ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: motivation for learning Chinese; Japanese learners of Chinese; teaching Chinese to Japanese learners, teaching Chinese to kids and adolescents; teaching Chinese to adults
Online: 9 August 2021 (08:58:48 CEST)
Sustaining learners’ motivation to keep learning has been concerned for over 60 years in education and SLA. Most research focusing on Japanese university students has contributed lots of theoretical and practical developments, but research focusing on motivations of non-traditional adult learners and those under 18-year-old to learn Chinese is still little even though previous research findings have proved age is one of the key variables influencing learning besides nationalities and Chinese language levels. In order to find an effective treatment for sustainable Chinese language learning in Japan, this study utilized a survey method to analyze the types of Japanese learners’ motivation to learn Chinese via analysis of a moment structures (AMOS), and to compare the differences of the motivation via one-way ANOVA. This study revealed that Japanese learners’ motivation to learn Chinese consists of eight common types, which are “instrumental motivation”, “personal orientation”, “identified regulation”, “Chinese cultural productions”, “integrating into Chinese community”, “external regulation”, “social responsibility”, and “Chinese for academic purposes”. Also, there are similarities and differences existing in the eight motivation types among the Japanese children, adolescents, (non-) traditional adult learners of Chinese as a foreign language (CFL). The findings contribute the understanding of motivation types and differences among the four aged Japanese learners to teachers of teaching Chinese to speakers of other languages (TCSOL), and to future research further exploring how differently aged Japanese learners can have and use a higher motivation as a main drive to learn Chinese language as a lifelong business.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0141.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: micro language planning; educator agency; Chinese kindergarten; sustainable language policy and planning
Online: 12 September 2022 (09:48:41 CEST)
Micro-level language policy and planning (LPP) primarily concerns local actors' decision-making on matters in relation to language(s) and its users. Despite a growing body of literature focusing on micro language planning in educational settings, there is a scarcity of research examining early childhood education settings such as micro-level LPP context for young English language learners. By adopting a case study approach, the present study examined the educators' enactment of agency in micro-planning the English language education policy (LEP) in one Chinese kindergarten and the associated factors shaping their agency. Our study revealed that the sustainable implementation of the kindergarten English LEP depended on the principal, native English-speaking teachers, and the Chinese assistant teachers' different degrees of agency. Also, the research findings indicated an array of contextual and individual factors nested in a hierarchical structure that facilitated, guided, and constrained the educators' agency in a role-and circumstance-dependent manner. This study contributes to the pertinent literature by casting nuanced light on the different educators' contributions to the micro-level LPP against a national policy that does not endorse early-year English language education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: nasopharyngeal carcinoma; traditional Chinese medicine; Chinese herbal products; complementary and alternative medicine; Gan-Lu-Yin
Online: 26 September 2018 (05:09:08 CEST)
In most countries, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is no more than 1 per 100,000 for both men and women; however, it is much higher for men and women in Taiwan. The use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of NPC and its treatment-related side effects has been increasing. The National Health Insurance (NHI) covers 99.6% of Taiwan’s residents. In the present population-based cohort study, we aimed to investigate the pattern of utilization of Chinese herbal products (CHPs) for NPC from 2001 through 2011 in Taiwan. We identified a total of 30294 patients with newly diagnosed NPC from the Registry for Catastrophic Illnesses Patient Database (RCIPD). Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for CHP utilization. From 2001 through 2011, 17816 patients aged ≥20 years were newly diagnosed with NPC. Of these, 4749 patients used TCM outpatient services for NPC treatment. TCM users were more likely to be women, young, residents of Central Taiwan, and white-collar workers. The most commonly prescribed formula CHP was Gan-Lu-Yin, followed by Xin-Yi-Qing Fei-Tang and Shan-Shen-Mai-Men-Dong-Tang. The most commonly prescribed single CHP was Hedyotis diffusa, followed by Radix Scrophulariae and Radix Ophiopogonis. These findings provide information regarding personalized therapies for NPC and can promote further clinical experiments and pharmacological research on CHPs for NPC treatment in Taiwan. Further well-designed randomized controlled studies and basic mechanistic studies should assess the safety and effectiveness of CHPs for NPC treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0207.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Chinese Guidelines; COVID-19; pharmaceutical treatment
Online: 13 April 2020 (03:43:37 CEST)
Background and Objective: China has managed to control the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with confinement measurements and treatment strategies, while other countries are struggling to contain the spread. This study discusses the guidelines related to COVID-19 in China in order to provide important references for other countries in the fight against COVID-19. Methods: Chinese guidelines relevant to COVID-19 were systematically searched via the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, YiMaiTong database, and World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 database on March 20th, 2020. Guideline information was extracted, including date of publication, source, objectives and the target population. Guidelines specific to the pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 were further investigated to identify the types of antivirus drugs recommended and to report on how treatment recommendations for COVID-19 have evolved overtime. Results: A total of 114 guidelines were identified, of which 87 were national guidelines and 27 were regional guidelines. The scope of included guidelines consisted of: the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19, the management of hospital departments and specific diseases during the outbreak of COVID-19. Sixty-four of the included guidelines targeted all COVID-19 patients, while the remaining guidelines concentrated on special patient populations (i.e., geriatric population, pediatric population, and pregnant population) or patients with coexisting diseases. Twenty-three guidelines focused on the pharmacological treatments for all COVID-19 patients. Interferon, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Ribavirin, Chloroquine, and Umifenovir represented the most recommended antivirus drugs. With the emergence of encouraging results from preclinical and preliminary clinical studies, Chloroquine Phosphate was recommended in the national Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (6th version) on February 19th, 2020. Thereafter, more detailed guidelines regarding the adjustment of dosage regimens and the monitoring of adverse events of Chloroquine Phosphate were published. To date, 8 Chinese guidelines have recommended Chloroquine Phosphate or Hydroxychloroquine as mainstream antivirus drug for the treatment of COVID-19. Conclusions: China has generated a plethora of guidelines covering almost all aspects of COVID-19. Chloroquine, as one widely affordable treatment, holds great potential to become the gold standard choice as more clinical evidence is shared by researchers from China as well as other countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0781.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum; Chinese sausage; antioxidation; flavour; quality
Online: 29 April 2021 (15:45:00 CEST)
Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) strain P3 and mutant strain P3-M2 with antioxidant properties on fermented sausage flavour via lipid and protein oxidation inhibition were investigated. The commerical strain was used to as positive control (control group). Results showed that P3 and P3-M2 had the ability of reducing lipid and protein oxidantion during fermentation. The increase of lipoxygenase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were retarded. Metmyoglobin(MetMb) content relatively decreased significantly(p < 0.05), while sulfhydryl group contents were significantly higher than those in the control((p < 0.05). Futhermore, changes in protein bands were confrimed with the less protein oxidation with P3-M2 than P3 and the control. Additionally, strain P3 and P3-M2 significantly enhanced the type and relative content of esters after fermented (p < 0.05), indicating that strain P3 and P3-M2 contributed to the production of flavor substances. These results revealed that L. plantarum strains with antioxidant properties were a promising approach in inhibiting lipid and protein oxidation of chinese sausage, maintaining the stable natural structure of protein, simultaneously improve the quality of sausage and promote the sausage to form a better flavor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0239.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Sustainability; Chinese culture; Moslem society; Malaysia; Indonesia
Online: 23 January 2019 (10:25:28 CET)
Abstract Sustainability of ethnic culture in Southeast Asia has made the dramatically growth of ethnic identity. The ethnic revivals already made the increasing of cultural events in public spaces. This research paper sought the cultural sustainability of Chinese in Moslem society of Southaest Asia. A multisited ethnography was conducted in Medan Municipal of North Sumatra and Georgetown Penang, Malaysia to observe the sustained Chinese culture as the symbol of ethnification of Chinese in Moslems society in Southeast Asia region. It found that after 2003 Indonesia already saw the attractive cultural performances of Chinese in public spaces as the continuation of sustainability. In our ethnographic investigation from 2014 -2017, the reshaping of the Chinese identity through sustainability of Chinese culture in Medan Municipality of North Sumatra, and Penang of Malaysia has the high public visibility. Research report showed the continuation of the Chinese rituals and festivals which were accompanied by music instruments of Chinese and theatrical performances. Those have been transformed from self commemorations to be more public; attractions already were moved to public places, not solely in temples or ethnic group surroundings as what commonly found in the past period. It concluded that the sustainability of Chinese culture in public spaces made the Southeast Asia connection among the Chinese groups solidify their identity in this region tightened.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0370.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Chinese chestnut; replaceable bud; programmed cell death; transcriptomics
