REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0350.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Antibodies engineering; Computational approach; Novel drugs; Synthetic immunology; Next generation antibodies
Online: 28 June 2020 (20:24:49 CEST)
In the pre era of synthetic antibodies, pharmaceutical companies depend on finding novel drugs from medicinal plants and other traditional resources; while in present, technological advances in biology, computer and robotics give the researchers the ability to rewrite and edit DNA in order to synthesize very large sets of drug candidates; these novel and improved candidates serves the basis for creating another library of drug candidates and so on until we find the right biomolecule for the disease of interest. all these technologies combined together to synthesize therapeutic antibodies for many types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases, that can address diseases much more readily to very rapidly get therapeutics into patients so that we can potentially have an impact on disease. The antibodies mechanism is recognize and bind to disease cells and pinpoint the immune system to attack those cells effectively. Now a days, they dependent on computational approach to guide and accelerate the process of antibodies engineering by combination of selection system and use of high-throughput data acquisition and analysis to build and construct populations of next generation antibodies that are thermo-stable, non-immunogenic as possible, and to be administered to many humans as possible. In this review, I will discuss the latest in silico methods for antibodies engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0055.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: IgA vasculitis; antiphospholipid antibodies; lupus anticoagulant; anticardiolipin antibodies; anti-b2 glycoprotein antibodies
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:36:58 CET)
IgA vasculitis is a hypersensitivity vasculitis, which is usually self-limiting. Renal involvement is the most damaging long-term complication of IgA vasculitis, happening in 20% - 100% of cases. Some factors have been reported to be associated with renal involvement in IgA vasculitis; however, no biomarker has been proved as a risk factor for renal involvement and its severity yet. We followed 48 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of IgA vasculitis for six months. We checked these patients for renal involvement by microscopic urine examination. We checked aPL antibodies in all patients on admission and 12 weeks later. Urinalysis showed renal involvement in 14 of 48 patients with IgA vasculitis (29.16%). Antiphospholipid antibodies were positive in 9 patients with IgA vasculitis and renal involvement (9 out of 14, 64.28%), while they were positive in only six patients with IgA vasculitis without renal involvement (6 out of 34, 17.64%), showing a moderate correlation between positive aLP and renal involvement in patients with IgA vasculitis, with a kappa index of 0.457. Serum aPL antibodies, as a tool to predict renal involvement in IgA vasculitis, show a sensitivity of 64.3%, a specificity of 82.4%, PPV of 60.0%, and NPV of 84.8%, demonstrating that a positive serum aPL antibody can be used to positively predict the renal involvement, while a negative result is not strong enough to rule out future renal involvement.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Meta-analysis; p53 wild type antibodies; p53 mutant antibodies; cancer survival prognostic factor.
Online: 24 September 2021 (12:46:26 CEST)
Importance: p53 is an unequivocal tumor suppressor altered in half cancers. The immune system produces systemic p53 autoantibodies (p53 Abs) in many cancer patients. Objective: The focus of this systemic review and meta-analysis is on the prognostic value of p53 Abs expressed in the serum of patients with solid tumors. Data Sources: All the clinical investigations were searched on PubMed, MBase and Cochrane from 1993 reporting the first study until May 2021. Study Selection: Studies were included that met the following criteria: 1) participants with cancer; 2) outcome results expressed in relation to the presence of a p53 antibody; 3) a primary outcome (disease free survival, overall survival or progression free survival) expressed as hazard ratio (HR). The following exclusion criteria were used: 1) insufficient data available to evaluate outcomes; 2) animal studies; 3) studies with less than 10 participants. 1333 potentially relevant articles; studies as duplicates, non-patients studies or reviews were excluded. After viewing the titles and abstracts of the 52 remaining studies, the full texts of 34 studies were retrieved and 12 studies were included in the analysis. Data Extraction and Synthesis: PRISMA guidelines were used for abstracting and assessing data quality and validity by three independent observers. The summary estimates were generated using a fixed-effect model (Mantel–Haenszel method) or a random-effect model (DerSimonian–Laird-method) depending on the absence or presence of heterogeneity (I2). Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): The primary study outcome was to determine the prognostic value of p53 Abs from a large population size of patients with solid tumors, as determined before data collection. Results: In total 12 clinical studies and of which 2094 patients were included and it was determined that p53-wt Abs expression in the serum significantly correlated with a worse survival of cancer patients (95% CI 1.48 [1.24, 1.77]; p<0.00001). On the contrary, data from literature indicated that there was a potential association between p53-mut Abs antibodies with better survival. Conclusions and Relevance: This is the first meta-analysis proving the diagnostic utility of p53-Abs for cancer patients, predicting a worse outcome. The serum-p53 value (s-p53-value) could be useful for future theranostics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0359.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: monoclonal antibodies; tixagevimab/cilgavimab; immunocompromised
Online: 19 January 2023 (12:00:57 CET)
Objectives: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have proven to be a valuable tool against COVID-19, mostly among subjects with risk factors for progression to severe illness. Tixagevimab/cilgavimab (TIX/CIL), a combination of two Fc-modified human monoclonal antibodies, has been recently approved to be employed as early treatment. Methods: Two groups of immunocompromised patients exposed to different early treatments (i.e., TIX/CIL vs. other mAbs [casirivimab/imdevimab, bamlanivimab/etesevimab, sotrovimab]) were compared in terms of clinical outcomes (hospitalization and mortality within 14 days from administration) and time to the negativity of nasal swabs. We used either Pearson’s chi-square or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables, whereas the Wilcoxon rank–sum test was employed for continuous ones. Kaplan–Meier curves were produced to compare the time to nasopharyngeal swab negativity. Results: Early treatment with TIX/CIL was administered to 19 immunocompromised patients, while 89 patients received other mAbs. Most of them were solid organ transplant recipients or suffering from hematologic or solid malignancies. Overall, no significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of clinical outcomes. In the TIX/CIL group, one patient (1/19, 5.3%), who was admitted to the emergency room within the first 14 days from treatment and was hospitalised due to COVID-19 progression, died. Regarding the time to nasal swab negativity, no significant difference (p=0.088) emerged. Conclusions: Early treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection with TIX/CIL shows favourable outcomes in a small group of immunocompromised patients, reporting no significant difference when compared to similar patients treated with other mAbs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0503.v1
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:31:39 CEST)
Propagation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in cultured cells results in genetic adaptations that confer improved growth in vitro and significant attenuation in vivo. Mutations in RL13 arise quickly during cell culture passage, while mutations in the UL128-131A locus emerge later during fibroblast passage and disrupt expression of a glycoprotein complex that is important for entry into epithelial and endothelial cells. As in vivo CMV replicates in the context of host antibodies, we reasoned that antibodies might mitigate the accumulation of adaptive mutations during cell culture passage. To test this, CMV in infant urine was used to infect replicate fibroblast cultures. One lineage was passaged in the absence of CMV-hyperimmuneglobulin (HIG) while the other was passaged with HIG in the culture medium. The former lost epithelial tropism and aquired mutations disrupting RL13 and UL131A expression, whereas the latter retained epithelial tropism and both gene loci remained intact after 22 passages. An epitheliotropic RL13+/ UL131A+ virus was isolated by limiting-dilution in the presence of HIG and expanded to produce a working stock sufficient to conduct cell tropism experiments. Thus, culture in the presence of antibodies may facilitate in vitro experiments using viruses that are genetically more authentic than has been previously possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0246.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: monoclonal antibodies; polyclonal antibodies; triazines; enzyme immunoassay; quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis; 3D-QSAR; atrazine
Online: 9 November 2018 (11:36:02 CET)
A common task in the immunodetection of structurally close compounds is to analyze the selectivity of immune recognition: it is required to understand the regularities of immune recognition and to elucidate the basic structural elements which provide it. Triazines are compounds of particular interest for such a research due to their high variability and the necessity of their monitoring to provide safety of agricultural products and foodstuffs. We evaluated the binding of 20 triazines with polyclonal (pAb) and monoclonal (mAb) antibodies obtained using atrazine as the immunogenic hapten. A total of >3000 descriptors was used in QSAR analysis of binding activities (pIC50). Comparison of the two enzyme immunoassay systems showed that the system with pAb is much easier to describe using 2D QSAR methodology, while the system with mAb can be described using the 3D QSAR COMFA. Thus, for the 3D QSAR model of the polyclonal antibodies, the main statistical parameter q2 (‘leave-many-out’) is equal 0.498, and for monoclonal antibodies q2 is equal 0.566. Obviously, in the case of pAb, we deal with several targets, while in the case of mAb the target is one, and therefore it is easier to describe it using specific fields of molecular interactions distributed in space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0335.v1
