalate. PET plastic is widely used all over the world and has many applications ranging from water bottles to fabrics like polyester and many things in between. But its unrestrained use in every field is resulting in heaps and piles of non-biodegradable materials causing damage to the environment and causing pollution. The idea being proposed is to degrade the PET plastic biologically using different bacteria. The bacteria used in this process are Ideonella sakaiensis, Acetobacterium woodii, Pelotomaculum and Methanospirillum hungatei. PET plastic is degraded, yielding Terephthalic Acid (TPA) and Ethylene Glycol (EG) by the action of the bacterium I. sakaiensis. Degradation of EG by A. woodii results in the formation of acetate and ethanol. TPA is degraded by the action of the coculture of Pelotomaculum and M. hungatei thereby yielding methane and acetate. All these products formed have significant commercial uses in various industries. The complete process that is to be carried out can help in achieving sustainability by fulfilling various Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0303.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: 21st Century; Education; Historical Development; Paradigm
Online: 11 June 2021 (08:23:02 CEST)
This article aims to examine the concept of historical thinking by looking at the development of historical learning from colonialism to reformation, as well as some examples of innovations in history learning through technology media. The development of history learning in Indonesia has a long story from the colonialism era to the reformation that changed from time to time. However, changes and reforms in the education system do not make students more interested in history. The 21st century, known as the digital century, makes students' attention more focused on the present and the development of the times. Therefore, there are many innovations that are in line with technological media to support and maintain history learning in this era. The question from this research is how is history learning not favored by students when technological innovations to support this learning have developed? By using the literature review method and a qualitative approach, this article provides a new perspective through existing data. Because innovation cannot run effectively before it is accompanied by historical thinking, so the results of the research are historical thinking must be instilled from the start to support innovations that develop and attract students' interest. Based on the study, it is recommended that have historical thinking to further optimize technology develops innovation more effectively and ask for more interest in history. Keywords: 21st Century, Historical Development, Paradigm
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0077.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: European Energetic Law; Development; Resilience; Sustainability
Online: 2 June 2021 (12:24:19 CEST)
The paper will examine in detail (a) the norms that can be featured under the category "Green Deal" connected to the European Commission, (b) their application to Spain and (c) the different patterns of action and development models that have been shaped by this framework over the last 20 years. These patterns are particularly relevant currently, as the Covid crisis has highlighted the importance of advancing towards new patterns of local sustainability endowed with higher resilience. The notion of cognitive sustainability will be one of the added value to current reflections on sustainability in general and energetic sustainability in particular.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0725.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Citizens; Digital; Development; eGovernment; Strategy; Sustainable
Online: 31 May 2021 (09:59:07 CEST)
The research study examines the Digital government strategies of different countries and compare it with the Digital Pakistan Policy 2018. Different countries focus on the different factors/themes as per requirement of their countries and need of their citizens. Therefore, a requirement for re-search that compares the different digital government strategies has been identified. Secondary data on eGovernment strategies of different governments have been examined to investigate best practices in other countries. The qualitative data analysis software program NVivo has been used to facilitate code-based analysis of different digital government strategies. The findings and recommendations can be successfully utilized for the improvement of digital government strate-gies and its alignment with Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0727.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: city marketing; sustainable development; resillience; image
Online: 29 December 2020 (11:24:13 CET)
The focus of this study is to identify whether resilience and sustainable development can be used as an image for strategic planning of the city marketing. Resilience is about building and planning for future proof the cities. How urban challenges and crisis have the lowest impact and the maximum of bounce back and evolution. Resilience is part of the sustainable development. Thus, it is important for the decision-makers to define the mission on their strategic planning in a holistically way taking into consideration the basic assets of a city, the environment, the economy and the society and how can all of them can be combined to marketing the city and take into consideration the internal and external environment. As the past few years’ city marketing has become an important tool for the urban development. The main goal is to show how city marketing can be applied on a city that tries to be more resilient and more sustainable by using strategic urban planning to set the vision, to identify the challenges and the problematic areas and to set new goals and objectives in order to plan and build to future proof the complexity of an urban system. For answering the questions of this article we use two case studies Rotterdam (Netherlands) and Thessaloniki (Greece), using a literature review and researches conducted alongside with a benchmarking of their resilient strategies as both of the cities are members of the Resilient Cities Network. From a different perspective of resilient thinking, both of the cities have managed to use resilience as a marketing image for further sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0074.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: SDGs; Covid-19; innovation; blockchain; development
