ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0362.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: combined stresses; drought stress; heat stress; maize; root morphology; root types
Online: 15 December 2020 (09:39:56 CET)
Plants are continually exposed to multiple stresses, which co-occur in nature and the net effects are frequently more non-additive (i.e., synergistic or antagonistic) suggesting ‘unique’ responses respect to that of the individual stress. Further, plant stress responses are not uniforms showing a high spatial and temporal variability among and along the different organs. In this respect, the present work investigated the morphological responses of different root types (seminal, seminal lateral, primary, primary lateral) of maize plants exposed to single (drought and heat) and combined stress (drought + heat). Data were evaluated by a specific root image analysis system (WinRHIZO) and analyzed by uni- and multi-variate statistical analysis. The results indicated that primary root and their laterals were the types more sensitive to the single and combined stresses while the seminal laterals specifically responded to the combined only. Further, antagonistic and synergistic effects were observed for the specific traits in the primary and their laterals and in the seminal lateral roots in response to the combined stress. These results suggested that maize root system modified specific root types and traits to face with different stressful environmental conditions highlighting that the adaptation strategy to the combined stress may be different from that of the individual ones. The knowledge of “unique or shared” responses of plant to multiple stress can be utilized to develop varieties with broad spectrum stress tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0106.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: within-plant phenotypic plasticity; combined stresses; additive, antagonistic and synergic effects; VOC
Online: 9 October 2022 (03:56:12 CEST)
Background: Drought, N deficiency and herbivory are considered the most important stressors caused by climate change in the agro- and eco-systems and varied in space and time shaping a highly dynamic and heterogeneous stressful environments. This study aims to evaluate the to-mato morpho-physiological and metabolic responses to combined abiotic and herbivory at dif-ferent within-plant spatial levels and temporal scales. Methods: Leaf-level morphological, gas exchange traits and VOC profiles were measured in to-mato plants exposed to N deficiency and drought, T. absoluta larvae and their combination. Ad-ditive, synergistic or antagonistic effects of the single stress when combined were also evaluat-ed. Morpho-physiological traits and VOC profile were also measured on leaves located at three different positions along the shoot axes. Results: The combination of the abiotic and biotic stress has been more harmful than single stress with antagonistic and synergistic but non-additive effects for the morpho-physiological and VOC tomato responses, respectively. Combined stress also determined a high within-plant phenotypic plasticity of the morpho-physiological responses. Conclusions: These results suggest that the combined stress in tomato determined a “new stress state” and a higher within-plant phenotypic plasticity which could permit an efficient use of the growth and defence resources in the heterogeneous and multiple stressful environmental condi-tions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0375.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Gas exchanges; LMA; rare species; Salvia ceratophylloides Ard.; VOC; within-plant plasticity
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:31:07 CET)
Salvia ceratophylloides (Ard.) is an endemic, rare, threatened plant species recently rediscovered in very few individuals in two different sites of South Italy. The study of within-plant variation more than among-plant one is fundamental to understand the plant adaptation to the local conditions, especially in rare species, and consequently to preserve plant biodiversity. Here, we reported the variation of the morpho-ecophysiological and metabolic traits between the sessile and petiolate leaf of S. ceratophylloides plants in two different sites for understanding the adaptation strategies for surviving in these habitats. The S. ceratophylloides individuals exhibited different net photosynthetic rate, maximum quantum yield, light intensity for the saturation of the photosynthetic machinery, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, leaf area, fractal dimension and some VOCs between the different leaf types. This within-plant morpho-physiological and metabolic variation was depended on the site. These results provide empirical evidence of sharply within-plant variation of the morpho-physiological traits and VOCs profiles in S. ceratophylloides which could be because of adaptation to the local conditions.