REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer; microRNA; miR-144; Therapeutic target
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:05:01 CET)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small and non-coding RNAs displaying aberrant expression in the tissue and plasma of cancer patients in comparison to healthy individuals. In past decades, accumulating data proposed that miRNAs could be diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer patients. It has been identified that miRNAs can act either as oncogenes through silencing of tumor inhibitors or tumor suppressor via targeting oncoproteins. MiR-144 is located in chromosomal region 17q11.2 that was widely destroyed in many types of cancers. Several studies revealed that miR-144 has different target genes including rapamycin, zonula occludens1, SFRP1, and ANO1. MiR-144 acts as a tumor suppressor or oncogene by targeting specific genes. In this review, we define the role of miR‐144 and its targets in different cancers and provide understanding in tumor proliferation, migration, and apoptosis.
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; coronavirus; signaling pathway; molecular alteration
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:17:24 CEST)
Emerging viruses description have grown at an unprecedented rate since the beginning of the 21st century. The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its related illness, Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported as the third highly pathogenic coronavirus introducing itself into human population in the current era after the SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV). Molecular and cellular studies considering the pathogenesis of this novel coronavirus are still in the early stages of research, however, regarding the similarity of SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses, it could be hypothesized that the NF-κB, Cytokine regulation, ERK, and TNF-α signaling pathways are the more likely causes of inflammation upon onset of COVID-19. There are several drugs prescribed and used to alleviate the activity of these inflammatory cellular signaling pathways which might be beneficial for developing novel therapeutic modalities against COVID-19. In this review, we briefly summarized the alteration of cellular signaling pathways affected by coronavirus infection, particularly SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV and tabulated the current therapeutic agents approved for previous human diseases.