Online: 22 July 2022 (09:57:40 CEST)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), etiological agent of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spread since December 2019, resulting in massive health and economic crisis worldwide. While efforts to stop the pandemic are crucial, collecting epidemiological data to help manage current and future pandemics will be important. In addition to humans, serological and molecular based studies have demonstrated SARS CoV-2 exposure in several wild, domestic and farmed animals. For examples Shriner and the team showed serologically an exposure of 40% to the white deer living in close proximity to urban centers. Additional reports have also emerged of susceptibility of animal’s species like cats, ferrets, raccoon dogs, cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques, white-tailed deer, rabbits, Egyptian fruit bats, and Syrian hamsters to SARS-CoV-2 infection.. It’s worth emphasizing that these reports are based on experimental data mostly derived from Europe, USA, South America and parts of Asia. In limited instances natural infections of SARS-CoV-2 have been reported in pet dogs, cats, tigers, lions, snow leopards, pumas, gorillas at zoos and farmed mink and ferrets. The presence of the virus in animal species and an understanding of whether these are natural or recent human to animal transmissions is important. It’s possible that such transmission could passage the virus or subject the virus to a different immunological pressure thereby helping with the development of viral variants in addition to being a host for future reservoirs of the virus. In Kenya SARS-CoV-2 was first detected on March 12th 2020 from imported human cases of persons who had travelled from the United States. This was followed by detection of imported cases majorly from China, Sweden and United Kingdom. Later infections were confirmed in Nairobi and Mombasa suggesting further cases of disease importations through the major ports of entry. However, no comparable data on animal exposure have hitherto been generated in Kenya. To address this key concern, we focused on three objectives; 1) development of a robust antibody ELISA based on crude SARS-CoV-2 lysate. 2) SARS-CoV-2 serology of domestic animals in Kenya. 3) Corroboration of the crude lysate based seroprevalence data and a commercial ELISA kit based on the Spike receptor binding domain (RBD) antigen. Our sample set included camel sera (both pre- & post outbreak sera), as well as sera from cats and dogs collected at the peak of the pandemic. Our results using the ELISA based on crude SARS-CoV-2 lysate indicated SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in camels (71%, N=145), cats 11% (N=16) and dogs (81%, N=36) with varying titer levels. These findings were comparable to those obtained using the commercial ELISA kit based on the spike RBD antigens. In summary, the data warrants two key conclusions: (i) we have demonstrated that the crude lysate ELISA allows for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection, and given its potential to offer robust detection could be applied for initial mass screening (ii) although the current study cannot disentangle the relative contributions of antigenic cross-reactivity, pre-pandemic exposure to SARS-CoV-2 or human-animal transmission, it nonetheless demonstrates for the first time the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 like antibodies in domestic and wild animals in Kenya. Our findings set the scene for further research into the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in domestic and wild animals to understand their potential epidemiological implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0218.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Monoclonal antibodies; Variable dosing; Fixed dosing; Oncology
Online: 13 December 2022 (02:25:03 CET)
Oncological patients need the proper doses of medications to facilitate their recovery. The two basic approaches used in dosing Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) are fixed-dose combination and variable dosing. In Fixed-Dose Combination Drugs (FDCs), two or more active components are combined in a single formulation at a predetermined dose. Variable dosage, which has long been the industry standard, is the polar opposite of this approach. The body changes over time; the Body Surface Area (BSA) in square meters is often used as a Measure (m2). This study uses a systematic review. Most mAbs used in oncology are predominantly given as cytotoxic anticancer drugs using body-size-based (variable) regimens. Despite the benefits of fixed-dose, variable dosing has become the industry standard, despite being criticized for ineffectiveness. While variable dosing has some advantages, the prevalent view is that continuous dosing has significant advantages based on the balance of probabilities. After assessing each alternative, including its benefits and drawbacks, history of use, and suitability in the current context, fixed dosing emerges as a viable option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0471.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: children; seroprevalence; antibodies; SARS-CoV-2; Vietnam
Online: 31 October 2022 (07:37:55 CET)
Background: The robustness of sero-surveillence has delineated the high burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children; however, these existing data showed wide variation. This study aimed to identify the serostatus of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and associated factors among children following the fourth pandemic wave in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Vietnam National Children’s Hospital (VNCH) between March 13 and April 3, 2022. 4,032 eligible children seeking medical care for any medical condition not related to acute Covid-19 infections was tested for IgG SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies by ADVIA Centaur® SARS-CoV-2 IgG (sCOVG) assay using the residuals of routine blood samples. Results: The median age of enrolled children was 39 (IQR=14-82) months. The overall seropositive prevalence was 59.2%, and the median antibody titer was 4.78 [IQR 2.38-9.57] UI/mL. The risk of seropositivity and the median antibody titer was not related to gender (58.6% versus 60.1%, 4.9 versus 4.6 UI/mL, all p>0.05). Among age groups, the highest seroprevalence was reported in the children aged 13 to <36 months old. Children aged ≤12 months were likely to be seropositive compared to children aged 36 to <60 months (59.2% versus 57.5%, p=0.49) and those aged ≥144 months (59.2% versus 65.5%, p=0.16). Children aged ≥144 months exhibited a significantly higher titer of protective COVID-19 antibodies than other age groups (p <0.001). In multivariate logistic regression, we observed independent factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity, including the age 13 to <36 months (OR=1.29, 95%CI=1.06-1.56, p=0.01), 60 to <144 months (OR=79, 95%CI=0.67-0.95, p=0.01), ≥144 months (OR=1.84, 95%CI=1.21-2.8, p=0.005), the presence of infected household members (OR=2.36, 95%CI=2.06–2.70, p<0.001), participants from Hanoi (OR=1.54, 95%CI=1.34-1.77, p<0.001), underlying conditions (OR=0.71, 95%CI=0.60-0.85, p<=0.001), and using corticosteroids or immunosuppressants (OR=0.64, 95%CI=0.48-0.86, p=0.003). Conclusions: This study highlights a high seroprevalence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among children seeking medical care for non-COVID-19-related conditions in a tertiary children’s hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam. In the context of reopening in-person schools and future emerged COVID-19 variants, this point will also be a key message about the necessity of “rush-out” immunization coverage for children, especially those under the age of three years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: monoclonal antibodies; ARDS; cytokine storm syndrome; inflammation
Online: 22 April 2021 (20:58:22 CEST)
Background: Cytokine storm in COVID-19 is heterogenous. There are at least three subtypes: cytokine release syndrome (CRS), macrophage activation syndrome (MAS), and sepsis. Methods: A retrospective study comprising 276 patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. All patients were tested for ferritin, interleukin-6, D-Dimer, fibrinogen, calcitonin, and C-reactive protein. According to the diagnostic criteria, three groups of patients with different subtypes of cytokine storm syndrome were identified: MAS, CRS or sepsis. In each group, treatment results were assessed depending on whether or not tocilizumab was used. Results: MAS was diagnosed in 9.1% of the patients examined, CRS in 81.8%, and sepsis in 9.1%. Median serum ferritin in patients with MAS was significantly higher (5894 vs. 984 vs. 957 ng/ml, p <0.001) than in those with CRS or sepsis. Hypofibrinogenemia and pancytopenia were also observed in MAS patients. In CRS patients, a higher mortality rate was observed among those who received tocilizumab, 21 vs. 10 patients (p=0.043), RR = 2.1 (95% CI 1.0-4.3). In MAS patients, tocilizumab decreased the mortality, 13 vs. 6 patients (p=0.013), RR = 0.50 (95% CI 0.25-0.99). Сonclusions: Tocilizumab therapy in patients with COVID-19 and CRS was associated with increased mortality, while in MAS patients it contributed to reduced mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: gluten; celiac disease; antibodies; Ménière’s disease; vertigo
Online: 2 May 2017 (05:49:26 CEST)
Background: Meniere's disease (MD) has been recently linked to gluten assumption. Approximately 75% of MD patients show positive skin test to food and about 50% of the positive responses are specific to the gliadin acid extract fraction. Aim of this study was to investigate the humoral immune responses to wheat antigens and related autoantigens in MD patients. Methods. We assessed the reactivity of sera from 28 patients with definite MD and 100 healthy controls against a repertoire of 51 antigens usually associated with immune reaction to gluten. Results. MD patients showed an increase of anti-wheat IgA, anti-cerebellar peptide IgA and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 IgM compared to healthy controls. In particular, the increase of anti-wheat IgA and GAD 65 IgM has been confirmed in a subgroup of MD patients symptomatically responding to a gluten free diet (GFD). Conclusion. In MD patients, an increase of the antibody production against gluten biomarkers was observed; in particular, anti-wheat IgA seems to be associated to clinical response to GFD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0223.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Monoclonal antibodies; Sotrovimab; COVID-19; Omicron; BA.2
Online: 14 July 2022 (12:22:21 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) continues to spread worldwide as a severe pandemic. The Omicron BA.2 became the predominant variant and the protagonist of the ongoing surge. As the virus continues to mutate, using of approved drugs or developing new therapeutic or prophylactic therapies against COVID-19 could be more complex. Sotrovimab is a monoclonal antibody (mAb) targeting the conserved epitope on the spike protein receptor; the most recent studies observed that it has substantially decreased in vitro activity against the Omicron BA.2 subvariant, but real-life data are still scarce. We describe the outcome of a case series of outpatients with BA.1 or BA.2 infection treated with sotrovimab. We conducted a retrospective observational study including all non-hospitalized adult patients treated with sotrovimab, for which a Sanger sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 was performed within a regional genomic surveillance program. Eleven (50%) patients with BA.1 infection and eleven (50%) with BA.2 infection were considered. Most patients were immunocompromised. During the follow-up period, no patient died and only one with BA.1 infection was hospitalized for severe COVID-19 pneumonia onset. One month after treatment, 90.9% of patients were completely asymptomatic in each group. We demonstrated that patients carrying the BA.2 variant treated with sotrovimab did not evolve to severe COVID-19, showing a similar outcome to BA.1 infected patients. Further studies are needed to prove that vaccination or the presumably high doses of mAbs used can protect this group of patients at high risk of progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0101.v1
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:03:11 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic is the biggest public health threat facing the globe today. Multiple vaccines have been approved, however the emergence of viral variants such as the recent Omicron, raises the possibility of booster doses to achieve adequate protection. In Brazil, the CoronaVac (Sinovac) vaccine was used, however it’s important to assess the immune response to this vaccine over time. This study aimed to monitor the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses in those immunized with CoronaVac and SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Samples were collected between August 2020 and August 2021. Within the vaccinated cohort, some individuals had history of infection by SARS-CoV-2 prior to immunization and others not. We analyzed RBD-specific and neutralizing- antibodies. Anti-RBD antibodies were detected in both cohorts, with a peak between 45-90 days post infection or vaccination, followed by a steady decline over time. In those with previous history of COVID-19, a higher, longer, more persistent response was observed. This trend was mirrored in the neutralization assays, where infection followed by immunization resulted in higher, longer lasting responses which were conditioned on the presence of levels of RBD antibodies right before the vaccination. This supports the necessity of booster doses of CoronaVac in due course to prevent serious disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0377.v1
