Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: RDF; semantic web; basic graph pattern; Distributed SPARQL Query Processing; Spark
Online: 24 June 2019 (09:15:24 CEST)
Resource Description Framework(RDF) is a data representation format of the Semantic Web, and its data volume is growing rapidly. Cloud-based systems provide a rich platform for managing RDF data. However, the distributed environment has performance challenges when it is processing with RDF queries that contain multiple join operations, such as network reshuffle, memory overhead. To get over these challenges, this paper proposed a spark-based RDF query architecture, which is based on Semantic Connection Set (SCS). First of all, this spark-based query architecture adopts the mechanism of re-partitioning class data based on vertical partitioning, which can reduce memory overhead and fast index data. Secondly, a method for generating query plans based on semantic connection sets is proposed in this paper. In addition, statistics and broadcast variable optimization strategies are used to reduce shuffling and data communication costs. The experiment of this paper is based on the latest SPARQLGX on the spark platform RDF system, two synthetic benchmarks are used to evaluate the query. The experiment result illustrates that the proposed approach in this paper is more efficient in data search than SPARQLGX.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0346.v1
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:47:20 CET)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and associated factors of cervical and breast cancer screening among women in the general population in Jordan. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were analysed from 14,689 women (34 years median age, range 15-49) that took part in the “2017-18 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey”. Information about cancer screening uptake included Pap smear, clinical breast examination, and mammography. Results indicate that the prevalence of ever Pap smear cancer screening was 15.3%, clinical breast examination in the past 12 months 13.9% and ever mammography 8.7%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, older age, higher wealth, greater media exposure and tobacco use were positively and being Syrian, and living in the southern region were negatively associated with ever Pap smear, clinical breast examination in the past 12 months, and ever mammography. In addition, high decision-making power was associated with the uptake of Pap smear and higher education was associated with ever mammography. The study showed a low cancer screening uptake, and several factors were identified that can assist in promoting cancer screening in Jordan.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0270.v1
Subject: Keywords: Cell division; Intracellular osmotic pressure; Tolerance limit of cell membrane; Carcinogenesis; Aneuploidy; Na+/K+ pump; Cytoskeleton; Oncogene; Tumor suppressor
Online: 21 June 2020 (13:41:21 CEST)
At present more than 9 million people die of cancer every year. Simple and broad-spectrum drugs are still an urgent need for cancer patients. Recently, we proposed a new hypothesis that intracellular osmotic pressure (IOP) is the driving force of cell division, and abnormal tumor proliferation is the result of uncontrolled IOP in cells. On the one hand, aneuploidy and abnormal function of Na+/K+ pump lead to a faster rise of IOP in tumor cell than normal cells, on the other hand, abnormality of cytoskeleton assembly leads to the decrease of tolerance limit of cell membrane (TLCM) of tumor cells for resisting IOP. This hypothesis predicts: 1)Tumor cells were more intolerant to hypotonic stress than normal cells. 2) Maligancies may be sellectively killed by a suddenn increase of IOP and combined with decrease of the TLCM of tumors. Na+/K+ pump inhibitors can promotely increase the IOP of tumor cells and cytoskeleton inhibitors can dramatically lower the TLCM of tumor cells. Therefore, Na+/K+ pump and cytoskeleton inhibitors may have a synergetic effect to kill tumor cells. 3) Molecules regulating cell osmolality may be new targets for cancer treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0189.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: circadian clock; epigenetic clock; aging; senescence; reprogramming; methylome; DNA methylation; CpG-islands; induced pluripotent stem cells
Online: 10 September 2021 (15:13:04 CEST)
This review summarizes current understanding of the interaction between circadian rhythms of gene expression and epigenetic clocks characterized by the specific profile of DNA methylation in CpG-islands which mirror the chronological age of individual cells and the entire organism. Basic mechanisms of regulation for circadian genes CLOCK- BMAL1 as well as downstream clock-controlled genes (ССG) are also discussed here. It has been shown that circadian rhythms operate by finely tuned regulation of transcription and rely on various epigenetic mechanisms including activation of enhancers / suppressors, acetylation / deacetylation of histones and other proteins as well as DNA methylation. Overall, up to 20% of all genes expressed by the cell are subject to expression oscillations associated with circadian rhythms. Also included in the review is a brief list of genes involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, along with genes