ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0229.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Neurosciences; Artificial intelligence; brain modeling; Deep Learning
Online: 15 July 2022 (07:39:15 CEST)
If the development of machine learning and artificial intelligence plays a role in many fields of research and technology today, it has a special relationship with neurosciences. Indeed, historically inspired by our knowledge of the brain, deep learning shares some vocabularies with neurosciences and can sometimes be considered a brain’s model. Taking the particular example of epileptic seizure, which can develop in any biological neural tissue, we raise the question if and how the models used for deep learning can capture or model these pathological events. This particular example is a starting point to discuss the nature, limits, and functions of these models, and what we expect from a model of the brain. Finally, we argue that a pluralistic approach leading to the integrated coexistence of different models is necessary to study the brain in all its complexity.
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: visual cortical prosthesis; brain-machine interface; electrical stimulation; prosthetic vision
Online: 23 March 2021 (10:42:30 CET)
The electrical stimulation of the visual cortices has the potential to restore vision to blind individuals. Until now, the results of visual cortical prosthetics has been limited as no prosthesis has restored a full working vision but the field has shown a renewed interest these last years thanks to wireless and technological advances. However, several scientific and technical challenges are still open in order to achieve the therapeutic benefit expected by these new devices. One of the main challenges is the electrical stimulation of the brain itself. In this review, we analyze the results in electrode-based visual cortical prosthetics from the electrical point of view. We first briefly describe what is known about the electrode-tissue interface and safety of electrical stimulation. Then we focus on the psychophysics of prosthetic vision and the state-of-the-art on the interplay between the electrical stimulation of the visual cortex and phosphene perception. Lastly, we discuss the challenges and perspectives of visual cortex electrical stimulation and electrode array design to develop the new generation implantable cortical visual prostheses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0478.v2
Subject: Keywords: epilepsy; computational model; seizures; single neurons level; networks; whole brain
Online: 16 June 2021 (12:14:49 CEST)
Dynamical system tools offer a complementary approach to detailed biophysical seizure modeling, with a high potential for clinical applications. This review describes the theoretical framework that provides a basis for theorizing certain properties of seizures and for their classification according to their dynamical properties at onset and offset. We describe various modeling approaches spanning different scales, from single neurons to large-scale networks. This narrative review provides an accessible overview of this field, including non-exhaustive examples of key recent works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0206.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Computing Methodologies; Computer Simulation; Models, Biological; Models, Theoretical; Theoretical neurosciences
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:28:41 CET)
Computational neuroscience combines mathematics, computer science models, and neurosciences for theorizing, investigating, and simulating neural systems involved in the development, structure, physiology, and cognitive abilities of the brain. Computational models constitute a major stake in translational neuroscience: the analytical understanding of these models seems fundamental to consider a translation towards clinical applications. Method: We propose a minimal typology of computational models, which allows distinguishing between more realistic models (e.g., mechanistic models) and pragmatic models (e.g., phenomenological models). Result: Understanding the translational aspects of computational models goes far beyond the intrinsic characteristics of models. First, we assume that a computational model is rarely uniquely mechanistic or phenomenological. Idealization seems necessary because of i) the researcher’s perspectives on the phenomena and the purposes of the study (i.e., by the relativity of the model); ii) The complexity of reality across different levels and therefore the nature and number of dimensions required to consider a phenomenon. Especially, the use of models goes far beyond their function, and requires considering external characteristics rooted in path dependence, interdisciplinarity, and pluralism in neurosciences. Conclusion: The unreasonable use of computational models, which are highly complex and subject to a shift in their initial function, could be limited by bringing to light such factors.