Online: 20 January 2023 (06:31:11 CET)
Previous research suggests that the senescence and death of the replaceable bud in chestnut cultivar (cv.) ‘Tima Zhenzhu’ involves programmed cell death (PCD). However, the molecular network responsible for regulating replaceable bud PCD is poorly characterized. Here, we performed transcriptomic profiling of the chestnut cv. ‘Tima Zhenzhu’ replaceable bud before (S20), during (S25), and after PCD (S30) to ascertain the molecular mechanism underlying the PCD process. A total of 5,779, 9,867, and 2,674 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were discovered upon comparison of S20 vs. S25, S20 vs. S30, and S25 vs. S30, respectively. Approximately 6,137 DEGs common to at least two comparisons were selected for GO and KEGG enrichment analyses to interrogate the main corresponding biological functions and pathways. GO analysis showed that these common DEGs could be divided into three functional categories, including 15 cellular components, 14 molecular functions, and 19 biological processes. KEGG analysis found that “plant hormone signal transduction” included 93 DEGs. Overall, 441 DEGs were identified as related to the process of PCD. Most of these were found to be genes associated with ethylene signaling, as well as initiation and execution of various PCD processes. A hypothetical model, consisting of three overlapping processes, is proposed for the replaceable bud PCD: First, ethylene signaling is activated during preparation for PCD, in order to regulate the activity of downstream targets. Next, during PCD initiation, the up-regulation of several TFs (including MYB, MADS-box, bHLH, and NAC TFs) induces an increase in cytochrome c expression and in the cytosolic Ca2+ content, activating the Ca2+-dependent signaling cascade. Finally, during PCD execution, the process of autophagy and the activity of proteases (i.e., cysteine proteinases RD21A-like, metacaspase-9-like, vacuolar-processing enzyme-like, and senescence-associated proteins for hydrolysis) work synergistically to clear the cell of cellular components. When this process is complete, the replaceable bud senesces and dies.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Chinese sacbrood virus; VP1; Apis cerana; Phylogenetic analysis
Online: 5 January 2020 (15:49:12 CET)
The Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana) sacbrood virus (CSBV) causes death of larvae and colony collapse, and could damage the beekeeping industry in China. We sequenced complete genomes of CSBV strains derived from the Maerkang area, Wenjiang area, and Wanyuan area of Sichuan province of China. The genome length of CSBV strains from Sichuan was 8863bp, and it contained one complete Open Reading Frame of a gene with 8544 bp that encoded a protein with 2848 amino acids. The (G+C) % and (A+T) % composition ranged from 40.6 to 40.7 and 59.3 to 59.4, respectively. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the three CSBV strains and previously reported SBV and CSBV sequences from other regions. We found that viral strains clustered based on their region of origin and host species. The genetic sequences of the CSBV strain from Maerkang were 98.7% and 99.6% similar to CSBV strains from Wanyuan and Wenjiang, respectively. In addition, CSBV from Maerkang had 88.4%-95.2% sequence similarity to previously published genomes of CSBV or SBV from other areas. The VP1 gene sequenced in our study had a 43 bp deletion compared to VP1 sequences of CSBV from other regions in Asia. We detected 10 antigenic determinants on the VP1 protein of CSBV form Aba. Our study provides new insight into the diversity of CSBV strains in China and may help with identifying methods to prevent infection of honeybee colonies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: KCNJ12; SNP; myoblast differentiation; stature; Chinese beef cattle
Online: 28 April 2019 (09:38:56 CEST)
Potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 12 (KCNJ12) gene is one promising candidate for economic traits because of its crucial roles in myoblast development. Here, a missense mutation (Cys>Arg), was firstly detected to locate in exon 3 of KCNJ12 from three Chinese cattle breeds by DNA-pool sequencing. Then, we performed the association analysis of this SNP with stature in three Chinese cattle populations (n = 820). Significantly positive correlation was revealed by reduced animal general linear model and the genotype of CC is the most excellent genotype in three breeds. Further, we measured the expression profiling of the KCNJ12 gene in various cattle tissues and primary bovine skeletal muscle cells. Ubiquitous expression with high abundance in muscle was observed. Further, in primary bovine skeletal muscle cells, the KCNJ12 mRNA expression was gradually up-regulated in differentiation medium (DM) compared with that in growth medium (GM), suggesting that KCNJ12 gene is involved in bovine myocyte differentiation. Conclusively, KCNJ12 gene is a functional candidate gene which can be used as molecular marker for beef cattle breeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0050.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Chinese architecture; standardization; environmental architecture; Beijing urban layout
Online: 4 April 2018 (06:20:50 CEST)
A correlation between Chinese traditional architecture and cultural concepts has been established to analyze the formalization of architectural and urban patterns in relation to environmental features. In this regard, we have discussed the process of standardization from architectural elements or modules related in different levels of composition and articulated around empty spaces following ancient cosmic concepts to achieve harmony with nature. The conclusions show that Chinese architectural patterns can only be understood in relation to nature, and in turn have profound environmental values from which lessons can be learned to advance towards a more sustainable architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biochar; compost; nutrient retention; highly weathered soil; Chinese cabbage
Online: 14 June 2018 (15:46:36 CEST)
Highly weathered soils in the tropics are low in fertility, negatively affecting plant growth. The potential of biochar for improving soil nutrient retention is reportedly promising, triggering this study to assess the nutrient retention capacities of two biochars when applied at 2% in combination with two composts also applied at 2% to an Ultisol (Ustic Kanhaplohumult, Leilehua series) and an Oxisol (Rhodic haplustox, Wahiawa series) of Hawai’i. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa cv. Bonsai) was used as the test plant in two greenhouse plantings, which had a factorial completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment. The results indicated that the combined additions of biochar and compost significantly increased the pH, EC, P and K of the soils; improved Ca, Mg and Fe uptake; and increased shoot and total cabbage fresh and dry matter. Exchangeable aluminum in the Ultisol was decreased from 2.5 cmol+/kg to virtually zero. Extractable Mn and Fe in the high Mn-Oxisol were decreased by 55 and 42%, respectively. Chinese cabbage growth in the Ultisol amended with the lac tree (Schleichera oleosa) wood biochar and vermicompost was almost twice over lime at 2 cmol+/kg. Essential nutrients in the plant tissues, with the exception of N and K, were sufficient for the cabbage growth, suggesting increases in nutrients and reduced soil acidity by the additions of biochar combined with compost were the probable cause.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0048.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Cortex Periplocae; traditional Chinese medicines; periplocin; phytochemistry; biological activities
Online: 8 December 2016 (10:24:43 CET)
Cortex Periplocae, as a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been widely used for autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis. Due to its potential pharmaceutical values, more studies about the biological activities of Cortex Periplocae have been conducted recently. Meanwhile, the adverse reaction of Cortex Periplocae is not a negligible problem in clinic. In this article, we reviewed a series of articles and summarized the recent studies of Cortex Periplocae in the areas of phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 100 constituents have been isolated and identified from Cortex Periplocae, including steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, and fatty acid compounds. The crude extracts of Cortex Periplocae and its active compounds exhibit various biological activities, such as cardiotonic effect, anticancer action, and anti-inflammatory effect. This paper aims to provide an overall review on the bioactive ingredients, pharmacological effect, and toxicity of this plant. Furthermore, this review suggests investigating and developing new clinical usages according to the above pharmacological effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: ammonium transport; flowering Chinese cabbage; NH4+; NO3-; ion influx; overexpression
Online: 16 November 2022 (10:20:07 CET)
Nitrogen (N) is a major limiting factor for plant growth and vegetable production. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of N uptake, transport, and assimilation is key to improving nitrogen use efficiency in plants. Ammonium transporters (AMTs) play an important role in plant N metabolism. In this study, we isolated an important AMT1 subfamily member (BcAMT1;5) with a highly conserved signatural AMT1 subfamily motif from flowering Chinese cabbage. Based on functional complementation in yeast mutant 31019b and overexpression of BcAMT1;5 in Arabidopsis, BcAMT1;5 is a functional ammonium transporter. Tissue expression analysis showed that BcAMT1;5 was mainly expressed in roots and showed multiple N regime transcript patterns to respond to varying nutritional conditions. This was up-regulated by N-deficiency and down-regulated by supplying NH4+. The glucuronidase (GUS) activities of BcAMT1;5pro::GUS showed a similar change in response to different N conditions. Overexpression of BcAMT1;5 accelerated the growth of transgenic seedlings, increased NH4+ net influxes, and enhanced the content and accumulation of NH4+ and NO3- at low N concentrations. Additionally, it increased the transcript levels of N assimilation-related genes in shoots. These results indicate that the transcriptional regulation of BcAMT1;5 in flowering Chinese cabbage may participate in N uptake and assimilation under various N conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Chinese smartphone brands; Decision trees; e-stores subscribers; consumer learning