important for metabolic control, aging, and oncogenesis. Knocking out some of them (for example, Sirt1) accelerates the aging process, while overexpression of Sirt1, on the contrary, protects against age-related changes. Circadian regulators control a number of genes that activate the cell cycle (Wee1, c-Myc, p20, p21, and Cyclin D1) and regulate histone modification and DNA methylation. Approaches for determining the epigenetic age from methylation profiles across CpG islands in individual cells are described. DNA methylation, which characterizes the function of the epigenetic clock, appears to link together such key biological processes as regeneration and functioning of stem cells, aging and malignant transformation. Finally, main features of adult stem cell aging in stem cell niches and current possibilities for modulating the epigenetic clock as part of antiaging therapy are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: nursing student; disaster preparedness; China; the modified Delphi
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:10:24 CEST)
Abstract: This study aims to set up a system to evaluate nursing competencies in disaster preparedness for undergraduates and influencing factors in China. The evaluation system was established by using the modified Delphi. There were 3 phases in this study: 1) an environmental scan; 2) setting framework; 3) adjusting indicators based on the modified Delphi. The questionnaire for these undergraduates lied in their basic information and assessment of nursing competencies in disaster preparedness. Based on the survey, the average score of nursing competencies in disaster preparedness for undergraduate nursing students surveyed was 3.10 (out of 5). In addition, gender, grade, inhabitation, and disaster drills of the students were four factors affecting nursing competencies of undergraduates. This study indicates that the present nursing competencies in disaster preparedness for undergraduates are weak, and it is essential to strengthen nursing education in disaster preparedness for undergraduates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0244.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: GH3 family; sequencing plants; potato; jasmonic acids; tissues; biotic
Online: 17 May 2018 (12:01:00 CEST)
Glycoside Hydrolase 3 (GH3) is a phytohormone-responsive family of genes that has been found in many plant species. It is implicated in the biological activity of indolacetic (IAA) and jasmonic acids (JA), and also affects plant growth and developmental processes and some stresses. In this study, GH3 genes were identified in 48 plants, which belong to algae, moss, fern, gymnosperm and angiosperm. No GH3 representative gene has been found in algae, and our research identified 4 genes in mosses, 19 in ferns, 7 in gymnosperms, and numerous in Angiosperms. The results showed that GH3 genes mainly occur in seed plants. Phylogenetic analysis of all GH3 genes showed three separate clades. Group I was related to JA adenylation, group II was related to IAA adenylation, and group III was separated from group II but the function was not clear. The structure of GH3 protein indicated highly conserved sequence in the plant kingdom. The analysis of JA-adenylation related to gene expression of GH3 in potato (Solanum tuberosum) showed that StGH3.12 highly responded to Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Expression levels of StGH3.1, StGH3.11, and StGH3.12 were high in flower and StGH3.11 expression was also high in stolon. Our research revealed the evolution of the GH3 family, which is useful for studying the precise function about JA-adenylation GH3 genes in S. tuberosum under development and biotic stresses.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: the tropical Pacific-Indian Ocean associated mode (PIOAM); Madden Julian Oscillations (MJO); Maritime Continent (MC); MJO kinetic energy; MJO convection
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:34:57 CEST)
Based on the observation and reanalysis data, the relationship between Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the Maritime Continent (MC) and the tropical Pacific-Indian Ocean temperature anomaly mode is analyzed. The results showed that the MJO over the MC region (100°-140°E, 10°S-5°N) (referred to as MC-MJO) possesses prominent interannual and interdecadal variations and seasonally "phase-locked" features. MC-MJO is strongest in the boreal winter and weakest in the boreal summer. Winter MC-MJO kinetic energy variation has significant relationships with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in winter and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) in autumn, but it correlates better with the tropical Pacific-Indian Ocean associated mode (PIOAM). The correlation coefficient between the winter MC-MJO kinetic energy index and the autumn PIOAM index is as high as -0.43. This means that when the positive (negative) autumn PIOAM anomaly strengthens, the MJO kinetic energy over the winter MC region weakens (strengthens). However, the correlation between the MC-MJO convection and PIOAM in winter is significantly weaker. The propagation of MJO over the Maritime Continent differs significantly in the contrast phases of PIOAM. During the positive phase of the PIOAM, the eastward propagation of the winter MJO kinetic energy always fails to move across the MC region and cannot enter the western Pacific. However, during the negative phase of the PIOAM, the anomalies of MJO kinetic energy over the MC is not significantly. MJO can propagate farther eastward and enter the western Pacific. One thing must be pointed out that there is a significant difference between the propagation of MJO convection over the MC region in winter and that of the MJO kinetic energy. That said, the MJO convection is more likely to extend to the western Pacific in the positive phases of PIOAM than in the negative phases