Online: 21 April 2020 (06:56:12 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that is the causative agent of Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVD-19). As of the 17th April 2020, it has infected 2 114 269 people resulting in 145 144 deaths. The timing, magnitude and longevity of humoral immunity is not yet understood for SARS-CoV-2. Nevertheless, understanding this is urgently required to inform the likely future dynamics of the pandemic, to guide strategies to allow relaxation of social distancing measures and to understand how to deploy limiting vaccine doses when they become available to achieve maximum impact. SARS-CoV-2 is the seventh human coronavirus to be described. Four human coronaviruses circulate seasonally and cause common colds. Two other coronaviruses, SARS and MERS, have crossed from animal sources into humans but have not become endemic. Here we review what is known about the human humoral immune response to epidemic SARS CoV and MERS CoV and to the seasonal, endemic coronaviruses. Then we summarize recent, mostly non-peer reviewed studies into SARS-CoV-2 serology and reinfection in humans and non-human primates and summarize current pressing research needs.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0221.v1
Online: 12 March 2020 (15:02:49 CET)
The appearance of the novel betacoronavirus 2019-nCoV represents a major threat to human health, and its diffusion around the world is predicted to have dramatic economic consequences. The knowledge of the 3D structures of 2019-nCoV proteins can facilitate the development of diagnostic and therapeutic molecules. Herein, we apply our energy-based method for the prediction of potential epitopes on viral proteins to design peptide-based molecules that can subsequently be used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We discuss these aspects in the paper.The designs have not been tested. Our aim is to share information that can be useful in the development of novel biomolecules with potential interesting activities against 2019-nCoV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0270.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus; goat; antigens; antibodies; proviral DNA
Online: 21 January 2021 (12:46:50 CET)
Aim: The aim of this study was to use a multi target approach to testing with both serological tests and an in-house real-time molecular test to investigate the prevalence of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats from three hobbyist farms in the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. Materials and Methods: We have approached the detection of using a multi target approach testing with both ELISA and an in-house real-time PCR test to investigate the prevalence of CAEV in goats. Animals from three hobbyist farms were used in this study. The animals from two farms (n=13 for F1 and n=8 for F2) had clinical signs of arthritis and mastitis. In the third farm (n=15 for F3), all goats were homebred and had no contact with imported animals. Results: CAEV antibodies (ELISA targets TM env and gag genes) were detected in serum samples from two farms (F1 and F2), indicating a seroprevalence 87.50-92.31%. Specific CAEV antibodies were also detected in milk samples. CAEV proviral DNA was detected in 53.85-62.50%. Results from all tests performed in the third farm (F3) were negative, indicting all tests were 100% specific.Conclusion: Results of this work show that CAEV is circulating and present in small hobbyist goat farms in Russia. Serological and molecular tests could be of importance for CAEV control and eradication programs in Russia for hobbyist goat farms.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; coronavirus; monoclonal antibodies
Online: 3 December 2020 (09:20:35 CET)
Knowing the “point of view” of the immune system is essential to understand the characteristic of a pandemic, such as that generated by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, responsible for the Coronavirus Disease (COVID)-19. In this review, we will discuss the general host/pathogen interactions dictating protective immune response or immunopathology, addressing the role of immunity or immunopathology in influencing the clinical infection outcome, and debate the potential immunoprophylactic and immunotherapy strategies required to fight the virus infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0316.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: RT-PCR; seroconversion; serum biomarkers; SARS-CoV2; neutralizing antibodies
Online: 20 May 2020 (04:10:24 CEST)
The progression of the recent COVID-19 pandemic surprised political authorities as well as scientists. The possibility to design powerful strategies for health care and preserving economic and social activities strongly relies on the capacity to monitor correctly the virus spreading and the immune response in the symptomatic and asymptomatic population. The available data relative to the first pandemic months indicate that the test reliability was progressively improved but also that the extremely variable methodologies used in the diagnostic studies generated data that are often not comparable. This condition prevents a simple metadata analysis for the identification of reliable diagnostics guidelines. Nevertheless, there are converging evidences that combinations of complementary approaches may enable more precise identification of virus infection. Furthermore, it appears that the similarities between SARS-CoV2 and the related types SARS-CoV1 and MERS that caused outbreaks in the last 20 years can be exploited to infer some information for which no direct evidence is still available
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0326.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; neutralizing antibodies; immunotherapy; vaccine
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:52:17 CEST)
We review aspects of the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID- 19 pandemic. The topics we cover are relevant to immunotherapy with plasma from recovered patients and with monoclonal antibodies against the viral S-protein. The development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, an essential public health tool, will also be informed by an understanding of the antibody response in infected patients. Although virus-neutralizing antibodies are likely to protect, antibodies could potentially trigger immunopathogenic events in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients or enhance infection. An awareness of these possibilities may benefit clinicians and the developers of antibody-based therapies and vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0118.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Receptor-specific antibodies; targeting; nanoparticles; dendritic cells; cross-presentation
Online: 10 April 2019 (07:46:18 CEST)
Abstract Optimal targeting of nanoparticles (NP) to dendritic cells (DCs) receptors to deliver cancer-specific antigens is key to an efficient induction of anti-tumor immune responses. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing tètanus toxoid and gp100 melanoma-associated antigen, toll-like receptor adjuvants were targeted to the DC-SIGN receptor in DCs by specific humanized antibodies or by ICAM3-Fc fusion proteins mimicking natural ligand. Despite higher binding and uptake efficacy of anti-DC-SIGN antibody-targeted NP vaccines than ICAM3-Fc ligand, no difference were observed in DC activation markers CD80, CD83, CD86 and CCR7 induced. DCs loaded with NP coated with ICAM3-Fc appeared more potent in activating T cells via cross-presentation than antibody-coated NP vaccines. This fact could be very crucial in the design of new cancer vaccines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0645.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: immune complex; antibodies; Fab; Fc; HIV-1; vaccine; steric; allosteric
Online: 25 December 2020 (07:46:51 CET)
Immune complexes (ICs) made of antibody-bound antigens exhibit immunomodulatory activities exploitable in a vaccination strategy to optimize vaccine efficacy. The modulatory effects of ICs are typically attributed to the Fc fragments of the antibody components, which engage Fc receptors, complement and complement receptors on various immune cells. These Fc-mediated functions facilitate the critical interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems to impact the quality and quantity of the elicited adaptive responses. In addition to the Fc contribution, the Fab fragment also plays an immunoregulation role. The antigen-binding domains of the Fab fragment can bind their specific epitopes at high affinity to sterically occlude these antigenic sites from recognition by other antibodies. Moreover, the Fab-mediated binding have been demonstrated to induce allosteric alterations at nearby or distant antigenic sites. In this review article, we survey published studies to illuminate how the immunomodulatory functions of ICs have been investigated or utilized in a vaccination strategy to fight against an array of infectious pathogens, culminating with IC vaccine designs aimed at preventing HIV-1 infection. In particular, we highlight IC vaccine candidates that exploit Fab-mediated steric and allosteric effects to direct antibody responses away or toward the V1V2 domain, the V3 loop, and other antigenic sites on the HIV-1 envelope gp120 glycoprotein. Like other HIV-1 vaccine approaches, the path for IC-based vaccines to reach the clinic faces major hurdles yet to be overcome; however, investigations into this vaccine strategy have provided insights into the multifaceted activities of antibodies beyond their conventional roles in the host defense against HIV-1 and other microbial pathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0675.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: surface plasmon resonance; cancer markers; biosensors; receptor immobilization; antibodies; nanoparticles
Online: 29 October 2018 (11:31:10 CET)
Almost 50 papers on surface plasmon resonance biosensors, published between 2016 and mid-2018, are reviewed. Papers concerning the determination of large particles such as vesicles, exosomes, cancer cells, living cells, stem cells and microRNA are excluded, as these are covered by a very recent review. The reviewed papers are categorized into five groups, depending on the degree of maturity of the reported solution: ranging from simple marker detection to clinical application of a previously developed biosensor. Instrumental solutions and details of biosensor construction are analyzed, including the chips, receptors and linkers used, as well as calibration strategies. Biosensors with a sandwich structure containing different nanoparticles are considered separately, as are SPR applications for investigating the interactions of biomolecules. An analysis is also made of the markers determined using the biosensors. Concluding, there is shown to be a growing number of SPR applications in the solution of real clinical problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0075.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: bat; monoclonal antibodies; lyssaviruses; neutralization; glycoprotein; ABLV; rabies; RABV; phage display
Online: 2 February 2021 (08:27:58 CET)
Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a rhabdovirus that circulates in four species of pteropid bats (ABLVp) and the yellow-bellied sheath-tailed bat (ABLVs) in mainland Australia. In the three confirmed human cases of ABLV, rabies illness preceded fatality. As with rabies virus (RABV), post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for potential ABLV infections consists of wound cleansing, ad-ministration of the rabies vaccine and injection of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) proximal to the wound. Despite the efficacy of PEP, the inaccessibility of human RIG (HRIG) in the developing world and the high immunogenicity of equine RIG (ERIG) has led to consideration of human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) as a passive immunization option that offers enhanced safety and specificity. Using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) expressing the glycoprotein (G) protein of ABLVs and phage display, we identified two hmAbs, A6 and F11, which completely neutralize ABLVs/ABLVp, and RABV at concentrations ranging from 0.19-3.12 µg/mL and 0.39-6.25 µg/mL respectively. A6 and F11 recognize overlapping epitopes in the lyssavirus G protein, ef-fectively neutralizing phylogroup 1 lyssaviruses, while having little effect on phylogroup 2 and non-grouped diverse lyssaviruses. These results suggest A6 and F11 could be effective therapeutic and diagnostic tools for phylogroup 1 lyssavirus infections.