Online: 5 October 2020 (11:39:50 CEST)
As we embrace the new normal in the aftermath of Covid-19, the year 2020 also marks the decade of action as we start the 10-year countdown to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030. In this paper, we attempt to explore the extent to which the hardly won development gains over the last years could be reversed due to the unfolding COVID-19 global pandemic, how do we reboot the global response to accelerate the SDGs in times of uncertainties, and most importantly how to turn the recovery into an opportunity to build back better and more resilient economies. To do so, we examine the case of blockchain as one of the emerging innovative work-streams in development practices that could lead the way forward and pave the path for new developmental narratives as we all navigate the uncharted territories of the new digital age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0665.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fencing kinematics; lunge velocity; technique development
Online: 27 September 2020 (05:04:27 CEST)
The teaching of the lunge technique in fencing is critical in the developmental age. The relations of anthropometrics with kinematics of lunge was studied only in adult fencers, and no study exist in young considering the different level of experience. Our aims were to assess, in young fencers, which factors, between the anthropometric and the kinematics, were mostly connected with lunge performance (speed and excursion) in different genders and expertise levels. Fifteen young fencers participated in this study. Lunge kinematics, anthropometric characteristics and force expressed in vertical jump tests were collected. Maximal lunge velocity resulted mainly correlated with the posterior knee’s extension ((r=0.56, p=0.031). The lunge distance and mean hip velocity were mostly correlated with fencers’ height (r=0.85, p=0.000 and r=0.76, p=0.001) and FFM (r=0.8, p=0.000 and r=0.73, p=0.002). Experts and non-experts show significant differences in fat free mass, area of upper arm, and of thighs (Effect Size = 1,27 – 1,33, p= 0,021-0,035). From our results it emerges that, in this age range, the analysed aspects of lunge performance are mainly correlated with participant’s anthropometry. Moreover, it is already possible in this age span, to find technical differences linked to the experience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0256.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: cell types; nephridia; excretion; ultrafiltration; development
Online: 21 June 2020 (10:47:26 CEST)
Excretion and osmoregulation are fundamental processes of the organism, as they prevent the accumulation of toxic waste products in the body and control the osmotic differences between the cells and the environment. In most of the animals these phenomena are taking place through specialized organs, namely excretory organs, composed of diverse cell types that are performing tasks such as secretion and ultrafiltration. Although the morphology and embryology of excretory organs can differ dramatically, the common spatial arrangement of structural proteins and transporters as well as the similar transcriptional developmental programs underlying their formation suggests the homology of their cell types. In this chapter we discuss the current understanding of the evolution of excretory organsfrom a comparative morphological, developmental and functional perspective, flanked by an additional, cell-type perspective. We argue that a putative homologization of certain excretory cell types does not necessarily reflect the homology of the resulting organs, and that integrating all different levels of comparison is crucial for addressing evolutionary questions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0152.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: entrepreneurship; employees; Romanian rural area; development
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:27:24 CET)
The economic activities in the romanian rural areas have started to know new horizons with Romania's accession to the European Community. The rural society was and is focused on the level of entrepreneurial behavior strictly on agriculture, with all its derivatives. At present there is a variety of sectors of activity that are found in the rural society, which are waiting to know new dimensions. The higher the number of entrepreneurs, the more job vacancies will be created across different fields of activity. In these circumstances, the number of jobs will increase, and the society in the romanian rural area can enjoy a diversity of the population determined by the various professions of people, but also by the new dimension offered by the entrepreneurial area. This way, it will be done later the repopulation of the Romanian countryside, a national interest issue, after the great majority of the population went to work in the countries of the European Community, having to be forced by the poverty of the romanian rural area, determined by the lack of jobs to ensure a decent standard of living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainable development; active transport; visioning; policy
Online: 17 April 2019 (06:19:52 CEST)
This paper sets out three visions for the year 2035 which bring about a radical change in the level of walking, cycling and public transport in Turkish urban areas. A participatory visioning technique was structured according to a three-stage technique: (i) Extensive online comprehensive survey. In which potential transport measures were researched for their relevance to promoting sustainable transport in future Turkish urban areas; (ii) Semi-structured interviews. Where transport strategy suggestions were developed in the context of the possible imaginary urban areas and their associated contextual description of the imaginary urban areas for each vision; (iii) Participatory workshops. Where an innovative method was developed to explore various creative future choices and alternatives. Overall, this paper indicates that the content of the visions was reasonable, but such visions need a considerable degree of consensus and radical approaches to tackling them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0491.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainable development; geography education; implementation; China
Online: 25 September 2018 (15:59:56 CEST)
