COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; dynamic-based learning; , higher education; interactive learning; online classroom
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:17:22 CEST)
Purpose: Now traditional lecture-based teaching and learning have been affected by the COVID-19. The objectives of this article are to design the novel educational technique called ‘dynamic-based learning’ (DBL) that provides the combination of online teaching-learning methods and student’s creativity, to evaluate primary dynamic-based learning function, and to propose dynamic-based learning for higher education. Methods: DBL composes of four steps, including, preparation, homework, classroom, and evaluation, which was designed, and taught in medical and dental schools. Online support materials included mobile phone, email, Facebook Messenger, Line Messenger, Cisco Webex, and Zoom Meetings applications were recruited for this novel method. Results: A total of 32 third-year medical students and 26 sixth-year dental students was treated by DBL similarly. three subjects, including, Innovation in Dentistry, Basic Medical Research, and Principles of Pathology and Forensic Medicine were selected in this article. The results showed students could create their knowledge, ideas, and creativity during the online classes.Conclusion: DBL can be used as an alternative learning mode during the COVID-19 crisis. The benefits of DBL also include high flexibility, dynamic process, active learning, and high creativity. DBL should be tested with other disciplines such as engineering school, laws school, health sciences school, and should be compared with other traditional teaching and learning modes in the future. This method may support the global higher education systems to move forward the COVID-19 pandemic to set a novel standard of a future normal.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: air filtration; air purifier; COVID-19; haze; HEPA filter; particulate matter
Online: 1 April 2021 (13:43:51 CEST)
Purpose: This study aimed to focus on the design and development of low-cost DIY air purifiers, using a ventilating fan, air pump, water pump, and an ultrasonic generator, with regard to filtration efficacy and also cost-effectiveness that can be used during the COVID-19 pandemic and haze pollution. Methods: Six types of household air purifiers, incorporating a HEPA filter, a HEPA filter & electrostatic fiber, an air pump, an air pump & ultrasonic wave, a water pump, and a water pump & ultrasonic wave, were fabricated. The amount of particulate matter (PM) and CO2 levels were recorded at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 60 min, then, repeated 3 times. After 10 min of the 3rd experiment of each study, the last measurement of air pollution would be recorded. Results: At 60 min, the HEPA filter & electrostatic fiber showed the best performance regarding reduction of PM and CO2 levels. The highest PM reduction rate had occurred at 30 min using an air pump procedure (99.330 to 100%). The CO2 levels of all experiments had fluctuated at different times. After 10 min of a closed machine, HEPA filter & electrostatic fiber revealed the highest rate of PM elevation, while PM levels of all water-based purifier systems were decreased. A water pump and air pump were the cheapest air cleaners, when taking into account maintenance expenses and electricity charges. Conclusion: An air pump is the optimum method for reducing particulate matter at minimum cost but without the benefit of reduced humidity, while the HEPA filter & electrostatic fiber is the best system to decrease PM levels, but this requires an enclosed structure at the inlet to prevent dust coming back into the room. As filtration efficiency is increased by the use of filters & electrostatic fiber mechanisms, the more expensive the system becomes.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0782.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; delivery robot; healthcare robot; telepresence robot; Smart hospital
Online: 31 March 2021 (16:04:54 CEST)
Purpose: The ongoing COVID-19 crisis has created the need for social distancing between medical staff and patients, therefore, healthcare robotics is increasingly important as regards infectious control. The purpose of this study was to design and fabricate a remote controlled transport robot that could provide an optimum technology base for developing countries, having dual functions of telepresence and delivery operations inside or outside buildings, is easy to assemble and also easily able to be cleaned using standard chemical agents.Methods: This machine was designed and fabricated to incorporate two main functions; delivery and telepresence. The robot consists of a base frame, DC motors for driving and steering systems, actuator motor for driving wheel elevation, Wi-Fi AP/Repeater, network camera, and a necessary a back-up power system.Results: This robot can be used both indoors and outdoors. It can carry loads of more than 80 kg. The machine can cross obstacles greater than 3 cm. It can be cleaned by disinfectant agents. An actuator motor can lift the driving wheels above the surface to prevent gear damage. Conclusion: This article demonstrates the concept of a healthcare telepresence and delivery robot that can provide distancing during the present COVID-19 crisis, using optimum technology for low and middle-income countries. In the future, the researcher should consider development of the delivery controls, combined with the telepresence system using the internet of things, to improve the navigation system, the manipulator system for supporting multi-floor transportation, and also other multi-functional purposes.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0764.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: creative legal study; creativity; medical curriculum; medical student
Online: 31 March 2021 (12:15:46 CEST)
In Thailand, the topic of medical ethics and laws related to medical professions has been one part of the national competency assessment criteria. The objective of this article was to design legal issues into the medical curriculum and to share experiences of creative legal study. Legal contents were inserted into 10 subjects and taught for year 1 to year 6 medical students. Students were divided into multi-groups or received individual tasks and then, shared their knowledge and idea for solving legal problems. The results showed they could interpret and create novel ideas for legal and ethical reconstruction, including the topic of the principle of laws, criminal laws, civil and commercial laws, public health laws, organ donation/transplantation, end of life decisions, and legal liability for the medical profession. Finally, the creative legal study can be used as a novel approach to support creativity among medical students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0569.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: COVID-19; greenhouse; MSMEs; renewable energy; solar energy
Online: 23 March 2021 (12:50:36 CET)
This study aimed to focus on how to design a low-cost greenhouse for the cultivation of crops, to propose the cost-effectiveness analysis of small agribusiness, and to promote sustainable agricultural production during and after the COVID-19 crisis for helping grassroots and anyone who lost their job. This article is qualitative engineering research, studying of literature reviews of greenhouse farming concept and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, then, designing low-cost greenhouse model which was preliminarily adapted for hot climate countries. Three plants that were selected as representative plants of this model include sunflower, water spinach, and wheat. The greenhouse model, measuring 5 x 7 x 4 m (W x L x H), was designed for this mission. The total cost of one building is approximately 97,994 THB. For the worthiness of the investment, farmers should build at least three greenhouse buildings, which will return total income to farmers approximately 34,666.09 THB per month. The suggestion includes further knowledge and financial supports from the government sectors among farmers, then, boost them up using high-level technology and also planting high-price agribusiness production to promote the local economy to be strong and sustainable.