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; S-protein; RBD; COVID-19; neutralizing antibodies; serology; vaccines; animal models; Warp Speed
Online: 21 June 2020 (15:44:06 CEST)
In this review, we address issues that relate to the rapid “Warp Speed” development of vaccines to counter the COVID-19 pandemic. We review the antibody response that is triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection of humans, and how it may inform vaccine research. The isolation and properties of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies from COVID-19 patients provide additional information on what vaccines should try to elicit. The nature and longevity of the antibody response to coronaviruses are relevant to the potency and duration of vaccine-induced immunity. We summarize the immunogenicity of leading vaccine candidates tested to date in animals and humans, and discuss the outcome and interpretation of virus-challenge experiments in animals. By far the most immunogenic vaccine candidates for antibody responses are recombinant proteins, which are not included in the initial wave of “Warp Speed” immunogens. A substantial concern for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is adverse events, which we review by considering what was seen in studies of SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV vaccines. We conclude by outlining the possible outcomes of the “Warp Speed” vaccine program, which range from the hoped-for rapid success to a catastrophic adverse influence on vaccine uptake generally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0386.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; seroprevalence; antibodies; vaccine; natural infection; French Polynesia
Online: 21 December 2022 (04:56:44 CET)
In French Polynesia, Wuhan, Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants-of-concern (VOCs) caused epidemics with variable severities. We assessed the prevalence and titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies related to natural infection and/or vaccination, from a representative sample (N=673) of the adult population of Tahiti recruited during November-December 2021 (after the Delta outbreak and just before the Omicron epidemic). Of the 673 participants tested, 644 (95.7%) had detectable antibodies against SARS-CoV-2-S and/or -N proteins resulting from natural infection and/or vaccination, and 388 (57.7%) were positive only for the detection of anti-N antibodies indicating natural infection. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence extrapolated to the adult population of Tahiti was estimated at 95.9%. Concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2-S antibodies significantly increased with age, number of self-reported SARS-CoV-2 infections (0 or ≥1), and number of COVID-19 vaccine doses (0, 1, 2, or 3) received by the participants. Elderly people, who are at higher risk of severe outcomes, had received more vaccine doses than younger individuals both in our sample and in the general population. The high level of antibody responses related to past infections and vaccination, especially booster doses, has likely contributed to reducing the severity of the Omicron outbreak in French Polynesia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0210.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: HIV-1; HIV envelope; glycosylation; signal peptide; PNGs; broadly neutralizing antibodies; vaccine
Online: 8 February 2021 (13:09:28 CET)
The RV144 trial represents the only vaccine trial to demonstrate any protective effect against HIV-1 infection. While the reason(s) for this protection are still being evaluated, it serves as justification for widespread efforts aimed at developing new, more effective HIV-1 vaccines. Advances in our knowledge of HIV-1 immunogens and host antibody responses to these immunogens are crucial to informing vaccine design. While the envelope (Env) protein is the only viral protein present on the surface of virions, it exists in a complex trimeric conformation and is decorated with an array of variable N-linked glycans, making it an important but difficult target for vaccine design. Thus far, efforts to elicit a protective humoral immune response using structural mimics of native Env trimers have been unsuccessful. Notably, the aforementioned N-linked glycans serve as a component of many of the epitopes crucial for the induction of potentially protective broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Thus, a greater understanding of Env structural determinants, most critically Env glycosylation, will no doubt be of importance in generating effective immunogens. Recent studies have identified the HIV-1 Env signal peptide (SP) as an important contributor to Env glycosylation. Further investigation into the mechanisms by which the SP directs glycosylation will be important, both in the context of understanding HIV-1 biology and in order to inform HIV-1 vaccine design.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: autoimmune diseases; antinuclear antibodies; antinuclear factor; functional autoantibodies; natural autoantibodies; physiological autoimmunity
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:01:32 CET)
Incidence of autoimmune diseases increases. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) testing is a critical tool for their diagnosis. However, ANA prevalence in health increased over last decades, especially among young people. ANA in health occur in low concentrations, with prevalence up to 50% in some populations, which demands a cutoff revision. The review deals with origin and probable physiological or compensatory function of ANA in health, according to the concept of immunological clearance, theory of autoimmune regulation of cell functions and the concept of functional autoantibodies. Considering ANA titers ≤1:320 as a serological marker of autoimmune diseases seems inappropriate. The role of anti-DFS70/LEDGFp75 autoantibodies is highlighted as possible anti-risk biomarker for autoimmune rheumatic disorders. ANA prevalence in health is different in various regions due to several underlying causes discussed in the review, all influencing in additive combinations according to the concept of the mosaic of autoimmunity. Not only titer, but the HEp-2 IFA staining patterns, like AC-2, is also important. Accepting autoantibodies as a kind of bioregulators, not only upper, but also lower borders of their normal range should be determined. Not only their excess, but also lack of them or “autoimmunodeficiency” could be a reason of disorders.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antibodies; COVID-19; glycans; immunoglobulin M; SARS-CoV-2; pneumonia; prediction; protection
Online: 24 April 2020 (10:25:27 CEST)
The natural history of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is extremely variable, ranging from asymptomatic infection, to pneumonia, and to complications eventually fatal. We propose here the first model, explaining how the outcome of first, crucial 10-15 days after infection, hangs on the balance between the cumulative dose of viral exposure and the efficacy of the local innate immune response (natural IgA and IgM antibodies, MBL). If SARS-CoV-2 runs the blockade of this innate immunity and spreads from the upper airways to the alveoli in the early phases of the infections, it can replicate with no local resistance, causing pneumonia and releasing high amounts of antigens. The delayed and strong adaptive immune response (high affinity IgM and IgG antibodies) that follows, causes severe inflammation and triggers mediator cascades (complement, coagulation, and cytokine storm) leading to complications often requiring intensive therapy and being, in some patients, fatal. Strenuous exercise and high flow air in the incubation days and early stages of COVID-19, facilitates direct penetration of the virus to the lower airways and the alveoli, without impacting on the airway’s mucosae covered by neutralizing antibodies. This allows the virus to bypass the efficient immune barrier of the upper airways mucosa in young and healthy athletes. In conclusion, whether the virus or the adaptative immune response reach the lungs first, is a crucial factor deciding the fate of the patient. This “quantitative and time-sequence dependent” model has several implications for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0530.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; antibodies; cohort; population-based; body mass index; ECLIA
Online: 23 September 2021 (11:10:54 CEST)
In March 2020, several mass gathering events were related to the Falles festival in Borriana (Spain), resulting in a 536 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases outbreak among participants. Our objective was to estimate anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persistence six months after and factors associated with antibody response. A prospective population-based cohort study was carried out by the Public Health Center of Castellon and the Emergency and Clinical Analysis and Microbiology Services of Hospital de la Plana in Vila-real. In October 2020, sero-epidemiologic study to estimate the persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by a electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) was implemented. We enrolled 484 (90.2%) of the 536 members of the initial outbreak cohort and detected persistent antibodies in 479 (99%) without re-infection episodes. Five participants had a negative antibody test. Factors associated with a negative result were a lower body mass index (BMI), and less contact with other COVID-19 cases. Among the 469 participants with two ECLIA tests, 96 (20.5%) had an increase of antibodies and 373 (79.5%) a decline. Increased antibodies were associated with older age, higher BMI, more severe illness, and low current smokers. After a COVID-19 infection, a high proportion of cases maintained detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0611.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Within-host modeling; Dengue fever; immune response; antibodies; viral load; Antibody-Dependent Enhancement
Online: 25 June 2021 (09:21:23 CEST)
Dengue fever is a viral mosquito-borne infection, a major international public health concern. With 2.5 billion people at risk of acquiring the infection around the world, disease severity is influenced by the immunological status of the individual, seronegative or seropositive, prior to natural infection. Caused by four antigenically related but distinct serotypes, DENV-1 to DENV-4, infection by one serotype confers life-long immunity to that serotype and a period of temporary cross-immunity (TCI) to other serotypes. The clinical response on exposure to a second serotype is complex with the so-called Antibody-Dependent enhancement (ADE) process, a disease augmentation phenomenon when pre-existing antibodies to previous dengue infection do not neutralize but rather enhance the new infection, used to explain the etiology of severe disease. In this paper, we present a minimalistic mathematical model framework developed to describe qualitatively the dengue immunological response mediated by antibodies. Three models are analyzed and compared: i) primary dengue infection, ii) secondary dengue infection with the same (homologous) dengue virus and iii) secondary dengue infection with a different (heterologous) dengue virus. We explore the features of viral replication, antibody production, and infection clearance over time. The model is developed based on body cells and free virus interactions resulting in infected cells activating antibody production. Our mathematical results are qualitatively similar to the ones described in the empiric immunology literature, providing insights on the immunopathogenesis of severe disease. Results presented here are of use for future research directions to evaluate the impact of dengue vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0346.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Trypanosoma cruzi; Presenilin; aspartic protease; SPOT-synthesis; anti-peptide antibodies; immunolocalization; transmembrane domains
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:01:25 CEST)
The increasing detection of infections of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, in non-endemic regions beyond Latin America has risen to be a major public health issue. With an impact in the millions of people, current treatments rely on antiquated drugs that produce severe side effects and are considered nearly ineffective for the chronic phase. The minimal progress in the development of new drugs highlights the need for advances in basic research on crucial biochemical pathways in T. cruzi to identify new targets. Here, we report on the T. cruzi presenilin-like transmembrane aspartyl enzyme, a protease of the aspartic class in a unique phylogenetic subgroup with T. vivax separate from protozoans. Computational analyses suggests it contains 9 transmembrane domains and an active site with the characteristic PALP motif of the A22 family. Multiple linear B-cell epitopes were identified by SPOT synthesis analysis with Chagasic patient sera. Two were chosen to generate rabbit antisera, whose signal was primarily localized to the flagellar pocket, intracellular vesicles and endoplasmic reticulum in parasites by whole cell immunofluorescence. The results suggest that the parasitic presenilin-like enzyme could have a role in the secretory pathway and serve as a biomarker for infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0481.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Irukandji syndrome; box jellyfish; CSL antivenom; nematocyst extracts; antigenicity; human sera; human antibodies
Online: 29 August 2018 (05:23:55 CEST)
Carukia barnesi (Cb), Malo kingi (Mk) and Chironex fleckeri (Cf) are dangerous Australian box jellyfish species that provoke distinct and not well understood envenomation syndromes. Specifically, Cb and Mk are small, rare and able to induce a systemic syndrome of generalised muscle pain and catecholamine excess termed “Irukandji syndrome”; Cf has been widely regarded as one of the most venomous organisms in the animal kingdom causing severe sting site pain combined with potentially lethal cardiotoxicity. Building on past studies of major chirodropid and carybdeid species venoms, this study compared the utility of various cubozoan specific antibody reagents to better define the relationships between venom proteins from both exemplar Irukandji species (Cb and Mk) and the archetype C. fleckeri box jellyfish. With the aid of commercial ovine derived Cf-specific antivenom, mouse antibodies reactive to Cb and Mk and rabbit antibodies specific to two Cf toxins (CfTX-1 and 2), as well as human sera, the cross-reactivity of jellyfish species-specific polyclonal antibodies against these three cubozoan venoms was investigated. Immunoblot assays revealed distinc levels of immune recognition across the three species, indicating that Mk specific reagents may bind both Irukandji and Cf venoms. Irukandji venom appears to be antigenic with the exception of a few proteins in the range of 43/46 kDa maybe homologous to CfTX-1 and 2. The implications of such antibody binding for future antivenom development require further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19 prophylaxis; COVID-19 treatment; Kidney transplantation; Vaccination; Monoclonal antibodies; Small antivirus molecules
Online: 16 September 2022 (02:00:02 CEST)
Abstract Kidney transplant recipients, because of a weak immune response due to the assumption of immunosuppressant are exposed to the risk of COVID-19 infection. This fact realize the problem on how to treat the severe infection without carrying the risk of acute rejection due to the reduction of the immunosuppressive drugs. The best are the prophylactic measures to be taken before transplantation as vaccination. If the patient is already transplanted, three measures may be undertaken: Vaccination, use of monoclonal antibodies, use of therapeutic antiviral small molecules. Concerning vaccination is still debated which one is the best and how many doses should be given. The surge of new virus variant is the major problem and invites to find new active vaccines. In addition, not all the transplanted patients develop antibodies. The other measure is the use of monoclonal antibodies. They may be used as prophylaxis or in the early stage of the disease. Finally, the antiviral small molecules may be used again as prophylaxis or treatment. Their major drawback are the interference with the immunosuppressive drugs and the fact that some of them cannot be administered to patients with low eGFR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0250.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Emergence of Omicron and its mechanism; mutation and sub-lineages; Monoclonal antibodies; Antiviral drugs
Online: 18 July 2022 (07:48:00 CEST)
With the ongoing COVID pandemic, the emergence of a novel omicron variant in November 2021 has chaos the world. Despite mass vaccination, this omicron has spread rapidly raising concerns around the globe. The Omicron variant has a vast array of mutations as compared to another variant of concern with overall 50 mutations where 30 mutations are present in its spike protein. This mutation has led to immune escape and more transmissibility compared to other variants, including Delta. A cluster of mutations (H655Y, N679K, and P681H) present at the omicron spike protein could aid in transmission. Currently, no virus-specific data are available to predict the efficacy of anti-viral and mAbs drugs. However, two monoclonal antibody drugs: Sotrovimab and Evusheld are authorized for emergency use in COVID patients. This virus is not fading away soon. The easiest solution and less expensive measure to fight against this pandemic are following COVID appropriate protocols.There is need to strengthen the level of research for development of potential vaccines and anti-viral drugs. It is also important to monitor and expand genomic surveillance to keep track of the emergence of new variants thus avoiding the spread of new diseases worldwide. This article highlights the emergence of omicron and vast number of mutation in its protein. In addition, recent advancement in drugs approved by FDA to treat COVID patients has been listed and focused in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0130.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Zika virus; non-structural protein 1; site-directed mutagenesis; polyclonal antibodies; antigen-capture ELISA
Online: 5 August 2021 (09:11:41 CEST)
Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV), a member of the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family, typically results in mild self-limited illness, but severe neurological disease occurs in a limited subset of patients. In contrast, serious outcomes commonly occur in pregnancy that affect the developing fetus, including microcephaly and other major birth defects. The genetic similarity of ZIKV to other widespread flaviviruses, such as dengue virus (DENV), presents a challenge to the development of specific ZIKV diagnostic assays. Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is established for use in immunodiagnostic assays for flaviviruses. To address the cross-reactivity of ZIKV NS1 with proteins from other flaviviruses we used site-directed mutagenesis to modified putative epitopes. Goat polyclonal antibodies to variant ZIKV NS1 were affinity-purified to remove antibodies binding to the closely related NS1 protein of DENV. An antigen-capture ELISA configured with the affinity-purified polyclonal antibody showed a linear dynamic range between approximately 500 to 30 ng/mL, with a limit of detection of between 1.95 and 7.8 ng/mL. NS1 proteins from DENV, yellow fever virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus showed significantly reduced reactivity in the ZIKV antigen-capture ELISA. Refinement of approaches similar to those employed here could lead to development of ZIKV-specific immunoassays suitable for use in areas where infections with related flaviviruses are common.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0024.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; COVID-19; infertility; lockdown; IVF; SARS-CoV-2 serological testing
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:07:44 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic had profound negative effects on millions of couples affected by infertility and in need to resort to assisted reproductive technologies. There is no consensus over the optimal way and moment of screening triage-negative asymptomatic patients and staff. We present SARS-CoV-2 antibodies’ (IgM, IgG) seroprevalence in 516 triage-negative patients and 30 fertility care providers. The sampling for SARS-CoV-2 serological assays took place from the lockdown release throughout the second half of 2020 (17.05 - 01.12.2020). It revealed an increased seroprevalence of antibodies that closely followed the local epidemiology of COVID-19, with the highest rate of seropositivity coincident with the peak of the second wave. From 546 triage-negative individuals whose blood samples were assessed for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, 6% yielded positive results. The overall seroconversion rate was 2.8% for IgG and 5.1% for IgM. In the group with positive IgM, we observed a negative predictive value for IgM of 98.36% (95% CI: 88.79 – 99.78%), which is clinically meaningful. Serological testing of triage-negative patients up to seven days prior to the actual fertility procedure might avoid the more expensive and not more sensitive molecular testing currently being used for patient screening in most fertility units.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Immune response; SARS-CoV-2 antibodies response; Covid-19 management; Maglumi; Architect; method comparison.