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:24:54 CEST)
Introduction. Until now, the impact of learning variables on consumers' choices concerning Chinese product brands in the international online shopping framework remains unknown. Accordingly, this study aims to examine the effect of those learning variables on global consumers' choices of Chinese product brands. Method. A total of 44,704 transactions related to the buying process have been collected from a programming language and the Octopus Software within a Chinese International Online Shopping platform. Analysis. The 44,704 transactions have been analyzed through a Decision Tree. Results. The study points out that the number of e-retailers' subscribers reinforces the international consumers' trust online. At the same time, the pricing levels and quantity of product availability are used by global online consumers to assess the originality of Chinese product brands. Conclusions. First, this study extends the existing literature on consumer learning by going beyond the learning variables considered. Second, the study boosts consumer learning literature by elucidating the most significant learning variables guiding international online consumers' choices and purchases. The application of the results will enable brands and e-retailers to understand (1) the stages of the international online consumers' choice; (2) the buying strategies of global consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0096.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Qinling mountains; Wild Chinese prickly ashes; HPLC fingerprint; Resource evaluation.
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:55:32 CEST)
Wild Chinese prickly ash with elevated antioxidants is a valuable genetic resource for Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim improvement. There are rich wild germplasm resources in the Qinling Mountains. In a study with wild germplasm resources from different altitudes and six cultivated varieties, the phenolic and flavonoid compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The chromatograms of them were basically the same, although their chemical composition content was greatly different. The thirty samples were divided into three categories through the hierarchical clustering analysis. And catechin, hyperoside and quercitrin were considered to be key compound for the quality evaluation, by contrast, the wild samples with an altitude of 2300±50 m (Ⅳ group) had the highest content of key compounds, and showed stronger antioxidant activity and antibacterial ability, indicating that these wild samples could be used as an excellent breeding resource. This is the first time to evaluate the quality of wild Chinese prickly ash in different altitude areas of Qinling Mountains. These excellent wild germplasm resources provided substantial potential accessions for use directly in Chinese prickly ash breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0734.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: food culture; cultural regionalization; Chinese cuisines; machine learning; spatial struture
Online: 29 December 2020 (15:35:18 CET)
As a result of the influence of geographical environment and historical heritage, food preference has significant regional differentiation characteristics. However, the spatial structure of food culture represented by the cuisine culture at the regional level has not yet been explored from the perspective of geography. This study aims to explore such patterns by focusing on the restaurants of the eight most famous cuisines in Mainland China. Initially, the density based geospatial hotspot detector method is proposed to analyze and mapping the spatial quantitative characteristics of the eight major cuisines. A heuristic method for geographical regionalization based on machine learning was used to analyze spatial distribution patterns in accordance with the proportion of these cuisines in each prefecture-level city. Results show that some types of single-category cuisines have a stronger spatial concentration effect in the present, whereas others have a strong diffusion trend. In the comprehensive analysis of multicategory cuisines, the eight major cuisines formed a new structure of geographical regionalization of Chinese cuisine culture. This study is helpful to understand regional structure characteristics of food preference, and the density based hotspot detector proposed in this paper can also be used in the analysis of other type of POI data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0389.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: English Medium Instruction; Translanguaging; Chinese academics; Language transfer; higher education
Online: 26 February 2020 (11:04:39 CET)
Teaching through English Medium Instruction (EMI) has been a strategic move in some European and Asian countries as part of their educational internationalisation. A large number of studies on EMI teaching have appeared in the last decade. The majority of these report on issues and concerns at macro-level including: the lack of structured policy guidance, EMI lecturers and students’ low level of English proficiency, and a shortfall of research informed training programs for EMI lecturers. Up to date, there is little research into EMI in-class teaching and learning. Lived experience in EMI in-class practice has been largely ignored. To fill this gap, this research explored a group of academics’ in-class EMI practice in a Chinese university. Their teaching process through EMI was observed and recorded, with data analysed through a multiple theoretical lens. Data reveal that EMI teaching is a complicated issue and can be neither standardised nor prescribed. It needs to be addressed as a pedagogy responding to and influenced by local context, driven by language, culture and education systems. This research is expected to provide insight for the development of localised institutional guidelines for EMI teaching and lecturers’ professional development in EMI teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: side effect; tranditional Chinese medicine; COVID-19; artificial intelligence; coronavirus
Online: 17 February 2020 (01:18:13 CET)
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbroke in Wuhan has imposed a huge influence onto the society in term of the public heath and economy. However, so far, no effective drugs or vaccines have been developed. Whereas, the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been considered as a promising supplementary treatment for the disease owing to its clinically proven performance on many diseases even like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Meanwhile, many side-effect (SE) reports suggest the SE of the TCM prescriptions cannot be ignored in curing the COVID-19, especially because COVID-19 always simultaneously leads to dramatic degradation of the patients’ physical condition. How to evaluate the TCM regarding to their latent SE is a urgent challenge. Aim of the study: In this study, we use an ontology-based side-effect prediction framework (OSPF) developed in our previous work and Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based deep learning to evaluate the TCM prescriptions that are officially recommended in China for novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Materials and methods: Firstly, we adopted the OSPF developed in our previous work, where an ontology-based model separate all the ingredients in a TCM prescription into two categories: hot and cold. Then, we established a database by converting each TCM prescription into a vector containing the ingredient dosage and the according hot/cold attribution as well as the safe/unsafe label. And, we trained the ANN model using this database, after which a safety indicator (SI), as the complementary percentage of side-effect (SE) possibility, is then given for each TCM prescription. According to the proposed SI from high to low, we re-organize the recommended prescription list. Secondly, by using this method, we also evaluate the safety indicators of some other famous TCM prescriptions that are not in the recommended list but are used traditionally to cure flu-like diseases for extending the potential treatments. Results: Based on the SI generated in the ANN model, FTS, PMSP, and SF are the safest ones in recommended list, which all own a more-than-0.8 SI. Whereas, JHQG, LHQW, SFJD, XBJ, and SHL are the prescriptions that are most likely unsafe, where the indicators are all below 0.2. In the extra list, the indicators of XC, XQRS, CC, and CHBX are all above 0.8, and at the meantime, XZXS, SJ, QW, and KBD’s indicators are all below 0.2. Conclusions: In total, there are seven TCM prescriptions which own the indicators more than 0.8, suggesting these prescriptions should be considered firstly in curing COVID-19, if suitable. We believe this work will provide a reasonable suggestion for the society to choose proper TCM as the supplementary treatment for COVID-19. Besides, this work also introduces a pilot and enlightening method for creating a more reasonable recommendation list of TCM to other diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0272.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Chinese pyramids; Han dynasty; Feng-Shui; protection of ancient landscapes
Online: 24 December 2018 (10:48:36 CET)
The so-called “Chinese pyramids” are huge burial mounds covering the tombs of the Emperors of the Western Han dynasty. If we include also the mounds of the members of the royal families, these monuments sum up to more than 40, scattered throughout the western and the southern outskirts of modern Xi'an. They are mostly unexcavated and poorly known although, taken together, they form a fascinating sacred landscape, which was conceived as a perennial witness of one of the most magnificent Chinese dynasties. This sacred landscape is today encroached by the frenetic urban development of the Xi’an urban area. We discuss and elaborate here some of the results of a recent, new satellite-imagery survey of these monuments, highlighting the aspects which may contribute to solutions for a sustainable and compatible development within this important ancient landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Chinese adults; north region; south region; dietary pattern; metabolic syndrome
Online: 31 October 2016 (02:51:27 CET)
