Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: ascorbic acid; meat preparation; meat products, meat spoilage
Online: 25 March 2019 (15:43:54 CET)
Antioxidants for foodstuffs during processing or before packing protects colour, aroma and nutrient content. As regards food safety regulations, long-term efforts have been made in terms of food standards, food control systems, food legislation and regulatory approaches. These have, however, generated several questions on how to apply the law to the diverse food businesses. To answer these questions, a thorough examination of the EU legislator’s choices for food preservation and definitions are provided and discussed with factors affecting microbial growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0304.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Enterococcus; QPS; GRAS; safety; milk; cheese; mountain area
Online: 19 August 2021 (06:31:01 CEST)
The latest EU regulation on geographical indications (EU Regulation No. 1151/2012) has intro-duced a set of new tools for the protection and enhancement of food products in rural areas, under the group name of optional quality term (OQT). The Commission Delegated EU Regulation, No. 665/2014, regulated the conditions for the use of the optional quality term «mountain product» (MP), to support the implementation of a mountain value chain. This new tool is aimed at pro-moting local development, maintaining the economic activities in mountain areas and redistrib-uting wealth, whilst, at the same time, promoting the territory. Pecorino and goat cheeses are typ-ical Italian cheeses made usually with whole raw ewe's or raw goat's milk, without starter cul-ture addition. In an attempt to characterize these productions, the aim of this study was to inves-tigate the evolution of enterococci during the production and ripening of Pecorino cheese made in three different farms, located in Umbria, Italy in areas facing natural or other specific constraints as stipulated by Regulation 1305/2013 on support for rural development by the European Agri-cultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). Enterococci are enteric organisms which are commonly isolated from ewe and goat's milk production in Umbria, Italy. Counts of enterococci in raw milk ranged from 1.75 for ovine milk to 3.62 for ewe milk and a marked reduction was observed after thermization especially in ovine milk. Out of 100 isolates, 69 were E. faecium, 23 E. durans, 8 E. faecalis and 2 E. casseliflavus and the distribution of species between farms and be-tween samples showed a prevalence of E. faecium in ovine farms and E. durans in ewes farms, with an equal distribution between samples. High percentages of susceptible isolates were found for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulphamethoxazole, sulphameth-oxazole/trimethoprim, ticarcillin, vancomycin. A high prevalence of resistant strains (> 30%) was observed for amikacin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, kanamycin, tetracycline. A comparison of this results with those of previous works on similar dairy products revealed high levels of resistance to antimicrobials which needs to be addressed.
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: branched-chain amino acid; ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography; mastitis; dairy cow; staphylococcus aureus
Online: 18 September 2019 (16:51:46 CEST)
The early diagnosis of mastitis represents an essential factor for a prompt detection of the animal for further actions. In fact, if not culled, infected cows must be segregated from the milking herd and milked last, or milked with separate milking units. Besides microbiological analysis, the somatic cell count (SCC) commonly used as predictor of intramammary infection, frequently lead to a misclassification of milk samples. To overcome these limitations, more specific biomarkers are continuously evaluated. Total amino acid content increases significantly in mastitic milk compared to normal one. Bovine mastitis can arise as a result of infection of the mammary gland by Staphylococcus aureus. Multiplication of this bacterium within the mammary gland is required for infection to persist. S. aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: isoleucine, leucine, valine) for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acids synthesis and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via transcriptional regulators. The importance of BCAAs for S. aureus physiology necessitates that it either synthesize them or scavenge them from the environment. Increase of BCAAs in composite milk has been postulated to be linked to mammary infection by S. aureus. In the present work, we demonstrated, by a direct ion-pairing reversed-phase method based on the use of the evaporative light-scattering detector (IP-RP-HPLC-ELSD), applied to 65 composite cow milk samples, a correlation between the concentration of isoleucine and leucine and S. aureus load.