Online: 5 August 2020 (08:09:11 CEST)
The role of the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is not yet well known, in particular about the persistence of circulating antibodies. The aim of the study is to compare the results of two automated systems for the determination of IgG antibodies against SARS CoV-2 and to assess the time course of the IgG response after the onset of symptoms for a period longer than that evaluated to date. IgG were measured in 98 specimens of 55 subjects with COVID-19 (time from the onset of symptoms from 3 to 109 days) using the automated tests "Abbott SARS-COV-2 IgG" and the "MAGLUMI 2019-nCoV IgG". The two methods had a concordance of 91.8%, but the quantitative correlation showed very dispersed results. All the specimens resulted positive after 17 days from the onset of the synptoms. However, the median concentrations of IgG, after a rapid increase up to about 20 days, quickly decrease to about 15% of the maximum for Maglumi. The same samples measured by Architect showed a quite constant trend up to 80 day, and then an only moderate decline. The titer of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 in patients exposed to COVID-19 may significantly and rapidly decrease, with a different time-course depending on the method used for the determination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: influenza; neutralising antibodies; vestigial esterase; antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; pH-induced conformational changes
Online: 2 July 2018 (08:33:45 CEST)
Initial attempts to develop monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics to resolve influenza infections focused mainly on searching for antibodies with the potential to neutralise the virus in vitro with classical haemagglutination inhibition and micro-neutralisation assays. This led to the identification of many antibodies that bind to the head domain of haemagglutinin (HA) which generally have potent neutralisation capabilities that block viral entry or viral membrane fusion. However, this class of antibodies has a narrow breadth of protection in that they are usually strain specific. This led to the emphasis on stalk targeting antibodies which are able to bind a broad range of viral targets that span across different influenza subtypes. Recently, a third class of antibodies targeting the vestigial esterase (VE) domain have been characterised. In this review, we describe the key features of neutralising VE targeting antibodies and compare them with head and stalk class antibodies.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0469.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide monoclonal antibodies; cluster headache; migraine; real-world; galcanezumab; fremanezumab; comorbidity
Online: 26 January 2023 (04:24:39 CET)
A new treatment option for cluster headache (CH) prevention is needed. Monoclonal antibodies (mABs) against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) ligands are used as a preventative treatment for migraine. Considering the CGRP’s role in the CH attack’s ignition and upkeep, fremanezumab and galcanezumab have been evaluated for CH preventative treatment. However, only high-dose (300 mg) galcanezumab was proven for episodic CH prevention. We herein report 3 cases of migraine and comorbid CH with previous failures of preventive treatments. The 2 cases were treated with fremanezumab and the one with non-high-dose galcanezumab. All 3 cases showed good results not only on migraine but also on CH attacks. Our report suggested the efficacy of CGRP-mABs for CH prevention. Our cases differed from the cases in the phase 3 trials of CGRP-mABs for CH prevention in the following 2 points. First, the patients had both migraine and comorbid CH. Second, the combined use of CGRP-mABs with preventative drugs for CH, such as verapamil and/or prednisolone, was performed. Future accumulation of real-world data may prove the efficacy of CGRP-mABs for CH prevention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0167.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Matrix metalloproteinase; MMPs; protease; TIMPs; exosite; small molecule inhibitors; monoclonal antibodies; proteomics; N-terminomics; TAILS
Online: 24 March 2021 (16:23:28 CET)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been demonstrated to have both detrimental and protective functions in inflammatory diseases. Several MMP inhibitors, with the exception of Periostat®, have failed in Phase III clinical trials. As an alternative strategy, recent efforts have been focussed on the development of more selective inhibitors or targeting other domains than their active sites (e.g., exosites, ectosites) through specific small molecule inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies. Here, we present some examples that aim to better understand the mechanisms of conformational changes/allosteric control of MMPs functions. In addition to MMP inhibitors, we discuss unbiased global approaches such as proteomics and N-terminomics to identify new MMP substrates and achieve a better understanding of the roles of these proteases in diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0558.v1
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Adjuvants; Vaccine Production; Vaccine Delivery; Clinical Trials; Neutralizing Antibodies; Th1
Online: 22 November 2020 (11:57:51 CET)
With the COVID-19 pandemic now ongoing for close to a year, people all over the world are still waiting for a vaccine to become available. The initial focus of accelerated global research and development efforts to bring a vaccine to market as soon as possible was on novel platform technologies that promised speed but had limited history in the clinic. In contrast, recombinant protein vaccines, with numerous examples in the clinic for many years, missed out on the early wave of investments from government and industry. Emerging data are now surfacing suggesting that recombinant protein vaccines indeed might offer an advantage or complement to the nucleic acid or viral vector vaccines that will likely reach the clinic faster. Here, we summarize the current public information on the nature and on the development status of recombinant subunit antigens and adjuvants targeting SARS-CoV-2 infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0227.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Antivenom; snakebite; small molecule toxin inhibitors; oligonucleotides; antibodies; phage display; next generation antivenom; recombinant antivenom
Online: 27 March 2018 (13:41:46 CEST)
With the inclusion of snakebite envenoming on the World Health Organisation’s list of Neglected Tropical Diseases, an incentive has been established to promote research and development effort in novel snakebite antivenom therapies. Different technological approaches are being pursued by different research groups, including the use of small molecule inhibitors against enzymatic toxins, as well as peptide and oligonucleotide-based aptamers and antibody-based biotherapeutics against both enzymatic and non-enzymatic toxins. In this article, the most recent advances in these fields are presented, and the advantages, disadvantages, and feasibility of using different toxin-neutralizing molecules are reviewed. Particular focus within small molecules is directed towards the inhibitors, varespladib, batimastat, and marimastat, while in the field of antibody-based therapies, novel recombinant polyclonal plantivenom technology is discussed.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0219.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections; vaccines; anti-spike antibody levels; humoral response; IgG specific salivary antibodies
Online: 13 December 2022 (02:28:02 CET)
SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections, associated with waning immunity, increase systemic antibody levels. In this study, we analyzed the impact of the infection timing on the magnitude of the systemic humoral response and whether breakthrough infections also boost antibody levels in the salivary compartment. We observed that the combination of infection plus vaccination, regardless of infection timing, produced a sharp increase of systemic antibodies, being higher in subjects infected after third doses. Moreover, despite high systemic antibody levels, breakthrough infections after dose 3 occurred and boosted antibody levels in the salivary compartment. These results lead to rethink the current vaccination strategies against COVID-19 and the use of salivary anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies for disease surveillance and vaccination follow-up.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0256.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cancer; immunotherapy; adverse events; immune checkpoints inhibitors; chimeric antigen receptor therapy; bispecific antibodies; toxicity; renal; oncology
Online: 18 July 2022 (09:21:56 CEST)
Modern oncological therapy utilizes various types of immunotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhib-itors (ICIs), chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T) therapy, cancer vaccines and bispecific an-tibodies are improving patients’ outcomes. However, stimulation of the immune system, benefi-cial in terms of fighting against cancer, generates the risk of harm to other cells in a patient's body. Kidney damage belongs to the relatively rare adverse events (AEs). Best described, but still, su-perficially, are renal AEs in patients treated with ICIs. International guidelines issued by Euro-pean Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) cover the management of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) during ICI therapy. There are scarce data concerning renal adverse drug reactions of other immunotherapeutic methods. This implicates the need for the collection of safety data during ongoing clinical trials and in the re-al-life world to characterize the hazard related to the use of new immunotherapies and manage-ment of irAEs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0419.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: immune checkpoint; lymphoid neoplasms; programmed death 1; cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4; monoclonal antibodies; combination therapies
Online: 17 December 2020 (08:10:05 CET)
Immunotherapy has been considered for years as a viable and attractive treatment option for patients with cancer. Among immunotherapy arsenal, the targeting of intratumoral immune cells by immune-checkpoint inhibitory agents has recently revolutionized the treatment of several subtypes of tumours. These approaches aimed at restoring an effective anti-tumour immunity, rapidly reached the market thanks to the simultaneous identification of inhibitory signals that dampen an effective antitumor response in a large variety of neoplastic cells, and the clinical development of monoclonal antibodies targeting checkpoint receptors. Leading therapies in solid tumours are mainly focused on the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed-death 1 (PD-1) pathways. These approaches have found a promising testing ground in both Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, mainly because in these diseases the malignant cells interact with the immune system and commonly provide signals that regulate immune function. Although several trials have already demonstrated evidence of therapeutic activity with some checkpoint inhibitors in lymphoma, many of the immunologic lessons learned from solid tumours may not directly translate to lymphoid malignancies. In this sense, the mechanisms of effective antitumor responses are different between the different lymphoma subtypes, while the reasons for this substantial difference remain partially unknown. This review will discuss the current advances of immune-checkpoint blockade therapies in B-cell lymphoma and will build a projection of how the field may evolve in the near future. In particular, we will analyze the current strategies being evaluated both preclinically and clinically with the aim to foster the use of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including combination approaches with chemotherapeutics, biological agents and/or different immunologic therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2; seroprevalence; antibodies; nucleocapsid antigen; antigen receptor binding domain; seropositivity; St. Petersburg; volunteers; vaccination
