ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0146.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: cattle; Belgian Blue; beef; colostrum; selenium
Online: 11 October 2022 (07:23:19 CEST)
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element for the health and immunity of cattle. Double-muscled Belgian Blue cows are well known to be prone to nutritional deficiencies. Colostrum Se level is also a key factor to promote immunoglobulin intake in young calves. The main objectives of this study were to assess (1) the plasma and colostrum Se statuses of properly-supplemented Belgian-Blue cows on commercial farms and (2) the relationship between Se concentrations in plasma and colostrum. Secondary objectives were to assess relationships between plasma or colostrum Se concentrations and dietary Se supplementation as well as blood biomarkers. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from 49 Belgian Blue cows on 5 commercial farms in Belgium. They received 5 different rations with Se supplementation ranging from 0.5 to 2 ppm including 20% to 83% of organic form. Results showed that average Se concentration was 90 +- 15 µg/L in plasma and 79 +- 26 µg/L in colostrum, consistent with previous studies on well-supplemented cows. No relationship was observed between Se concentrations in plasma and colostrum, suggesting that colostrum Se testing would be a complementary indicator for improving calf Se supplementation. Relationships between plasma or colostrum Se and dietary Se or blood biomarkers emphasized the complexity of Se metabolism in observational studies under field conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0031.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Breast milk; Carotenoids; Tocopherols; Colostrum; Lactation stage; Cross-sectional study
Online: 6 October 2017 (08:39:21 CEST)
This study aims to quantify carotenoids and tocopherols in human milk from healthy Chinese women, and to explore their associations with region, lactation stage, and maternal socio-economic and obstetric factors. Human milk was obtained from 509 healthy mothers and the compounds of carotenoids and tocopherols were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography after mild saponification and solvent extraction. Socio-economic and obstetric characteristics of the mothers and their dietary intakes through a single 24-hour dietary recall were evaluated. The median content of each component [μg/100mL, median (interquartile range)] in colostrum and mature milk was, respectively, β-carotene 8.0 (4.7-15.2) and 1.8 (1.4-2.7), β-cryptoxanthin 6.2 (2.4-12.9) and 1.8 (1.1-3.4), lutein 5.7 (2.9-10.2) and 3.4 (1.5-6.0), lycopene 6.3 (4.0-9.9) and 1.4 (1.1-2.0), zeaxanthin 1.0 (0.6-1.5) and 1.0 (0.6-1.4), α-tocopherol 645 (388-1176) and 211 (131-321), γ-tocopherol 68 (48-121) and 77 (45-120). The levels of all those vitamins presented regional differences, and decreased as lactation stage increased except for zeaxanthin and γ-tocopherol. Associations of carotenoid contents with maternal education, delivery mode, and present body mass index were found in multivariate analyses. These results suggest that some region, lactation stage, obstetric and socio-economic factors are associated with human milk concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in healthy Chinese mothers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0119.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Donkey milk; donkey colostrum; mammal’s milk; bioactive peptides; biologic activity; health benefits
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:57:01 CEST)
Due to its similarity with human milk and its low allergenic properties, donkey milk has long been used as an alternative for infants and patients with cow's milk protein allergy. In addition, this milk is attracting growing interest in human nutrition because of presumed health benefits. It has antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumoral, antiproliferative, and antidiabetic activity. Also, it stimulates the immune system, regulates the gastrointestinal flora, and prevents inflammatory diseases. Although all components of donkey milk can contribute to functional and nutritional effects, it is generally accepted that the whey protein fraction plays a major role. The purpose of this review is to highlight the active proteins and peptides of donkey milk in comparison with other types of milk, emphasizing their properties and their roles in different fields.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: bovine colostrum; bacteria; pathogens; probiotic bacteria; cost-effective processing; heat treatment; pasteurization; contamination control; immunoglobulins; enzymes
Online: 17 September 2021 (11:51:18 CEST)
The main purpose of bovine colostrum, being the milk secreted by a cow after giving birth, is to transfer passive immunity to the calf. The calves have an immature immune system as they lack immunoglobulins (Igs). Subsequently, the supply of good quality bovine colostrum is required. The quality of colostrum is classified by low bacterial counts and adequate Ig concentrations. Bacterial contamination can contain a variety of human pathogens or high counts of spoilage bacteria, which becomes more challenging with emerging use of bovine colostrum as food and food supplements. There is also a growing risk for the spread of zoonotic diseases originating from bovines. For this reason, processing based on heat treatment or other feasible techniques are required. This review provides an overview of literature on the microbial quality of bovine colostrum and processing methods to improve its microbial quality and keep its nutritional values as food. The highlights of this review are: high quality colostrum is a valuable raw material in food products and supplements, the microbial safety of bovine colostrum is increased using appropriate processing-suitable effective heat treatment, which does not destroy the high nutrition value of colostrum, the heat treatment processes are cost-effective compared to other methods, and heat treatment can be performed in both small- and large-scale production.