The geographical environment, food culture, and dietary habits are substantially different between the southern and northern regions in China. We investigated the associations with dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome between Chinese adult from the southern and northern regions (North: 1249; South: 1849) using data from the Chinese Health and Nutrition 2009 survey. Respectively, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis in the two regions. Each dietary pattern of factor score was calculated for three groups by tertile (T1<T2<T3). In the northern region, the association between the Alcohol and Western pattern and the risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.31; 95%:1.01, 1.68), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.35; 95%:1.05, 1.74), high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.37; 95%: 1.05, 1.80), and hypertension (OR: 1.55; 95%: 1.45, 1.99) was increased. In the southern region, the Convenience Food pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.53; 95%: 1.03, 2.26), low HDL-cholesterol (OR: 1.96; 95%: 1.12, 3.43), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.79; 95%: 1.03, 3.11). The Alcohol dietary pattern was positively associated with high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.83, 95%: 1.13, 2.97). There are some dietary pattern differences in the two regions. It is necessary to consider the factors of food culture and food intake habits in order to provide nutrition education to Chinese individuals from different regions in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0033.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: industrial pollutant emissions; urbanization; the spatial panel model; Chinese case
Online: 14 July 2016 (12:12:25 CEST)
Urbanization is considered as a main indicator of regional economic development due to its positive effect on promoting industrial development; however, many regions, especially developing countries, are troubled by its negative effect — the aggravating environmental pollution. Many researchers have indicated that rapid urbanization stimulated the expansion of industrial production scale and increased industrial pollutant emissions. However, this judgement contains a grave deficiency in that urbanization not only expands industrial production scales but can also increase industrial labour productivity and change the industrial structure. To modify this deficiency, we first decompose the influence which urbanization impacts on industrial pollutant emissions into the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect by using the Kaya Identity and the LMDI Method; second, we perform an empirical study of the three effects’ impacts by applying the spatial panel model with data from 282 Chinese cities between 2003 and 2013. Our results indicate that (1) there are significant reverse U-shapes between Chinese urbanization rate and its industrial pollutant emissions; (2) the scale effect and the structure effect have aggravated Chinese industrial waste water discharge, sulphur dioxide emissions and soot (dust) emissions, while the intensive effect has generated a decreasing and ameliorative impact on that aggravated trend. The definite relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions depends on the combined influence of the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect; (3) there are significant spatial autocorrelations of industrial pollutant emissions between Chinese cities, but the spatial spillover effect from other cities does not aggravate local urban industrial pollutant emissions, we offer an explanation to this contradiction that the vast rural areas surrounding Chinese cities have served as sponge belts and have absorbed the spatial spillover of cities’ industrial pollutant emissions. According to the results, we argue that this type of decomposition of the influence into three effects is necessary and meaningful, it establishes a solid foundation for understanding the relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions, and effectively helps to meet relative policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0345.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online critical thinking; clothing motivation; behavioural intentions; clothing collocation; Chinese youth
Online: 25 July 2022 (03:17:05 CEST)
Recent years have witnessed a boom of fashion bloggings sharing information about clothing and cosmetics on diverse social media platforms. Constant exposure to fashion-related digital information heavily impacts the cognition and behaviour of Chinese youth. Compared to the substantial studies on the impact of social media, scarce research has been conducted on how youth’s cognitive processing of fashion-related digital information interacts with motivational factors to determine the subsequent behaviour. This study made an initial attempt to address this issue by exploring the successive associations between clothing motivation (amotivation, controlled, and autonomous motivation), online critical thinking (for information credibility, objectivity, and relevance), and the subsequent behavioural intentions. A total of 1997 Chinese youths with diverse educational backgrounds voluntarily participated in the study. Results confirmed the direct links between clothing motivation and behavioural intentions, but these links were mediated by different online critical thinking skills. This study provides new insights for both practitioners and scholars in the fields of education, psychology, social media, and marketing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0726.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Work safety standardization; Viable System Model; Chinese enterprise; Safety process control
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:09:42 CEST)
The work safety standardization of enterprises based on the traditional work safety theory has played a significant role in reducing the number of accidents and improving work safety to some extent in China. However, some problems are coming with the work safety standardization of enterprises developing constantly in China. On the one hand, it is not combined with the actual situation of the enterprise, lacking pertinence and specificity, these defects resulted that it is not integrated with original safety production management system of enterprise and make it difficult to carry out. On the other hand, there is a lack of systematic management methods for the work safety management system of enterprise, most of enterprises only pay attention to the inspection result rather than the process control. This means after the check of the government, many enterprises will relax to carry out the system. This paper puts forward a new method for optimizing the standardization management mode of work safety based on the Viable System Model(VSM), which can solve the defects of work safety standardization of enterprises management system. An optimization model of work safety standardization based on VSM was construct for explaining the process optimization and control of work safety standardization management. It can improve the connectivity between the enterprise and the government. The conclusion of this paper can provide reference for achieving the development and optimization of work safety standardization of enterprises in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0219.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: STEM for sustainability; early childhood education; English picture books, Chinese toddlers
Online: 27 February 2019 (08:42:09 CET)
Changes in curricula, publication policy and information technology, notably in China have led to concentrations in the role of STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) education in early childhood and applauded to proliferations of imported up-to-date reading materials and mobile apps in English. This paper proposes a longitude study of a Chinese toddler learning STEM by reading picture books and playing with tablet and suggests new horizons in parenting and in STEM education during children's early years. The present study carried out from 2016, when the participant reached one year old, eligible to learn to speak and to concentrate on the picture books read by parents who had filled a language background questionnaire with information on themselves and the participant. Tablet playing brought about for the two-year-old toddler and collections of STEM books in English was added for the second year. Data collection lasted for two years with an iLab video camera, capturing utterances and motions for five minutes per week transcribed by VoiceScript software. Tests were given quarterly at private home by tapping in mobile app "Bilingual Child Learning" which consists of 20 basic STEM themes before scores were collected. Findings indicate that (1) it is accessible for children of very early years to be engaged in English STEM resources, (2) kids' limited English dominance does not impede learning STEM, (3) and to think in English in early STEM contributes to children's English.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0296.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Chinese National science-sustainability paradox; Interdisciplinary and inter-institutional analysis; Environmental science mediating the energy science for sustainability; Chinese environmental science versus the American energy science
Online: 16 July 2018 (15:31:02 CEST)
The Science-Sustainability poses an interdisciplinary paradox. On the one hand, the science for sustainability has increased in OECD economies in and in China as well as in the US in particular; on the other hand; the sustainability situation has worsened (Co2 emission has risen). On the face value, the adverse correlation shows a paradox. However, without explicating the science-sustainability relationship, it leads to a premature conclusion. In this study, we have drawn on three concrete questions for concrete answers. First, whether and how interdisciplinary sciences—energy science and environmental science—contribute to the sustainability. Second, whether and how the Sino-US inter-institutional analysis varies in the science-sustainability paradox. The empirical analysis from a panel data in the interdisciplinary and inter-institutional context show mixed patterns in three ways. First, the increase in the environmental science shows an improvement in the sustainability; the energy science shows a decline in the sustainability. Second, the Chinese environmental science has a comparative advantage to American environment science for the sustainability development, and the Chinese energy science has a comparative disadvantage to the US in the sustainability development. Third, the environmental science mediates the energy science in the science-sustainability relationships. Standing alone, the increase in the energy science harms sustainability; mediated by environmental science, it benefits sustainability. The study explains the adverse role of energy science in Jevons Paradox. The study also offers some policy paths for further research how capitalisms differently innovate, form strategies, and implement the practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0237.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Chinese family business; intergenerational succession intention; institutional environment; innovation investment; innovation output
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:39:47 CEST)
