ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0178.v1
Subject: Keywords: generalized nonlinear constitutive law; composite beam; Timoshenko beam; Bernoulli beam
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:48:26 CEST)
The paper presents a modified finite element method for nonlinear analysis of 2D beam structures. To take into account the influence of the shear flexibility, a Timoshenko beam element was adopted. The algorithm proposed enables using complex material laws without the need of implementing advanced constitutive models in finite element routines. The method is easy to implement in commonly available CAE software for linear analysis of beam structures. It allows to extend the functionality of these programs with material nonlinearities. By using the structure deformations, computed from the nodal displacements, and the presented here generalized nonlinear constitutive law, it is possible to iteratively reduce the bending, tensile and shear stiffnesses of the structures. By applying a beam model with a multi layered cross-section and generalized stresses and strains to obtain a representative constitutive law, it is easy to model not only the complex multi-material cross-sections, but also the advanced nonlinear constitutive laws (e.g. material softening in tension). The proposed method was implemented in the MATLAB environment, its performance was shown on the several numerical examples. The cross-sections such us a steel I-beam and a steel I-beam with a concrete encasement for different slenderness ratios were considered here. To verify the accuracy of the computations, all results are compared with the ones received from a commercial CAE software. The comparison reveals a good correlation between the reference model and the method proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: generalized nonlinear constitutive law; steel frame; Timoshenko; Bernoulli
Online: 7 June 2021 (10:51:17 CEST)
The article presents a modified finite element (FE) based algorithm for nonlinear analysis of 2D beam structures, which takes into account the influence of the shear forces. The method proposed enables using complex materials with nonlinearities without the need of implementing advanced constitutive models in FE routines. It can be directly integrated with commonly available FE software for linear analysis of beam structures, so its functionality can be easily extended also with material nonlinearities. The presented approach adopts the generalized constitutive law algorithm to iteratively modify the stiffness of beam element. To address an influence of a shear stiffness, a Timoshenko beam element was used. The methodology was implemented and its performance was verified on several numerical examples. For validation, the displacements and the ultimate loads were compared with the values from a commercial FE software. The results shown a good correlation between the reference model and the method proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0678.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: corrugated board; box strength estimation; packaging flaps; crease line shifting
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:08:44 CEST)
In the modern world, all manufacturers strive for the optimal design of their products. This general trend is recently also observed in the corrugated board packaging industry. Colorful prints on displays, perforations in shelf-ready-packaging and various types of ventilation holes in trays, although extremely important for ergonomic or functional reasons, weaken the strength of the box. To meet the requirements of customers and recipients, packaging manufacturers outdo each other in new ideas for the construction of their products. Often the aesthetic qualities of the product become more important than the attention to maintaining the standards of the load capacity of the packaging (which, apart from their attention-grabbing functions, are also intended to protect transported products). The particular flaps design (both top and bottom) and their influence on the strength of the box is investigated in this study. The updated analytical-numerical approach is used here to predict the strength of the packaging with various flap’s offsets. Experimental results indicated a significant decrease in the static load-bearing capacity of packaging in the case of shifted flap creases. The simulation model proposed in our previous work has been modified and updated to take into account also this effect. The results obtained by the model presented in the paper are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: corrugated cardboard; numerical homogenization; strain energy equivalence; perforation; creasing; flexural stiffness; torsional stiffness
Online: 1 June 2021 (09:40:56 CEST)
The corrugated board packaging industry is increasingly using advanced numerical tools to design and estimate the load capacity of its products. That is why numerical analyzes are becoming a common standard in this branch of manufacturing. Such trend causes either the use of advanced computational models that take into account the full 3D geometry of the flat and wavy layers of corrugated board, or the use of homogenization techniques to simplify the numerical model. The article presents theoretical considerations that extend the numerical homogenization technique already presented in our previous work. The proposed here homogenization procedure also takes into account the creasing and / or perforation of corrugated board, i.e. processes that undoubtedly weaken the stiffness and strength of the corrugated board locally. However, it is not always easy to estimate how exactly these processes affect the bending or torsional stiffness. What is known for sure is that the degradation of stiffness depends, among other things, on the type of cut, its shape, the depth of creasing, as well as their position or direction in relation to the corrugation direction. The method proposed here can be successfully applied to model smeared degradation in a finite element or to define degraded interface stiffnesses on a crease line or a perforation line.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0403.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: corrugated cardboard; converting; numerical homogenization; strain energy equivalence; finite element method; shell structures; transverse shear
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:01:06 CEST)
Corrugated cardboard is an ecological material, mainly because, in addition to virgin cellulose fibers also the fibers recovered during recycling process are used in its production. However, the use of recycled fibers causes slight deterioration of the mechanical properties of the corrugated board. In addition, converting processes such as printing, die-cutting, lamination, etc. cause micro-damage in the corrugated cardboard layers. In this work, the focus is precisely on the crushing of corrugated cardboard. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted, in which the different types of single-walled corrugated cardboards were pressed in a fully controlled manner to check the impact of the crush on the basic material parameters. The amount of crushing (with a precision of 10 micrometers) was controlled by a precise FEMat device, for crushing the corrugated board in the range from 10 to 70 % of its original thickness. In this study, the influence of crushing on bending, twisting and shear stiffness as well as a residual thickness and edge crush resistance of corrugated board was investigated. Then, a procedure based on a numerical homogenization, taking into account a partial delamination in the corrugated layers to determine the degraded material stiffness was proposed. Finally, using the empirical-numerical method, a simplified calculation model of corrugated cardboard was derived, which satisfactorily reflects the experimental results.