REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0043.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Electrodermal activity; Stress detection; Machine learning; Scoping review
Online: 2 November 2020 (13:37:08 CET)
Early detection of stress can prevent us from suffering from a long-term illness such as depression and anxiety. This article presents a scoping review of stress detection based on electrodermal activity (EDA) and machine learning (ML). From an initial set of 395 articles searched in six scientific databases, 58 were finally selected according to various criteria established. The scoping review has made it possible to analyse all the steps to which the EDA signals are subjected: acquisition, preprocessing, processing and feature extraction. Finally, all the ML techniques applied to the features of this signal have been studied for stress detection. It has been found that support vector machines and artificial neural networks stand out within the supervised learning methods given their high performance values. On the contrary, it has been evidenced that unsupervised learning is not very common in the detection of stress through EDA. This scoping review concludes that the use of EDA for the detection of arousal variation (and stress detection) is widely spread, with very good results in its prediction with the ML methods found during this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0189.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Flying Social Robot; Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV); Emotion Recognition; Convolution Neural Network (CNN); Virtual Reality (VR); Unity; MATLAB/Simulink; Python
Online: 5 March 2021 (11:52:50 CET)
This work is part of an ongoing research project to develop an unmanned flying social robot to monitor dependants at home in order to detect the person’s state and bring the necessary assistance. In this sense, this paper focuses on the description of a virtual reality (VR) simulation platform for the monitoring process of an avatar in a virtual home by a rotatory-wing autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This platform is based on a distributed architecture composed of three modules communicated through the Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol: the UAV Simulator implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, the VR Visualiser developed in Unity, and the new emotion recognition (ER) System developed in Python. Using a face detection algorithm and a convolutional neural network (CNN), the ER System is able to detect the person’s face in the image captured by the UAV’s on-board camera and classify the emotion among seven possible ones (surprise, fear, happiness, sadness, disgust, anger or neutral expression). The experimental results demonstrate the correct integration of this new computer vision module within the VR platform, as well as the good performance of the designed CNN, with around 85% in the F1-score, a mean of the precision and recall of the model. The developed emotion detection system can be used in the future implementation of the assistance UAV that monitors dependent people in a real environment, since the methodology used is valid for images of real people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0174.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV); Social Robot; Feeling of Safety and Comfort; Trajectory Planning; Virtual Reality; MATLAB/Simulink®; MQTT
Online: 8 October 2020 (11:06:18 CEST)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new model of social robots for home care of dependent persons. In this regard, this article introduces a study on people’s feeling of safety and comfort while watching the monitoring trajectory of a quadrotor dedicated to determining their condition. Three main parameters are evaluated: the relative monitoring altitude, the monitoring velocity and the shape of the monitoring path around the person (ellipsoidal or circular). For this purpose, a new trajectory generator based on a state machine, which is successfully implemented and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink®, is described. The study is carried out with 37 participants using a virtual reality (VR) platform based on two modules, UAV Simulator and VR Visualiser, both communicating through the MQTT protocol. The participants’ preferences have been a high relative monitoring altitude, a high monitoring velocity and a circular path. These choices are a starting point for the design of trustworthy socially assistive UAVs flying in real homes.