Online: 18 April 2022 (10:42:54 CEST)
Since the detection of the first COVID-19 patient, 2 years have passed, during which more than 287,862,000 people fell ill globally, of which about 1.9% died. Implementation of SARS-CoV-2 control programs required efforts from almost all countries. An important direction in the fight against COVID-19 was the formation of herd immunity, the main tool for managing the pandemic. Study goal: to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies (Abs) to SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (Nc) and receptor binding domain (RBD) in the St. Petersburg population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods. A longitudinal cohort randomized monitoring study of Ab seroprevalence (SARS-CoV-2 Nc, RBD) was organized and conducted according to a unified methodology developed by Rospotrebnadzor with the participation of the St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute. For this purpose, a cohort of 1000 volunteers was formed who participated in all five stages of seromonitoring. The cohort was divided into 7 age groups: 1-17; 18-29; 30-39; 40-49; 50-59; 60-69; 70; and older (70+) years. Seropositivity levels (Nc, RBD) were assessed by quantitative and qualitative enzyme immunoassays. During the 2nd year of monitoring, some volunteers were vaccinated with the GamCOVIDVac (84%) or EpiVacCorona (11.6%) vaccines approved in Russia. Statistical processing was carried out using the Excel 2010 software package. Confidence intervals for shares and percentages (95% CI) were calculated using the method of A. Wald and J. Wolfowitz with adjustment (A. Agresti, B.A. Coull). The statistical significance of differences was calculated by z-test, using the appropriate online calculator (p<0.05), unless indicated. Results. There was a trend towards: an increase in Nc seropositivity in stages 1-3 of seromonitoring, with a decrease in stages 4-5 among children and adults. The share of RBD seropositive steadily increased during all 5 stages of seromonitoring. The most frequently found were low anti-RBD Abs levels (22.6-220 BAU/ml). High Ab levels were recorded statistically significantly less frequently. Asymptomatic forms were observed in 84-88% of SARS-CoV-2 seropositive volunteers. By the 5th stage of monitoring, this indicator significantly decreased to 69.8% (95% CI: 66.1-73.4). The monitoring revealed a statistically significant increase in anti-RBD Abs, alongside a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of Nc seropositive. This dynamic was especially characteristic of persons vaccinated with GamCOVIDVac. Conclusion. Prior to the use of specific vaccines, a seroprevalence of anti-Nc Abs was noted. After the introduction of the GamCOVIDVac vaccine in adults, a decrease in the level of anti-Nc Abs was noted due to an increase in the proportion of RBD seropositive persons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0226.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Hepatitis C virus (HCV); liver; samples; structure; electrochemiluminescence (ECL); ELISA method (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay); antigen-antibodies
Online: 17 January 2022 (12:37:22 CET)
Objective: The study aimed to manage and to analyse the results of the laboratory tests, available nowadays, used from routine clinical practice, for screening of hepatitis C. Methods: comparison of ELISA method results (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and chemiluminescence methods results. Beside previously mentioned, the study show the structural comparison of normal liver and pathologic liver with hepatic cirrhosis, using permanent samples colored after the technique protocol. Statistical analysis of this study results, was performed using the laboratory informatic system. Results: The results of the study are substantial and intricate. For this purpose, the results of preliminary EСL screening method of patients at risk for HCV who took part in the study, are presented in tables and figures. Results of this study are various and are correlate from different perspectives. Also good to mention that the correlations of results were used in order to identify a possible relationships between indicators of ELISA method and ECL index. More than, correlations antibodies detected in ECL and ELISA are point out. Conclusion: EСL and ELISA method results, are relevant for screening and for diagnostic confirmation in HCV risk patients. Unfotunately in the present study, were impossible to conclude about false-negative results. Good to know our opinion that RT-PCR technique, it is considered proper for the diagnosis of HCV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0471.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: aptamer; aptasensor; diagnosis; imaging; sequencing; therapeutics; probes; fluorescence; pathogenic bacteria; cancer cells; monoclonal antibodies; SELEX; nucleic acids
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:18:16 CET)
Issues presented by the application of monoclonal antibodies in diagnostic assays and as curative agents can make the use of such molecules cost-prohibitive and sometimes even unsafe. This has warranted the development of short single-stranded oligonucleotides known as Aptamers. The structural malleability of these short DNA or RNA nucleotide segments allows them to exist in distinct conformations. SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment) is a multi-step process for synthesis of aptamers. Each step of this procedure is governed by a diverse set of factors that influence production efficiency, binding affinity, and specificity of the oligonucleotides. Headway in aptamer research has been made in recent years by the introduction of newer iterations of the SELEX process. A greater number of studies are now being carried out to incorporate aptamers into existing disease detection tools and therapies. An overview has been given first on the key aptamer properties and the process of their production (with its newer iterations), contrasting each of them with that of monoclonal antibodies. Possible manifold applications afforded due to unique aptamer characteristics are also discussed. A keen review is further provided on the design, development and use of fluorescent aptamers in bioimaging, sequencing or profiling, and treatment of pathogenic bacteria and tumor cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0106.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: graphene; electrochemical biosensors; cancer; diagnosis; electrical detection; Alzheimer’s disease; dementia; neurodegenerative disorders; cardiovascular; blood biomarkers; antibodies; proteins
Online: 2 January 2018 (05:21:45 CET)
We report on the development of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) based graphene field effect transistor (GFET) immunosensors for the sensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), a glycoprotein risk biomarker of certain cancers. The GFET sensors were fabricated on Si/SiO2 substrate using photolithography with evaporated chromium and sputtered gold contacts. GFET channels were functionalized with a linker molecule to immobile anti-hCG antibody on the surface of graphene. Binding reaction of the antibody with varying concentration levels of hCG antigen demonstrated the limit of detection of the GFET sensors to be below 1 pg/mL using four-probe electrical measurements. We also show annealing can significantly improve the carrier transport properties of GFETs and shift the Dirac point (Fermi level) with reduced p-doping in back-gated measurements. The developed GFET biosensors are generic and could find applications in a broad range of medical diagnostics in addition to cancer, such as neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Lewy body) and cardiovascular disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0242.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: mouse models; Plasmodium; Adaptive immunity; Innate immunity; T cells; B cells; Macrphages; Neutrophils; Antibodies; Cytokines; parasite control; immunopathogensis
Online: 18 July 2022 (03:12:30 CEST)
Malaria comprises a spectrum of disease syndromes and the immune system is a major participant in malarial disease. This is particularly true in relation to the immune responses elicited against blood stages of Plasmodium-parasites that are responsible for the pathogenesis of infection. Mouse models of malaria are commonly used to dissect the immune mechanisms underlying disease. While no one mouse model of Plasmodium infection completely recapitulates all the features of malaria in humans, collectively the existing models are invaluable for defining the events that lead to the immunopathogenesis of malaria. Here we review the different mouse models of Plasmodium infection that are available, and highlight some of the main contributions these models have made with regards to identifying immune mechanisms of parasite control and the immunopathogenesis of malaria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0030.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Dengue virus; Zika virus; T-cell epitopes; cross-reactive T cells; immunodominance; neutralizing antibodies; antibody-dependent-enhancement (ADE)
Online: 2 August 2018 (05:04:43 CEST)
The high level of dengue virus (DENV) seroprevalence in areas where Zika virus (ZIKV) is circulating and the cross-reactivity between these two viruses have raised concerns on the risk of increased ZIKV disease severity for patients with a history of previous DENV infection. To determine the role of DENV pre-immunity in ZIKV infection, we analysed the T and B cell responses against ZIKV in donors with or without previous DENV infection. Using PBMCs from donors living in an endemic area in Colombia, we have identified, by interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, most of the immunodominant ZIKV T-cell epitopes in the non-structural proteins NS1, NS3 and NS5. Analyses of the T and B-cell responses in the same donors revealed a stronger T-cell response against peptides conserved between DENV and ZIKV, with a higher level of ZIKV-neutralizing antibodies in DENV-immune donors, in comparison with DENV-naïve donors. Strikingly, the potential for antibody mediated enhancement of ZIKV infection was reduced in donors with sequential DENV and ZIKV infection in comparison with donors with DENV infection only. Altogether, these data suggest that individuals with DENV immunity present improved immune responses against ZIKV.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0518.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: immunoassay; epitope coverage; quantitative antibody binding; protein microarray; SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; humoral response; SARS-CoV-2 re-infection
Online: 27 December 2022 (10:43:18 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to affect individuals across the globe, with some individuals experiencing more severe disease than others. The relatively high frequency of re-infections and breakthrough infections observed with SARS-CoV-2 highlights the importance of extending our understanding of immunity to COVID-19. Here we aim to shed light on the importance of antibody titers and epitope utilization in protection from re-infection. Health care workers are highly exposed to COVID-19 and are therefore also more likely to become re-infected. We utilized quantitative, multi-antigen, multi-epitope SARS-CoV-2 protein microarrays to measure IgG and IgA titers against various domains of the nucleocapsid and spike proteins. Potential re-infections in a large, diverse health care worker cohort (N=300) during the second wave of the pandemic were identified by assessing the IgG anti-N titers before and after the second wave. We assessed epitope coverage and antibody titers between the 'single infection’ and ‘re-infection’ groups. Clear differences were observed in the breadth of the anti-N response before the second wave, with the epitope coverage for both IgG (p=0.019) and IgA (p=0.015) being significantly increased in those who did not become re-infected compared to those who did. Additionally, the IgG anti-N (p=0.004) and anti-S titers (p=0.018) were significantly higher in those not re-infected. These results highlight the importance of the breadth of elicited antibody epitope coverage following natural infection in protection from re-infection and disease in the COVID-19 pandemic.