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) had become a priority in many school systems. Geography has a tradition of investigating human-environment interactions and geography education is vital in order to make sense of sustainable development (SD). In this paper, the authors aimed to contribute to the implementation of ESD and SD in middle school geography, in The People’s Republic of China. This research employed a series of methods to analyze the content in (SD) in middle school geography standards and textbooks. The research surveyed geography teachers (n=237) and assessed geography students (n=246). Results exemplified both positive and negative conclusions from the data. Primarily, the findings suggested that geography education was important to ESD implementation, although the requirements for SD are low in Chinese middle schools. The SD content was reflected clearly in the content standards and textbooks, but it was not evenly distributed in geography education. Many geography teachers in China have ample geography and interdisciplinary knowledge and they can use textbooks and other teaching methods to teach SD. The students’ performance, in a sample of four key schools, was considered “OK”, however there was still room for improvement. Most students were familiar with people, resources, environmental problems and climate change, however most were unable to grasp the factual knowledge about SD, such as international events and documents, latest predicted data and research on global warming, as well as the indicators used in the specific SD assessment. Suggestions include providing students with more practical activities and a chance to do hands-on experiments, as well as building student organizations and clubs; improve Teachers’ knowledge and understanding through teacher training program and build a platform for communicating ideas of SD through modern communication technology. Ideas of SD should be integrated into students’ daily life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0278.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: resettlement; psychological risks; development-induced displacement
Online: 30 January 2018 (06:48:20 CET)
In resettlement planning literature, much has been written on economic, land valuation and compensation, infrastructure and services aspects of the land. Psychological risks and stresses of resettled communities, however, have been under-researched. The current research looks at the psychological risks of resettlers in a Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement (DIDR) project in Sri Lanka. Focusing on the stages of resettlement planning process discussed by Scudder and Colson four-stage model (1980) and the psychological risks discussed by Cernea’s (1990) impoverishment risks and reconstruction (IRR) model. This study evaluates the significant level of the psychological risks faced by the communities in DIDR projects in Sri Lanka relating to before and after resettlement. Moragahakanda Resettlement Project (MRP) was selected as the case study which is located in Naula DS division of Matale District, Central Province, Sri Lanka. A questionnaire survey, documents and field observations were used to evaluate the current psychological risks. The responses received from multiple choice questions were analyzed by Significant Point (SP) index. The research findings point that there are no conspicuous changes of psychological risks related to before/after resettlement has occurred in re-settlers. The findings highlight that the psychological risk levels in transition stage have remained the same level in the potential development stage. This research provides a systematic guidance enabling the physical planners to prioritize the most significant psychological risks which should be considered in the decision-making process of DIDR projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Bioreactor, Taguchi, Prodigiosin, Serratia, Process Development
Online: 3 July 2017 (17:13:27 CEST)
One of the major steps toward the industrialization of microbial product(s) is to optimize the cultivation conditions at the large scale bioreactor and successfully control the microbial behavior within large scale production environment. Statistical Design of Experiment was proven to optimize a vast number of microbial processes to achieve robustness and explore possible interactions among the variables. In this research, Taguchi Orthogonal Array was applied to optimize the cultivation condition of a newly isolated Prodigiosin-producing marine bacterial strain, Serratia AM8887, at bioreactor level. Two steps fermentation process was applied; as the productivity was scaled up from shake flask level to a bench top bioreactor (5L) and subsequently to an in-situ sterilization bioreactor system (20L) leading to a yield of 7g/L compared to 100mg/L prior to optimization confirming that; applying Taguchi experimental design is a reliable and good positive option for the optimization of biotechnological processes.. The produced pigment was purified and the chemical structure was revealed by means of Spectrophotometric, Maas Spectrum (MS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy analysis. The biological activity including antibacterial, antioxidants and cytotoxicity to cancer cells line of the pigment were explored. The pigment showed very characteristic features that could helpful in food, pharmaceuticals and/or textile industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0886.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Green development; Low-carbon development; Difference-in-difference method; New Energy Demonstration City Policy; City heterogeneity
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:04:12 CEST)
Developing new energy is critical to China's green and low-carbon development. And the New Energy Demonstration City Policy (NEDCP) is a vital innovation policy that inspires the development of new energy. Is the NEDCP facilitating green and low-carbon development, if so, how? Employing unbalanced panel data from 2003 to 2017, the impact of NEDCP on green and low-carbon development was studied by using the "difference in difference" (DID) model. We find that this policy can take significantly role. After various robustness tests, our results are still valid. According to the heterogeneity analysis, non-resource and non-old industrial base cities have a greater positive impact from this policy. The mechanism analysis denotes that the positive policy effect works through upgrading the industrial structure and stimulating urban innovation. The substantial empirical evidence presented in this article supports the continued promotion and implementation of new energy demonstration cities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0409.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Professional development for scientists; tenure-track faculty; tenure; professoriate; professional development practicum; professional development experiential learning; Accomplishing Career Transitions; American Society for Cell Biology; Minorities Affairs Committee