In the development and growth of family businesses, succession is an unsolvable problem, which is also a popular focus of academic research. For a family firm, succession may be a strategic decision but also a long-term and intricate "footrace." It will have a significant impact on the long-term viability of a family firm if it is not handled appropriately. This study mainly explores the influences of family business owners' intergenerational succession intention on their family firms’ innovation strategy in China. In addition, this study further examines the moderating role of the institutional environment in the above relationship. Therefore, the data in this article comes from a survey of 271 family businesses in eight different regions of China. Also, this paper can aid the smooth transition of intergenerational transmission of small and medium-sized family businesses in addition to the untroubled development of technological innovation activities. Specifically, the institutional environment plays a negative moderating role in the relationship between family succession, radical succession, technological innovation, and a positive regulating role in the relationship between single equity succession and technological innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0347.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: congenital fibrinogen disorders; hypofibrinogenemia; Chinese hamster ovary cells; recombinant fibrinogen; plasmin degradation
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:29:08 CEST)
We identified a novel heterozygous hypofibrinogenemia, γY278H (Hiroshima). To demonstrate the cause of reduced plasma fibrinogen levels (functional level: 1.12 g/L and antigenic level: 1.16 g/L), we established γY278H fibrinogen-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that synthesis of γY278H fibrinogen inside CHO cells and secretion into the culture media were not reduced. Then, we established an additional five variant fibrinogen-producing CHO cell lines (γL276P, γT277P, γT277R, γA279D, and γY280C) and performed further investigations. We have already established 33 γ-module variant fibrinogen-producing CHO cell lines including 6 cell lines in this study, but only the γY278H and γT277R cell lines showed disagreement, namely recombinant fibrinogen production was not reduced but the patients’ plasma fibrinogen level was reduced. Finally, we performed fibrinogen degradation assays and demonstrated that the γY278H and γT277R fibrinogens were easily cleaved by plasmin whereas their polymerization in the presence of Ca2+ and “D:D” interaction was normal. In conclusion, our investigation suggested that patient γY278H showed hypofibrinogenemia because γY278H fibrinogen is secreted normally from the patient’s hepatocytes but had accelerated degradation by plasmin in the circulation.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: dried Chinese sausage; fat replacement; mango peel pectin; microwave-assisted extraction technique
Online: 11 March 2020 (03:07:13 CET)
In this research, low-fat dried Chinese sausage was formulated with mango peel pectin (MPP) extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) (0%, 5%, 10% and 15% (w/w). The extractable yield of pectin attained from peel of Nam Dok Mai variety was achieved at 13.85% using 700-watt power. The extracted MPP were of high equivalent weight (1,485.78 mg/mol), degree esterification (77.19%) and methoxyl content (19.33%) with the structure of more porosity as compared to that of the conventional method. Spectrum scans by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) advised that the extracted MPP gave the similar wave number profiles as the commercial pectin. Quality attributes of the Chinese sausages were accessed and compared with the control formula (CTRL). At higher concentrations of MPP, the product had positively increased colour intensity. The texture profile of the sausage illustrated that only the hardness value was comparable with the CTRL, while springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were statistically lower (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the sensory evaluation by experienced panellists (n=12) indicated that 5% MPP similarly represented overall acceptability with the CTRL. Consequently, MPP can be effectively applied at low level as fat replacement in Chinese sausage allowing colour improvement and product of healthier option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0252.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Chinese fir wood; sodium silicate; phenol formaldehyde oligomer; respiratory impregnation; comparative study
Online: 25 August 2019 (15:32:30 CEST)
To compare The effects of organic and inorganic impregnation on the properties of unmodified, phenol formaldehyde oligomer-modified (PFOMCF), and sodium silicate-modified Chinese fir wood (SSMCF) were compared using samples prepared using the respiratory impregnation method. Impregnation and reinforcement effects and water resistance of PFOMCF and SSMCF were compared and the results was showed that the weight percentage gain, density increase rate, bending strength, and compressive strength of SSMCF were clearly higher than those of PFOMCF and had a lower water absorption rate within 60 h. The impregnation and reinforcement effects and dimensional stability of SSMCF were better than those of PFOMCF. FT-IR, XRD, CONE, and TGA examinations were used to test and analyze the chemical structure, crystalline structure, flame retardancy, and heat resistance of these modified woods. The results indicated that SSMCF possessed more hydrogen bonds than PFOMCF and that Si–O–Si chemical bonding with high bond energy was formed. Meanwhile, the weakened degree of the diffraction peak of SSMCF was much less than that of PFOMCF. These results explained that the mechanical properties and water resistance of SSMCF were better than PFOMCF. Compared with PFOMCF, SSMCF had a lower heat release rate (HRR), peak-HRR, mean-HRR, total heat release, smoke production rate, and total smoke production as well as higher thermal decomposition temperature and residual rate. Inorganic sodium silicate was shown to be a better flame retardant, while SSMCF had good smoke suppression effects, thermal stability, and safety performance in the case of fire.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease; network medicine; inflammation; network and system pharmacology; traditional Chinese medicine
Online: 18 April 2018 (07:41:00 CEST)
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition that currently has no known cure. The principles of the expanding field of network medicine (NM) have recently been applied to AD research. The main principle of NM proposes that diseases are much more complicated than one mutation in one gene, and incorporate different genes, connections between genes, and pathways that may include multiple diseases to create full scale disease networks. AD research findings as a result of the application of NM principles have suggested that functional network connectivity, myelination, myeloid cells, and genes and pathways may play an integral role in AD progression, and may be integral to the search for a cure. Different aspects of the AD pathology could be potential targets for drug therapy to slow down or stop the disease from advancing, but more research is needed to reach definitive conclusions. Additionally, the holistic approaches of network pharmacology in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research may be viable options for the AD treatment, and may lead to an effective cure for AD in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0542.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Passive drinking; perceived health status; mental health; family wellbeing; adolescents; Hong Kong Chinese
Online: 30 January 2023 (06:51:39 CET)
Background: Passive drinking is prevalent in adolescents worldwide, but its prevalence and harm are understudied. Methods: Secondary students (n=5840, grades 7-12) from 23 selected schools in Hong Kong participated in the survey from 2015-16. Students reported the harm of passive drinking, perceived health status, Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Perceived Stress Scale-4, perceived happiness, family health, happiness, and harmony in the questionnaire. The associations were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio, OR) and linear regression (unstandardized coefficient, b), adjusted for confounders. Results: 29.1% (95% CI 27.8 to 30.5%) of students experienced passive drinking in the past 30-day. Past 30-day parental passive drinking was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.10), stress (adjusted b 0.76, 0.42 to 1.10), and lower level of perceived happiness (adjusted b -0.52, -0.72 to -0.33). Past 30-day parental passive drinking was associated with a lower level of family health (adjusted b -1.39, 95% CI -1.66 to -1.11), family happiness (adjusted b -1.36, -1.64 to -1.08), and family harmony (adjusted b -1.40, -1.70 to -1.10). Conclusion: Passive drinking was associated with poorer mental health, family wellbeing, and lower level of happiness among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0068.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Soil moisture; Fengyun-3C; Passive microwave; Chinese Automatic Soil Moisture Observation Stations; NDVI
Online: 5 December 2018 (14:05:35 CET)
Soil moisture (SM) products derived from passive satellite missions are playing an increasingly important role in agricultural applications, especially in crop monitoring and disaster warning. Evaluating the dependability of those products before they can be used on a large scale is crucial. In this study, we assessed the level 2 (L2) SM product from the Chinese Fengyun-3C (FY-3C) radiometer against in situ measurements collected from the Chinese Automatic Soil Moisture Observation Stations (CASMOS) during a one-year period from January 1 to December 31, 2016 in Henan, which is an agricultural province in China. Four statistical parameters were used to evaluate the products’ reliability: mean difference, root-mean-square error (RMSE), unbiased RMSE (ubRMSE), and the correlation coefficient. These statistical indicators revealed that the FY-3C L2 SM product generally did not agree with the in situ SM data from CASMOS. The time-series analysis further indicated that the correlations and estimated error were highly related to the growing periods of the crops in our study area. FY-3C L2 SM data tended to overestimate soil moisture during May, August, and September, when the crops reach their maximum vegetation density, and tended to underestimate the soil moisture content during the rest of the year. The averaged correlation coefficient between FY-3C SM and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index was 0.55, which demonstrates that the vegetation water content of the crops considerably influences the SM product. To improve the accuracy of the FY-3C SM product, an improved algorithm that can filter out the influences of the crops should be applied in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0751.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Lucas sequences, public key cryptosystems, Multi-receiver encryption scheme, Chinese Remainder Theorem, Anonymity.