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; S-protein; RBD; COVID-19; neutralizing antibodies; serology; T-cells; vaccines; animal models; Operation Warp Speed
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:25:32 CET)
Multiple preventive vaccines are being developed to counter the COVID-19 pandemic. The leading candidates have now been evaluated in non-human primates (NHPs) and human Phase 1 and/or Phase 2 clinical trials. Several vaccines have already advanced into Phase 3 efficacy trials, while others will do so before the end of 2020. Here, we summarize what is known of the antibody and T-cell immunogenicity of these vaccines in NHPs and humans. To the extent possible, we compare how the vaccines have performed, taking into account the use of different assays to assess immunogenicity and inconsistencies in how the resulting data are presented. We also summarize the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 challenge experiments in immunized macaques, while noting variations in the protocols used, including but not limited to the virus challenge doses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0131.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: epitope; monoclonal antibodies; open reading frame 3 protein; apoptosis; p53; porcine circovirus type 2; thimerosal; interfere; antibody binding; lymphocyte
Online: 12 November 2019 (16:20:27 CET)
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is a small non-enveloped DNA virus that causes swine immunosuppression by inducing apoptosis in lymphocytes. The ORF3 protein plays a major role in PCV2-induced apoptosis in porcine kidney cells, but there is little information regarding this protein in PCV2-infected lymphocytes. In this study, hybridoma screening and epitope mapping were determined by using an indirect ELISA. The mAb 7D3 against ORF3 peptide (residues 35–65) of PCV2 were generated in this study. In vivo situation, the mAb 7D3 recognized ORF3 protein existed in PCV2-infected apoptotic porcine PBMCs. It is noteworthy that thimerosal interfered with the binding of mAb 7D3 to epitope and it was diminished by adding cysteine. Additionally, thimerosal interacting with cysteine-containing peptide was demonstrated by the PTI assay. Furthermore, thimerosal specifically interacted with the antigen-binding sites of mAb 7D3. This study suggested that thimerosal blockade the occlusion of the antigen-binding sites of mAb 7D3 to bind ORF3 peptide (residues 35–65) via thimerosal interacting with cysteine residues which should be located within the antigen-binding sites of mAb 7D3. Overall, the mAb 7D3 has been characterized and it will be a valuables tool in future studies of ORF3 function and the wider mechanism of cell apoptosis caused by PCV2 infection. Similarly, these techniques will be useful for applications in detecting thimerosal too.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0498.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Virus-Like Particle (VLP); SARS-CoV-2; in vitro diagnostic device (IVD); Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA); Immune reaction; Antibodies
Online: 28 November 2022 (07:06:50 CET)
A key in controlling the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is the assessment of the immune status of the population. We explored the utility of SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles (VLPs) as antigens to detect specific humoral immune reactions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For this purpose, SARS-CoV-2 VLPs were produced from an engineered cell line and characterized by western blot, ELISA and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Subsequently, we collected 42 serum samples from before the pandemic (2014), 89 samples from healthy-, and 38 samples from vaccinated subjects. Seventeen samples were collected less than three weeks after infection, and 44 samples more than three weeks after infection. All serum samples were characterized for their reactivity with VLPs and the SARS-CoV-2 N- and S-protein. Finally, we compared the performance of the VLP-based ELISA with a certified in vitro diagnostic device (IVD). In the applied set of samples, we determined a sensitivity of 95.5 % and a specificity of 100 % for the certified IVD. There were 7 samples with an uncertain outcome. Our VLP-ELISA showed superior performance with a sensitivity of 97.5 %, a specificity of 100 %, and only 3 uncertain outcomes. This result warrants further research to develop a certified IVD based on SARS-CoV-2 VLPs as an antigen.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: colorectal cancer; immunotherapy; checkpoint blockade; adoptive cell therapy; monoclonal antibodies; oncolytic viruses; anti-cancer vaccines; cytokine; T cell; NK cell
Online: 31 December 2021 (15:14:39 CET)
Though early-stage colorectal cancer has a high 5-year survival rate of 65-92% depending on the specific stage, this probability drops to 13% after the cancer metastasizes. Frontline treatments for colorectal cancer such as chemotherapy and radiation often produce dose-limiting toxicities in patients and acquired resistance in cancer cells. Additional targeted treatments are needed to improve patient outcomes and quality of life. Immunotherapy involves treatment with peptides, cells, antibodies, viruses, or small molecules to engage or train the immune system to kill cancer cells. Preclinical and clinical investigations of immunotherapy for treatment of colorectal cancer including immune checkpoint blockade, adoptive cell therapy, monoclonal antibodies, oncolytic viruses, anti-cancer vaccines, and immune system modulators have been promising, but demonstrate limitations for patients with proficient mismatch repair enzymes. In this review, we discuss preclinical and clinical studies investigating immunotherapy for treatment of colorectal cancer and predictive biomarkers for response to these treatments. We also consider open questions including optimal combination treatments to maximize efficacy, minimize toxicity, and prevent acquired resistance and approaches to sensitize mismatch repair proficient patients to immunotherapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0553.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Iron-oxide nanoparticles, primary-secondary method, diagnostics of cancer, A549 cell line, transferrin protein receptors, adenocarcinoma, biotin-streptavidin, biotinylated antibodies
Online: 23 June 2021 (09:17:59 CEST)
The streptavidin and biotin interaction is one of the strongest non-covalent interactions in nature. As a result, this non-covalent interaction has been of great interest when it comes to biochemical assays, diagnosis of diseases, and cell-targeted drug delivery. Past research has proven that biotin-streptavidin is useful in biosensor development to improve the detection of a system when conjugated to nanoparticles. This study aims to prove that streptavidin-coated nanoparticles can be conjugated with biotinylated antibodies using the primary-secondary method to non-invasively detect adenocarcinoma in-vitro. While the use of nanoparticles is not uncommon to the diagnostics area of scientific research, the technique this research aims to investigate is a non-invasive one, utilizing the primary-secondary method. Specifically, the increased stability of fluorophores when bound to antibodies as opposed to nanoparticles directly can be indicative of the particles conjugated through the primary-secondary method’s ability to specifically bind to overexpressed transferrin receptors in the A549 cell line. In this paper, streptavidin-coated nanoparticles were conjugated with biotinylated anti-transferrin receptor antibodies and AlexaFluor-488 secondary antibodies were used to enable fluorescence-based detection. The efficiency of these particles were observed quantitatively through a plate reader and qualitatively through a fluorescence microscope. I demonstrated that these nanoparticles are able to specifically bind to the target proteins in this study. These findings contribute to the field of nanoparticle diagnostics and can be extended to different diseases caused by overexpression of proteins in the future. While this was conducted in-vitro, conjugates can be prepared to detect cancer in-vivo and can be tested with magnetic relaxometry in the future.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs); monoclonal antibodies; R-10G; R-17F; keratan sulfate; podocalyxin; keratanase II; endo-β-galactosidase
Online: 9 March 2021 (12:13:56 CET)
We developed two human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)/human embryonic stem cell-specific glycan-recognizing mouse antibodies, R-10G and R-17F, using the Tic (JCRB1331) hiPSC line as an antigen. R-10G recognizes a low-sulfate keratan sulfate, and R-17F recognizes lacto-N-fucopentaose-1. To evaluate the general characteristics of stem cell glycans, we used the hiPSC line 201B7 (HPS0063), a prototype iPSC line. Using an R-10G affinity column, an R-10G-binding protein was isolated. The protein yielded a single but very broad band from 480 to 1,236 kDa by blue native gel electrophoresis. After trypsin digestion, the protein was identified as podocalyxin by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. According to Western blotting, the protein reacted with R-10G and R-17F. The R-10G positive band was resistant to digestion with glycan-degrading enzymes, including peptide N-glycanase, but the intensity of the band was decreased significantly by digestion with keratanase, keratanase II, and endo-β-galactosidase, suggesting the R-10G epitope to be a keratan sulfate. These results suggest that keratan sulfate-type epitopes are shared by hiPSCs. However, the keratan sulfate from 201B7 cells contained a polylactosamine disaccharide unit (Galβ1-4GlcNAc) at a significant frequency, whereas that from Tic cells consisted mostly of keratan sulfate disaccharide units (Galβ1-4GlcNAc(6S)). In addition, the abundance of the R-10G epitope was significantly lower in 201B7 cells than in Tic cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune checkpoint radiolabeled antibodies; PD-1; PD-L1; immune PET; immunotherapy; AI; Radiomics; Deep learning; CAR-T cells
Online: 9 March 2021 (11:12:55 CET)
Immunotherapy is an effective therapeutic option for several cancers. In the last years, the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has shifted the therapeutic landscape in oncology and improved patient prognosis in a variety of neoplastic diseases. However, to date, the selection of the best patients eligible for these therapies, as well as the response assessment is still challenging. Patients are mainly stratified using immunohistochemical analysis of the expression of anti-gens on biopsy specimens, such as PD-L1 and PD-1, on tumor cells, on peritumoral immune cells, and/or in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Recently, the use and development of imaging biomarkers able to assess in-vivo cancer-related processes are becoming more important. Today, positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) is used routinely to evaluate tumor metabolism, and also to predict and monitor response to immunotherapy. Although highly sensitive, FDG-PET, in general, is rather unspecific. Novel radiopharmaceuticals (immuno-PET radiotracers) able to identify specific immune system targets are under investigation in pre-clinical and clinical settings. In this review, we will provide an overview of the main new immuno-PET radiotracers in development. We will also review the main players (immune cells, tumor cells, and molecular targets) involved in immunotherapy. Furthermore, we report current applications and the evidence of using [18F]FDG PET in immunotherapy, including the use of artificial intelligence (AI).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0047.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Alzheimer disease; Amyloid β-protein; Antibodies; Cross-reactions; Nucleotide aptamers; Oligonucleotide ligands; Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment; Specificity; Therapeutics
Online: 5 February 2018 (22:37:02 CET)
Aptamers are versatile oligonucleotide ligands used for molecular recognition of diverse targets. However, application of aptamers to the field of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) has been limited so far. Aβ is an intrinsically disordered protein that exists in a dynamic conformational equilibrium, presenting time-dependent ensembles of short-lived, metastable structures and assemblies that have been generally difficult to isolate and characterize. Moreover, despite understanding of potential physiological roles of Aβ, this peptide has been linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, and its pathogenic roles remain controversial. Accumulated scientific evidence thus far highlights undesirable or nonspecific interactions between selected aptamers and different Aβ assemblies likely due to metastable nature of Aβ or inherent affinity of RNA oligonucleotides to β-sheet-rich fibrillar structures of amyloidogenic proteins. Accordingly, lessons drawn from Aβ–aptamer studies emphasize that purity and uniformity of the protein target and rigorous characterization of aptamers’ specificity are important for realizing and garnering the full potential of aptamers selected for recongizing Aβ or other intrinsically disordered proteins. This review summarizes studies of aptamers selected for recognizing different Aβ assemblies and highlights controversies, difficulties, and limitations of such studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Vaccines; anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike total antibodies; Surrogate viral neutralizing antibody; T-cell immune response; CoronaVac; ChAdOx1; BNT162b2; booster
