Farmers and seed companies constantly require high-quality seeds with excellent agronomic performance. However, faced with environmental adversity, limited natural resources and increasing food demand around the globe, more attention has turned to improving crop plant production by implementing efficient strategies. Seed priming technology has shown promising biological improvements leading to suitable agronomic performance in crop plants under adverse environmental conditions. Seeds are subjected to controlled conditions that are conducive to complex physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes, conferring specific stress tolerance to subsequent germination and growth conditions. In this review paper, we aimed to study the recent approaches in the efficiency of hydropriming, osmopriming, chemopriming, hormopriming, nanopriming, matrix priming, biopriming, physical priming and hybrid priming procedures in the production of crop plants under environmental adversity, as well as their biological mechanism changes. All priming methods demonstrated relevant changes in the biological mechanism related to crop plant production by mitigating salinity effects, heavy metals, and flooding stress and enhancing chilling, heat, drought and phytopathogen tolerance. We strongly recommend that researchers combine multiple priming methods, known as hybrid priming, in their investigations to provide novel technologies and additional biological approaches to enhance the knowledge of crop plant science. Thus, the findings shed light on the use of seed priming technology as a key strategy to increase crop plant production under environmental adversity by acquiring stress tolerance and enhancing agronomic traits to meet the global food demand.
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