Online: 31 October 2018 (11:03:09 CET)
Multi-receiver encryption enables a sender to encrypt a message and transmit the ciphertext to a set of authorized users, while no one out this group of authorized users can decrypt the message. Multi-receiver encryption is of great importance in many sectors such as broadcast communication, cloud computing, wireless communications, networking applications, e-voting, lottery, and medical applications. This paper proposes an efficient multi-receiver public key encryption scheme based on Lucas sequences. The results of the computational analysis show that, projected scheme is better against renown attacks and prevailing anonymous multireceiver algorithms
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0398.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Allantoin; Chinese Yam; C2C12 cells; Dioscorea batatas; Dioscoreae Rhizoma; Myoblast differentiation; Mitochondrial biogenesis
Online: 25 June 2018 (16:32:43 CEST)
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rhizome extract of Dioscorea batatas (Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Chinese Yam) and its bioactive compound, allantoin, on myoblast differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells. Yams were extracted in water and the extract was analyzed by HPLC. The expression of C2C12 myotubes differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis regulators were determined by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR or Western blot. The glucose levels and total ATP contents were determined by glucose consumption, glucose uptake and ATP assays, respectively. Treatment with yam extract (1 mg/mL) and allantoin (0.2 and 0.5 mM) significantly increased of MyHC expression compared with non-treated myotubes. Yam extract and allantoin significantly increased the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis regulating proteins, PGC1?, Sirt-1, NRF-1, and TFAM, as well as the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in C2C12 myotubes. Furthermore, yam extract and allantoin significantly increased the glucose uptake levels and the ATP contents. Finally, HPLC analysis revealed that the yam extract contained 1.53% of allantoin. Yam extract and allantoin, stimulated myoblast differentiation into myotubes and increased energy production through upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis regulators. These findings indicate that yam extract and allantoin can help to prevent the skeletal muscle dysfunction through stimulation of energy metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0456.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: monoclonal antibody; immunoglobulin G; glycosylation; Chinese hamster ovary; perfusion cell culture; continuous biomanufacturing
Online: 30 May 2018 (16:52:12 CEST)
A critical quality attribute of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is the terminal sugar molecules of the N-linked glycan attached to the fragment crystalizable (Fc) region. There exists naturally-occurring heterogeneity in the N-linked glycan structure of mAbs, and such heterogeneity has a significant influence on the clinical safety and efficacy of mAb drugs. We previously proposed a constraint-based modeling method called glycosylation flux analysis (GFA) to characterize the rates (fluxes) of intracellular glycosylation reactions and applied the method to examine the N-linked glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in fed-batch Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fed-batch cultivations. In this work, we significantly improved the computational efficiency of the GFA, and employed the method to analyze the glycosylation of IgG in continuous perfusion CHO cultivations. Perfusion cell cultures have several advantages over the traditional (fed-)batch operation, including higher productivity per unit volume of reactor and more consistent product quality. The GFA showed that as in the fed-batch cultivation, the dynamical changes of IgG glycan heterogeneity in the perfusion culture are mainly attributed to alterations in the galactosylation flux activity. Furthermore, a regression analysis of the galactosylation flux activity using random forest regression linked the dynamics of galactosylation activity with the cell-specific productivity of IgG and the extracellular ammonia concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teaching quality; international Students; teaching satisfaction; Chinese language; medical students; COVID-19 pandemic measures
Online: 10 March 2023 (08:47:17 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic measures have negatively impacted education worldwide via travel restrictions, student visas, and physical attendanc,e among many other fac-tors. As one of the first places to impose strict pandemic measures and one of the last places to lift the measures, Mainland China provided a unique venue to investigate the effect of public health pandemic control policies on tertiary education. Considering the large portion of international students in medical schools and the higher susceptibility to the pandemic measures due to the natural synergy with teaching hospitals, medical schools can be an early forefront indicator of the impact of the pandemic on tertiary education. We surveyed 513 participants international medical students from Wen-zhou Medical University’s school of international studies in 2019 and 2022 about their satisfaction and demographic and cultural adaptation parameters. We found that the pandemic restrictions did not generally impact student satisfaction. Further analyzing the associated parameters, we found teaching satisfaction to be independent of age (P=.159), years in China (P=.896) and Chinese Level (P=.577) in the medical university. Teaching satisfaction is associated with the region of origin (P <0.001), acceptance of local social norms (P <0.001), satisfaction with the core values of Chinese culture (P <0.001), acclimatization to life in China (P <0.001), can easily make Chinese friends (P <0.001) among other factors. The findings of this study provide an understanding of the effects of pandemic measures on tertiary education satisfaction and other factors that can aid in international student satisfaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0146.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: International Online Shopping; Countries' Level of Economic Development; International Online Consumers; Chinese mobile brands
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:23:07 CEST)
Until now, the literature on Chinese International Online Shopping (CIOS) (B2C export from China) mainly concentrated on the potential income that it constitutes for Chinese international trade. However, regarding International Online Consumers' (IOCs) purchase behaviors, research does not provide insight into the impact of Countries' Level of Economic Development (CLED) on the IOCs' preferences and choices about Chinese brands. Based on 9971 purchases about Chinese mobile phone brands, countries' macroeconomic data, and a multinomial logistics model (MLM), we examined IOCs' preferences and choices about Chinese brands. The result shows that the CLED influences IOCs' preferences and choices. Consequently, accounting of CLED in consumers’ preferences and choices introduces a new dimension in understanding IOCs' behaviors and attitudes towards Chinese mobile phone brands. This work contributes to Chinese brands' globalization research from the perspective of CLED. Such a model can be used to guide e-retailers and brand managers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0376.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Large-Scale Image Classification; Printed Chinese Character Recognition; Data Synthesis; GoogLeNet-GAP; Transfer Learning
Online: 22 December 2021 (16:31:53 CET)
In the field of computer vision, large-scale image classification tasks are both important and highly challenging. With the ongoing advances in deep learning and optical character recognition (OCR) technologies, neural networks designed to perform large-scale classification play an essential role in facilitating OCR systems. In this study, we developed an automatic OCR system designed to identify up to 13,070 large-scale printed Chinese characters by using deep learning neural networks and fine-tuning techniques. The proposed framework comprises four components, including training dataset synthesis and background simulation, image preprocessing and data augmentation, the process of training the model, and transfer learning. The training data synthesis procedure is composed of a character font generation step and a background simulation process. Three background models are proposed to simulate the factors of the background noise and anti-counterfeiting patterns on ID cards. To expand the diversity of the synthesized training dataset, rotation and zooming data augmentation are applied. A massive dataset comprising more than 19.6 million images was thus created to accommodate the variations in the input images and improve the learning capacity of the CNN model. Subsequently, we modified the GoogLeNet neural architecture by replacing the FC layer with a global average pooling layer to avoid overfitting caused by a massive amount of training data. Consequently, the number of model parameters was reduced. Finally, we employed the transfer learning technique to further refine the CNN model using a small number of real data samples. Experimental results show that the overall recognition performance of the proposed approach is significantly better than that of prior methods and thus demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed framework, which exhibited a recognition accuracy as high as 99.39% on the constructed real ID card dataset.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: chinese pension system; new rural pension scheme (nprs); fiscal subsidies; incentive pension; matching subsidy
