ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: education; University of the District of Columbia; engineering education; summer program
Online: 13 June 2019 (07:28:00 CEST)
Preparing high school students for engineering disciplines is crucial for sustainable scientific and technological developments in the USA. This paper discusses a pre-college program, which not only exposes students to various engineering disciplines but also enables them to consider engineering as the profession. The four-week long “Engineering Innovation (EI)” course is offered every year to high school students by the center of outreach, Johns Hopkins University. EI program is designed to develop problem-solving skills through extensive hands-on engineering experiments. A team consisting of an instructor, generally a PhD in Engineering, and a teaching fellow, generally a high school science teacher, closely work with students to pedagogically inculcate basics of core engineering disciplines such as civil, mechanical, electrical, materials, and chemical engineering. EI values independent problem-solving skills and simultaneously promote the team spirit among students. A number of crucial engineering aspects such as professional ethics, communications, technical writing, and understanding of common engineering principles are inculcated among high school students via well-designed individual and group activities. This paper discusses the model of EI program and its impact on students learning and their preparation for the engineering career.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS); Slovak school children; mental health; physical health; Columbia Impairment Scale; Behavioral Problem Index
Online: 7 May 2018 (09:23:27 CEST)
ETS exposure has been shown as an important environmental risk factor in vulnerable population groups. The aim of the project is to analyze the relationships among the ETS and behavior and health in 6−15-year-old children in Slovakia. The status of physical and mental health of children in relation to exposure to tobacco smoke was examined in the representative group of 1478 school children. The methods used, included anonymous questionnaires ﬁlled in by parents, Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS), Behavior Problem Index (BPI) and anthropometry. The prevalence of passive smoking is the highest in the capital (27%) and southern cities. Significant relationships have been confirmed between ETS and the age, socio-economic status, the incompleteness of the family, the level of mother's education and the significantly higher prevalence of respiratory diseases (26.7%).The relationships of ETS with emotional (CIS scores ≥16) and behavioral functions (BPI score ≥14) were significant in children exposed to mother‘s and father‘s smoking at home. In the multivariate analysis this association was not significant; the factors such as income and completeness of the family were dominant. The results confirmed the impact of ETS and social factors on health state and health behavior and could be the argumentation for legislative changes.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: mineral physics; ultrasonic interferometry; resonant ultrasound spectroscopy; law of corresponding states; equations-of-state; Columbia University; American Geophysical Union
Online: 29 March 2019 (07:54:57 CET)
From 1964 to the early 1970s, Orson Anderson led a research program at the Lamont Geological Observatory in the newly-emerging field of “mineral physics”. In collaboration with colleagues Edward Schreiber and Naohiro Soga, Orson exploited the techniques of physical acoustics to study the behavior of the sound velocities of minerals at elevated pressures and temperatures. This research program also included semi-empirical studies of relationships between the bulk modulus and the molar volume of solids and the use of lattice dynamics to calculate the elastic moduli of cubic structures as a function of pressure to predict instabilities, as well as theoretical investigations of the Lagrangian vs. Eulerian formulations of finite strain equations of state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0040.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: British Columbia; environmental assessment; marine construction; circulation; numerical model; sediment model; tidal current; wind-driven current; stratification; initial dilution zone
Online: 2 August 2018 (08:36:50 CEST)
Major marine construction projects, resulting in the release of sediments, are subject to environmental assessment and other regulatory approval processes. An important tool used for this is the development of specialized numerical methods for these marine activities. An integrated set of numerical methods addresses four distinct topics: the near-field release and mixing of suspended sediments into the water column (i.e. the initial dilution zone); the transport of the suspended sediments under the influence of complex ocean currents in the far-field; the settling of the transported suspended sediments onto the seabed; and the potential for resuspension of the deposited sediments due to sporadic occurrences of unusually large near-bottom currents. A review of projects subjected to environmental assessment in the coastal waters of British Columbia from the year 2006 to 2017, is presented to illustrate the numerical models being used and their ongoing development. Improvements include higher resolution model grids to better represent the near-field, the depiction of particle size dependent vertical settling rates and the computation of resuspension of initially deposited sediments, especially in relation to temporary subsea piles of sediments arising from trenching for marine pipelines. The ongoing challenges for this numerical modeling application area are also identified.