Online: 31 March 2022 (14:28:11 CEST)
Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (CoronaVac) is commonly used in national immunization programs. However, the immune response significantly declined within a few months. Our study assessed the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 after receiving booster shots of BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 among health care workers who previously received CoronaVac as their primary immunization. Fifty-six participants received ChAdOx1 and forty-two participants received BNT162b2 were enrolled into this study which evaluated the immune responses including anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike total antibodies (Elecsys®), surrogated viral neutralization test (sVNT) to ancestral strain (cPass™; GenScript) and five variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron) (Luminex; multiplex sVNT) and the ELISpot with spike (S1 and S2) peptide pool against the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain. The samples were analyzed at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks after primary immunization as well as 4 and 12 weeks after receiving the booster. This study showed a significantly higher B-cell response among the BNT162b2 than the ChAdOx1 booster group, particularly against the Omicron variant, as well as a trend of good T-cell immune response in the BNT162b2 group. Moreover, the immune response rapidly declined at 12 weeks after the booster. A fourth dose or a second booster should be recommended, especially for reducing Omicron severity.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: point-of-care assay; membrane tests; immunochromatography; lateral flow immunoassay; immune response; detection of antibodies; antigen-antibody reactions; mathematical modelling; assay sensitivity; limit of detection
Online: 20 November 2020 (10:50:49 CET)
Determination of the presence in the blood of antibodies specific to the causative agent of a particular disease (serodiagnosis) is an effective approach in medical analytical chemistry. Serodiagnostics performed in the lateral flow immunoassay format (immunochromatography) meet the modern requirements for point-of-care testing and are supported by existing technologies of large-scale diagnostic tests production—thus raising increased attention in a tense epidemiological situation. For traditional lateral flow serodiagnostics formats, a large number of nonspecific immunoglobulins in the sample significantly reduces the degree of detectable binding. To overcome these limitations, an assay based on the formation of immobilized antigen— specific antibody—labeled antigen complexes detection was proposed. However, the requirements for its implementation, providing maximum sensitivity, have not been established. This article describes the mathematical model for the above assay. The influence of the ratio of reagent concentrations on the analysis results is considered. It is noted that the formation of specific antibody complexes with several labeled antigens is the main limiting factor in reducing the detection limit, and methods are proposed to minimize this factor. Recommendations for the choice of the assay conditions, following from the analysis of the model, are confirmed experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0023.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: monoclonal antibodies; Mabs; fusion; false positives; hapten immunoassays; competitive immunoassays; ELISA; antibody validation; antibody quality; microarray; hybridoma technology; linker recognition; high-throughput screening; HTS; heterology concept
Online: 3 November 2019 (17:00:59 CET)
The primary screening of hybridoma cells is a time-critical and laborious step during the development of monoclonal antibodies. Often critical errors occur in this phase, which supports the notion that the generation of monoclonal antibodies with hybridoma technology is difficult to control and hence a risky venture. We think that it is crucial to improve the screening process to eliminate most of the immanent deficits of the conventional approach. With this new microarray-based procedure, several advances could be achieved: Selectivity for excellent binders, high throughput, reproducible signals, avoidance of misleading avidity (multivalency) effects, and simultaneous performance of competition experiments. The latter can directly be used to select clones of desired cross-reactivity properties. In this paper, a model system with two excellent clones against carbamazepine, two weak clones and blank supernatant has been designed to examine the effectiveness of the new system. The excellent clones could be detected largely independent of the IgG concentration, which is unknown during the clone screening since the determination and subsequent adjustment of the antibody concentration is not possible in most cases. Furthermore, in this approach, the enrichment, isolation, and purification of IgG for characterization is not necessary. Raw cell culture supernatant can be used directly, even when fetal calf serum (FCS) or other complex media had been used. In addition, an improved method for the oriented antibody-immobilization on epoxy-silanized slides is presented. Based on the results of this model system, we conclude that this approach should be preferable to most other protocols leading to many of false positives, causing expensive and lengthy confirmation steps to weed out the poor clones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0298.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Affinity chromatography; matrix; solid support; resin; support materials; glass filter; glass frit; high-pressure; HPLC; FPLC; antibodies; immunoglobulins; purification; downstream processing; protein purification; preparative; analytical; separation; clean-up; automation
Online: 11 March 2021 (08:37:01 CET)
A novel stationary phase for affinity separations is presented. This material is based on sintered borosilicate glass readily available as semi-finished filter plates with defined porosity and surface area. The material shows fast binding kinetics and excellent long-term stability under real application conditions due to lacking macropores and high mechanical rigidity. The glass surface can be easily modified with standard organosilane chemistry to immobilize selective binders or other molecules used for biointeraction. In this paper, the manufacturing of the columns and their respective column holders by 3D printing is shown in detail. The model system protein A/IgG was chosen as an example to examine the properties of such monolithic columns under realistic application conditions. Several specifications, such as (dynamic) IgG capacity, pressure stability, long-term performance, productivity, non-specific binding, and peak shape, are presented. It could be shown that due to the very high separation speed, 250 mg antibody per hour and column can be collected, which surpasses the productivity of most standard columns of the same size. The total IgG capacity of the shown columns is around 4 mg (5.5 mg/mL), which is sufficient for most tasks in research laboratories. The cycle time of an IgG separation can be less than 1 minute. Due to the glass material's excellent pressure resistance, these columns are compatible with standard HPLC systems. This is usually not the case with standard affinity columns, limited to manual use or application in low-pressure systems. The use of a standard HPLC system also improves the ability for automation, which enables the purification of hundreds of cell supernatants in one day. The sharp peak shape of the elution leads to an enrichment effect, which might increase the concentration of IgG by a factor of 3. The final concentration of IgG can be around 7.5 mg/mL without the need for an additional nanofiltration step. The purity of the IgG was > 95% in one step and nearly 99% with a second polishing run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0004.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: protein affinity enrichment; bioseparation; immunoprecipitation; immunocapture; affinity chro-matography; solid phase; carrier; material; corundum; polyglycerol; aromatic amino acid analysis; self-assembled monolayers (SAM), periodate oxidation; reductive amination; antibodies; IgG; im-munoglobulins; glutaraldehyde; polyglycerol; hyperbranched polymer
Online: 1 August 2022 (04:42:41 CEST)
Nonporous corundum powder, known as an abrasive material in the industry, was functionalized covalently with protein binders to isolate and enrich specific proteins from complex matrices. The materials based on corundum were characterized by TEM, ESEM, BET, DLS, and zeta potential measurements. The strong Al-O-P bonds between the corundum surface and amino phosphonic acids are used to introduce functional groups for further conjugations. The common crosslinker glutaraldehyde was compared with a hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG) of around 10 kDa. The latter is oxidized with periodate to generate aldehyde groups that can covalently react with the amines of the surface and the amino groups from the protein via a reductive amination process. The amount of bound protein was quantified via aromatic amino acid analysis (AAAA). This work shows that oxidized polyglycerol can be used as an alternative to glutaraldehyde. With polyglycerol, more of the model protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) could be attached to the surface under the same conditions, and lower nonspecific binding (NSB) was observed. As a proof of concept, IgG was extracted with protein A from crude human plasma. The purity of the product was examined by SDS-PAGE. A binding capacity of 1.8 mg IgG per g of corundum powder was achieved. The advantages of corundum are the very low price, extremely high physical and chemical stability, pressure resistance, favorable binding kinetics, and flexible application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0028.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: autoimmunity; toll-like receptors; TLR; nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain; NOD1; major histocompatibility complex; MHC; human leukocyte antigens; HLA; proteasome; innate immunity; adaptive immunity; T cells; B cells; antibodies; microbiome; tolerance; self; non-self; antigen processing
Online: 4 June 2019 (10:21:32 CEST)
Current theories of autoimmunity are diverse, sometimes contradictory, and suffer from incompleteness. Although substantial evidence exists that adaptive and innate immunity, sex, genetic predisposition, and the microbiome all play essential roles in autoimmune disease etiologies and pathogenesis, and that antigen processing is altered during disease induction, no existing theory integrates all of these factors through a single, coherent mechanism. In an attempt to focus the field on the need to elucidate such an integrative mechanism, I propose one possibility here that, if nothing else, helps to identify the nature of the problems that need to be addressed. My theory is that autoimmune diseases are induced by normal immunological responses to unique pairs of complementary antigens, at least one of which is a molecular mimic of a host target. Each antigen in the complementary pair induces a complementary immune response (T or B cell); although each immune response is idiotypic in origin, the antigenic complementarity results in what appears to be an idiotype-anti-idiotype relationship between the responses. Additionally, because of the antigenic complementarity, each immune response mimics one of antigens, abrogating the distinction between self and non-self. If at least one of the antigens mimics a host antigen, then the resulting immunological civil war spreads to a host tissue. Complementary antigens also alter antigen processing so that antigens that would normally be proteolytically digested are presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to T and B cell receptors inducing a cross-reactive immune response. The resulting civil war is supported by the innate immune system due to the complementarity of the initiating antigens.. Complementary antigens stimulate synergistic toll-like receptors (TLR) and/or nucleotide-binding oligomerization receptors (NOD) resulting in up-regulation of cytokine production and further stimulation of the adaptive immune response. Because the immune responses (e.g., antibodies) mimic the initiating antigens, this synergistic activation of innate immunity becomes chronic. Additionally, TLR and NOD function are highly sensitive to sex hormones, some becoming up-regulated and some down-regulated in the presence of either testosterone or estrogens. This sensitivity explains how sex modifies susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Genetic mutations in TLR, NOD and MHC further alter antigen presentation and the degree to which antigens stimulate an immune response explaining how genetics also modifies susceptibility. Finally, sex hormones also alter the host microbiome, which in turn modulates autoimmune disease risk by shaping the immunological nature of self and by mediating susceptibility to microbial infection. Moreover, it appears that the microbiome camouflages itself from the immune system by mimicking the host antigenic repertoire; the mimicry between the antigens of the microbiome and the host results in selective attacks on microbiome constituents concomitant with any autoimmune attack on host tissues. This antigenic complementarity theory thereby integrates all major elements known to affect, or be affected by, autoimmune diseases and provides a set of testable implications.