Online: 15 November 2019 (16:38:57 CET)
This paper studies the impact of fiscal subsidies on the sustainability of China’s rural pension system. We first provides an overview of China’s rural pension system and explains the formulas used to calculate the pension payments. We then examines how fiscal subsidies, in forms of basic pension, incentive pension, and matching subsidy, affect participation rates and individual contributions. Our study shows that the rural residents’ participation rates can be improved significantly by increasing basic pension or by providing incentive pension, but not by matching subsidy. However, none of these fiscal subsidies has significant effects on the amount of individual contributions. Overall, our results imply that incentive pension is an effective mechanism in encouraging rural residents to participate in the pension programs, but current level of matching subsidies are not sufficient enough to improve participation or increase contributions. Our study suggests the needs to increase the fiscal subsides in China’s rural pension system, and can provide useful implications in designing the effective pension system for rural residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0182.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: strategic flexibility; technology configuration capabilities; organizational performance; complex-dynamic environment, Chinese high-tech organizations
Online: 21 March 2018 (03:55:52 CET)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderating effect of technology configuration capability on the relationship between strategic flexibility and organizational performance through different stages of technological life cycle. Through the empirical research on the 439 Chinese high-tech organizations, it shows that a technological configuration capability has enhanced the effect of strategic flexibility to the organizational performance in the complex dynamic environment. However, the impact on the different stages of technological life cycle is different. In addition, this paper explored strategic flexibility on different stages of technological life cycle on the basis of empirical study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0225.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: hemoglobin; iron nutrition status; metabolic syndrome; metabolic disorders; observational study; Taiwanese Han Chinese; European White
Online: 12 August 2022 (04:03:24 CEST)
Iron overnutrition has been implicated with higher risk of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, including metabolic syndrome (MetS), while iron deficiency anemia exacerbates many underlying chronic conditions. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in the blood, which reflects a major functional iron (i.e., heme iron) in the body, may serve as a surrogate of iron nutrition status. We conducted sex-specific observational association studies where we carefully titrated the association between Hb deciles and MetS and its components among the Taiwanese Han Chinese (HC) from the Taiwan Biobank and Europeans of White ancestry from the UK Biobank, representing two large ethnicities. Our data show that at higher-than-normal levels of Hb, increasing deciles of Hb concentration were significantly associated with MetS across all sex subgroups in both ethnicities, with the highest deciles resulting in up to three times greater risks than the reference group [Taiwanese HC: OR=3.17 (95% CI, 2.75-3.67) for Hb >16.5 g/dL in men, OR=3.11 (2.78-3.47) for Hb >14.5 g/dL in women; European Whites: OR=1.89 (1.80-1.98) for Hb >16.24 g/dL in men, OR=2.35 (2.24-2.47) for Hb >14.68 g/dL in women]. The association between stronger risks and increasing Hb deciles was similarly observed with all metabolic components except diabetes. Here we found that both the highest Hb decile groups and contrarily the lowest ones, with respect to the reference, were associated with higher odds of diabetes in both ethnic groups [e.g., Taiwanese HC men: OR=1.64 (1.33-2.02) for Hb >16.5 g/dL, OR=1.71 (1.39-2.10) for Hb <13.5 g/dL; European Whites women: OR=1.39 (1.26-1.45) for Hb >14.68 g/dL, OR=1.81 (1.63-2.01) for Hb <12.39 g/dL]. These findings confirm that elevated Hb concentrations, a potential indicator of iron overnutrition, may play a role in the pathophysiology of MetS and metabolic components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: International Online Shopping; One Belt One Road Initiative; Chinese Bands; Brand Preference; International Online Consumers
Online: 1 August 2022 (08:41:02 CEST)
Since the advent of the OBORI, it was subjected to numerous studies. However, most previous studies investigated only the potential impact of the OBORI on the Chinese economy and geopolitics. Therefore, its real effect on Chinese international commerce in OBORI countries is not evaluated yet. Accordingly, this study intends to model the OBORI effect on Chinese product brand purchases across country members. The assessment is made on 18362 purchases of the International Online Consumers (IOCs) from a Chinese international online selling platform. The Data was obtained from a programming language and the octopus software. The OBORI policy's effect on Chinese brands' purchases was examined through a Different In Different Model (DIDM). Results show that the impact of OBORI is weak in the real market. However, it could be significant if OBORI includes more developed and economically strong countries. To Chinese brands and policymakers, we show how the inclusion in the OBORI project of developed countries could contribute more to Chinese product brands' purchases. Thus, the study enables decision-makers to understand the current impact of OBORI on the real market and its potential effect if more developed and economically strong countries are included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0296.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: reading comprehension; speech-in-noise recognition; nature F0 contours; flattened F0 contours; Chinese character decoding
Online: 10 June 2021 (13:36:17 CEST)
Theories of reading comprehension emphasize decoding and listening comprehension as two essential components. The current study aimed to investigate how Chinese character decoding and context-driven auditory semantic integration contribute to reading comprehension in Chinese middle school students. Seventy-five middle school students were tested. Context-driven auditory semantic integration was assessed with speech-in-noise tests in which the fundamental frequency (F0) contours of spoken sentences were either kept natural or acoustically flattened with the latter requiring a higher degree of contextual information. Statistical modelling with hierarchical regression was conducted to examine the contributions of Chinese character decoding and context-driven auditory semantic integration to reading comprehension. Performance on Chinese character decoding and auditory semantic integration scores with the flattened (but not natural) F0 sentences significantly predicted reading comprehension. Furthermore, the contributions of these two factors to reading comprehension were better fitted with an additive model instead of a multiplicative model. These findings indicate that reading comprehension in middle schoolers is associated with not only character decoding but also the listening ability to make better use of the sentential context for semantic integration in a severely degraded speech-in-noise condition. The results add to our better understanding of the multi-faceted reading comprehension in children. Future research could further address the age-dependent development and maturation of reading skills by examining and controlling other important cognitive variables, and apply neuroimaging techniques such as functional magmatic resonance imaging to reveal the neural substrates for the contribution of auditory semantic integration and the observed additive model to reading comprehension.