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0020.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: natural secondary forest; planted forest; vegetation biomass carbon; soil organic carbon
Online: 3 December 2016 (09:25:48 CET)
Forest ecosystems make a greater contribution to carbon (C) stocks than any other terrestrial ecosystem. To understand the role of regional forest ecosystems in global climate change and carbon exchange, forest C stock and its spatial distribution within the small (2,300 km2) Liuxihe River basin were analyzed to determine the different contributors to the C stock. Forest C stocks were quantified by measuring the biomass of trees, understory vegetation, litter and roots, as well as soil organic C, using data from field samples and laboratory experiments. The results showed that forests stored 38.04 Tg C in the entire basin, with secondary and planted forests accounting for 89.82% and 10.18%, respectively, of the stored C. Five types of forests, a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest, a subtropical coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, a subtropical coniferous forest, a timber forest, and a non-wood forest, stored 257.55 ± 15.01, 218.92 ± 9.59, 195.24 ± 18.29, 177.42 ± 17.55, and 117.86 ± 6.04 Mg C ha−1, respectively. In the forest ecosystem C stocks of the basin, soils averagely contribute about 73.78%, not including root underground biomass. It provides a comprehensive method for forest ecosystem carbon investigation and forest management in small basin scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0021.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: lemongrass oil; Ligusticum chuanxiong oil; Aphis citricola van der Goot; botanical aphicides
Online: 6 September 2016 (11:52:51 CEST)
In order to develop novel botanical insecticides, the joint action of Ligusticum chuanxiong oil (LCO) and lemongrass oil (LO) against Aphis citricola van der Goot was determined systematically indoors and outdoors. The chemical profiles of LCO and LO as determined by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis revealed that main compounds from LCO were Z-Ligustilide (44.58%) and Senkyunolide A (26.92%), and that of LO were geranial (42.16%) and neral (32.58%), respectively. The mixture of LCO and LO showed significant synergy against A. citricola, with a common-toxicity coefficient (CTC) value of 221.46 at the optimal ratio of LCO to LO (4: 1, w/w). Based on the results of solvents and emulsifiers screening, L. Chuanxiong oil · Lemongrass oil 20% emulsifiable concentrate (20% LCO · LO EC) was developed, which was confirmed to meet the requirements of a commercial pesticide by quality test. Field trials indicated that the insecticidal activity of the diluted 20% LCO · LO EC (1000 fold dilution) was comparable to conventional pesticide (20% imidacloprid EC) on A. citricola 7 days after application. Thus, the mixture of LCO and LO has the potential to be further developed as a botanical pesticide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0056.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: green manure; soil microbial communities; crop health; Illumina sequencing
Online: 18 September 2016 (08:56:53 CEST)
Green manure could improve soil nutrients and crop production, playing a significant role in sustainable agriculture. However, the impacts of green manure on crop health and the roles soil microbial communities play in the process haven’t been clarified clearly yet. In this study, we investigated soil microbial community composition and structure in four tobacco farmlands, which were treated with different green manure (control, ryegrass, pea and rape), using 16S rRNA gene amplicons sequencing. Results showed that green manure had significant impacts on soil properties, microbial communities and tobacco health. First, soil total C, N and Ca content increased significantly in groups treated with green manure than control. Second, soil community diversity was significantly higher in groups treated with green manure. Third, green manure especially ryegrass, decreased tobacco disease (bacterial wilt) rate dramatically, and the process might be mediated by soil microbial communities. On the one hand, several microbial populations were found to be potentially disease inducible or suppressive. For example, the abundances of Dokdonella and Rhodanobacter were positively correlated to tobacco disease rate, while Acidobacteira_Gp4 and Gp6 had negative correlations with tobacco disease. On the other hand, soil microbial communities were shaped by soil properties (e.g., pH, C and N content). In conclusion, our research showed that green manure could increase soil nutrients directly, and further improve tobacco health mediated by soil microorganisms, which may shed light on revealing interactions among soil properties, microorganisms and plants.