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:43:19 CET)
Experiential learning can facilitate the development of transferrable skills necessary for success in attaining tenure and promotion in academia. In this article, we discuss the benefits of designing and implementing an individualized professional development experience or practicum. By doing this, we describe the experiential learning component of the Accomplishing Career Transitions (ACT) Program of the American Society for Cell Biology. The ACT program aims to assist postdoctoral trainees and junior faculty from backgrounds underrepresented in STEM as they strive to transition into tenure-track positions and ultimately attain tenure at research-intensive or teaching-intensive academic institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0139.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: neoliberalism; education development; trade alliances; economic development; human capital; cultural capital; social capital; human capabilities; social action
Online: 8 February 2023 (06:27:28 CET)
This paper argues that the neoliberal consensus about education finance has broken down due to growing economic inequality. First, I use a comparative historical analysis of political alliances to examine patterns of world trade and nations’ policies for economic and educational development since World War II. The United States emphasized STEM-collegiate preparation for all students, while most countries continued the dual emphasis on technical-tertiary and higher education. Educational policy in the US and Pacific region also shifted to reliance on markets and student loans resulting in worsening economic inequality in access. Nations with dual technical and academic pathways in secondary and postsecondary education systems expand college enrollment rates more rapidly than the US. They also experience class conflict between the working-middle class and the new technology elite. Next, I examine how education policy shifted from national planning aligned with public funding to market-based incentives for institutional development, further exposing gaps in opportunity within nations. Finally, recognizing the variations in systemic causes of inequality, I argue that governments, education agencies, and civic activists can best promote equity by organizing to address barriers to opportunity for groups left behind in the wake of withering neoliberal education policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0870.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: mesopelagic fish; larvae; development; Red Sea; spawning
Online: 13 September 2023 (11:06:10 CEST)
This work aims to describe the early life history and the length frequency distribution of larval stages of three mesopelagic species collected near coral reef areas in the Red Sea. Larvae were collected monthly using a plankton net (500 µ) from three coastal coral reef areas surrounding Sharm El-Shekikh on the Egyptian Red Sea coast between January and December 2015. The identification of larvae was based on the author’s experience and other literature. The larvae of this species were divided into preflexion, flexion, and postflexion based on the flexion of the notochord and they were also categorized according to their size into relevant size classes. Mesopelagic fishes were represented in the collection by four species belonging to four families; Vinciguerria mabahiss (Family: Phosichthyidae), Benthosema pterotum (Family: Myctophidae), Astronesthes martensii (Family: Stomiidae; subfamily: Astronesthidae) and Trichiurus sp. (Family Scombridae). In general, a total of 3678 larvae were collected, of which 1191 belonged to mesopelagic species. The most abundant species was V. mabahiss with 677 larvae that constituted 18% of total larvae collected. The second most abundant species was B. pterotum that was represented by 485 larvae (13%). A. martensii was represented by the lowest number of larvae (29 larvae, 2%). Most larvae of the three species were in preflexion stage and more abundant in the cooler months of the year between November and April. The high number of preflexion larvae at the time may indicate the spawning of the three species in the colder times of the year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0012.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: brainstorming; GPT; AI; OpenAI; ChatGPT; regional development
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:47:23 CEST)
Modification of the brainstorming process by the application of artificial intelligence (AI) is proposed. System design of the software tool “kresilnik” is provided, which enables hybrid work of the human group and AI. The proposed system integrates OpenAI-GPT-3.5-turbo model with the server side providing the results to clients. The proposed architecture provides the possibility to not only generate ideas but also categorize them and set priorities. With the developed prototype, 760 ideas were generated on the topic of the design of the Gorenjska region development plan at eight different values of OpenAI-GPT-3.5-turbo algorithm temperatures. For the set of generated ideas, the entropy was determined, as well as the time needed for generation. Entropy distributions of the human group as well as AI-generated sets of ideas at different OpenAI-GPT-3.5-turbo algorithm temperatures, are provided in the form of histograms. Ideas were presented as a word cloud for one human group and AI-generated sets. A comparison of the idea-generation process between the human group and AI was conducted. The statistical Mann-Whitney U-test was performed, which confirmed the significant differences in the average entropy of generated ideas. Correlations between the length of the generated ideas and the time needed were determined for the human group and AI. Distributions for needed times and length of the ideas were determined, which are possible indicators to distinguish between human and artificial idea generation processes.