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: definition of agritourism; comparative studies; rural development; sustainable tourism; mountain development; alpine regions, Chinese mountains
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:25:21 CEST)
After World War II, the economic recovery of Western Europe implied a swift economic transition for all regions, including the area of the Alps, although affecting various parts at different pace and stages. The resulting out-migration led to population decline in some mountain valleys and regions already since the 1950s. A similar out-migration movement began in China after its rural reform started in the 1970s. The effect was in some cases even more significant than in the Alps, with the first village being deserted in the 1980s. Current estimations report of about 380,000 abandoned rural villages in China between 2000 and 2016, particularly in its mountain regions. While lower population densities might alleviate the pressures on ecology and contribute to environmental benefits, these movements aggravate a spiraling-down process of local economies and culture. In the Alps many regions facing challenges of out-migration and economic changes elaborated agritourism schemes that provided both economic incentives and stability to involved mountain farmers, and continuation of local land management systems. In contrast, in China hardly any comparable trends of rural tourism developed. However, in recent years China's interest for tourism-oriented farm diversification increased and a range of rural tourism and agricultural tourism initiatives emerged. This paper focuses on the analysis of successful initiatives, problems and development prospects in the Alps and China's rural areas, redefining agritourism as a systematic integrated activity. Agritourism might therefore be assessed as a core element of the future sustainable development of the Alps and the Chinese countryside.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: metabolic flux analysis, model misspecification, constraint-based model, stoichiometric model, Chinese hamster ovary cell culture
Online: 16 March 2017 (17:38:36 CET)
Background: Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is an indispensable tool in metabolic engineering. The simplest variant of MFA relies on an overdetermined stoichiometric model of the cell’s metabolism under the pseudo-steady state assumption, to evaluate the intracellular flux distribution. Despite its long history, the issue of model error in the overdetermined MFA, particularly misspecifications of the stoichiometric matrix, has not received much attention. Method: We evaluated the performance of statistical tests from linear least square regressions, namely Ramsey RESET test, F-test and Lagrange multiplier test, in detecting model misspecifications in the overdetermined MFA, particularly missing reactions. We further proposed an iterative procedure using the F-test to correct such an issue. Result: Using Chinese hamster ovary and random metabolic networks, we demonstrated that: (1) a statistically significant regression does not guarantee high accuracy of the flux estimates, (2) the removal of a reaction with a low flux magnitude can cause disproportionately large biases in the flux estimates, (3) the F-test could efficiently detect missing reactions, and (4) the proposed iterative procedure could robustly resolve the omission of reactions. Conclusion: Our work demonstrated that statistical analysis and tests could be used to systematically assess, detect and resolve model misspecifications in the overdetermined MFA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0279.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: novel coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; Chinese stock market; Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity
Online: 17 May 2020 (03:11:38 CEST)
This paper aims to quantify the effect of the deadly novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak on Chinese stock market performance. Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index and its component sector indices are examined in this study. The pandemic is represented by a lockdown dummy, new COVID-19 cases and a dummy for 3 February 2020. First, descriptive analysis is performed on these indices to compare their performances before and during the lockdown period. Next, regression analysis with Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity specification is estimated to quantify the pandemic effect on the Chinese stock market. This paper finds that health care, information technology and telecommunication services sectors were relatively more pandemic-resistant, while other sectors were more severely hurt by the pandemic outbreak. The extent to which each sector was affected by pandemic and sentiments in other financial and commodity markets were reported in details in this paper. The findings of this paper are resourceful for investors to avoid huge loss amid pandemic outburst and the China Securities Regulatory Commission in handling future pandemic occurrence to cool down excessive market sentiments.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0247.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; molecular docking; Chinese medicine; lithospermic acid B; specnuezhenide; neonuezhenide; rutin; neodiosmin
Online: 15 March 2020 (15:11:22 CET)
The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has become an international emergency. Since there is no effective therapy for the treatment of this disease, drugs or vaccine that can prevent or cure the SARS-CoV-2 infection are urgently needed. The viral 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease (3CLpro), which plays a key role in the replication of coronavirus, is a potential drug target for the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs. With the crystal structure of 3CLpro, we performed virtual screening from a small chemical library of a Traditional Chinese Medicine recipe- FuFang Zhenzhu Tiaozhi (FTZ). Five compounds with the best scores were screened and could be considered as potential hit compounds to be investigated further with bioassays for their anti-virus effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0083.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Chinese ancient architecture; bracket set; tile work; regularized reconstruction; parametric; algorithm modeling; Grasshopper; HBIM; built heritage
Online: 9 January 2020 (11:57:24 CET)
By the study of the pattern book Ying Zao Fa Shi (building regulations of Song Dynasty, 1103 AD), while analyzing the combining and dimensioning rule of timber framework and tile work, a model self-generating program has been compiled for the first time. The operating framework has been firstly defined, while solving the issues of clustering principle, connecting method, output classification, etc. with the detailed description of algorithm theory. Taking the corner bracket set and nine-ridge roof for example, after the compilation and debug by Grasshopper, according to various input parameters, various models have been generated automatically by the plugin, proving the velocity and the veracity of the algorithm.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0760.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Complementary and alternative medicine; Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM); Thermodynamic mechanism; Entropic systems biology; Self-organized criticality (SOC); Self-organization triggering factor (SOTF); Wuxing (five phases), Qi, Meridians (Jingluo); Acupuncture points; Chinese herbs; Aquamoleculomics; Modernization of TCM
Online: 28 April 2021 (17:12:29 CEST)
As a complementary and alternative medicine in the western countries for decades, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used for more than 2000 years in China. Because of the characteristics of the philosophical style and the unknown mechanism of action, TCM sometimes has been biasedly described as "fraught with pseudoscience". From the scientific basis of the systems biology, here we promoted a novel medical model called the entropic systems medicine which could be applied to scientize TCM in future. In entropic systems medicine, TCM and Western modern biomedicine target the different variables of the entropic system. For instance, while Western modern biomedicine directly targets the phenotypes and its SOCs of macrostates, TCM differently targets the microstates, entropy and entropic force to generate SOTFs gradually causing the differentiated syndromes to be slowly rearranged. The prerequisites to modernize TCM are the entropic systems biology having been well established so that the variables could be precisely monitored and mathematically calculated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0132.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: arylamine N-acetyltransferases; cancer; tuberculosis; drug discovery; traditional Chinese medicine; virtual screening; molecular dynamics simulation; MM-PBSA
Online: 30 June 2017 (11:36:22 CEST)
Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are cytosolic enzymes, highly polymorphic, present in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These enzymes play an important role in the detoxification and activation of xenobiotics as well as in the synthesis of endogenous compounds. Specific NATs have been pointed out in the literature as possible therapeutic targets. In particular, the human NAT1, for the treatment of certain cancers, and the NAT from M. tuberculosis (TBNAT), for the treatment of tuberculosis. This paper describes an in silico approach to prospect and select potentially inhibitors of NAT1 and TBNAT from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) using free available tools. A library with ligands from TCM was previously screened in order to select only compounds with optimal pharmacological properties. The affinity of the selected ligands with respect to NAT enzymes was then evaluated by virtual screening (VS). Subsequently, the complexes with the best ligands were submitted to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations aiming to obtain better quality information on affinity and selectivity. The results for one specific ligand, ZINC14690579, indicated its potential for affinity and selectivity. ZINC14690579 structure may represent the discovery of a new scaffold for future development of NAT inhibitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: localized electroporation; gene electrotransfer; plasmid; transfection; cell culture insert; numerical modeling; Chinese hamster ovary cells; myoblasts; C2C12 cell line; H9C2 cell line
Online: 19 July 2022 (02:28:54 CEST)
Gene electrotransfer is one of the main non-viral methods for intracellular delivery of plasmid DNA, wherein pulsed electric fields are used to transiently permeabilize the cell membrane allowing enhanced transmembrane transport. By localizing the electric field over small portions of the cell membrane using nanostructured substrates, it is possible to increase considerably the gene electrotransfer efficiency while preserving cell viability. In this study, we design an electrotransfer approach based on commercially available cell culture inserts with polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) porous substrate. We first use multiscale numerical modelling to determine the pulse parameters, substrate pore size, and other factors that are expected to result in successful gene electrotransfer. Based on numerical results we design a simple device combining an insert with substrates containing pores with 0.4 um and 1.0 um diameter, a multiwell plate, and a pair of wire electrodes. We test the device in three mammalian cell lines and obtain transfection efficiencies similar to those achieved with bulk electroporation, but with low-voltage pulses that do not require the use of expensive electroporators. Our combined theoretical and experimental analysis calls for further systematic studies that will investigate the influence of substrate pore size and porosity on gene electrotransfer efficiency and cell viability.