ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0223.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Accounting Distortions; Financial Statements; Neural Network; Accounting
Online: 13 September 2021 (16:18:55 CEST)
Distortion of financial statements is recognized as one of the most important issues in the field of accounting and auditing, which is also one of the most common issues today. In this regard, the present research was conducted, in which stock exchange information was used to investigate, predict, and model accounting distortions. For this purpose, financial performance, non-financial metrics, market-based metrics and commitment, or selection items were reviewed over a 6-year period. For collecting data of distorting companies, database of the Society of Certified Public Accountants in Iran was used and the information was analyzed using data mining methods (decision tree, neural networks, and Bayesian method). The results showed that analysis of financial statements҆ information has a high accuracy in determining and identifying the distorted financial statements. Using this information, it is possible to get better acquainted with the methods of document distortion and to take necessary measures in order to control and prevent administrative violations at national and international levels. Given frequent occurrence of these violations, artificial intelligence models can be used to identify these papers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0459.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: public accountant; accounting training; accounting software; abilities; Learning and knowledge technologies.
Online: 26 December 2022 (01:46:21 CET)
this article presents the results of implementing existing software tools in the accounting field. The teaching processes regarding the use of Learning and Knowledge Technologies (TAC) in the university environment, and very specifically, in what has to do with the pedagogical integration of the same in the curriculum is deficient and disjointed with the current technological development. Thus, in the different curricula of professional programs of Public Accounting and related, the courses related to computer automation processes are oriented only towards the management of computer science and accounting software and the great diversity of existing applications that would undoubtedly directly benefit the student to know the potential of these in their future accounting practice is not taken into account. Strengthen the various skills of a Public Accountant in training through Learning and Knowledge Technologies (TAC), under the hypothesis of developing skills in the accounting field through TACs. The research was developed using a quantitative approach, an empirical-analytical method, with a type of descriptive research under an experimental design based on G1 x O1 and G2–O2, three phases were defined. In the first phase, the characterization of the existing software tools in the accounting field was carried out. In the second phase, their relevance was determined. In the third phase, performance was evaluated and then classified in a repository. The data obtained were analyzed with parametric analysis techniques through which it was found that the difference in quantitative results in the academic process between the experimental and control groups was statistically significant, which concluded the success of the experimental treatment. The use of CT scans in the classroom by the experimental group resulted in an improvement in their academic performance compared to the control group, strengthening their self-learning processes and facilitating the development of cognitive functions and skills necessary in the exercise of their accounting profession. This research supports and strengthens the work skills developed in the classroom for public accounting students. The tools TAC is developed from the request made by the radiometry laboratory as a first phase and a second phase is necessary for validation with experts.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0585.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Accounting; Public sector; Nigeria
Online: 30 December 2022 (10:40:03 CET)
Accounting information is a crucial management tool for Nigerian national development services. In every state or country, accounting is crucial to maintaining social peace, political stability, and economic sustainability. The explanation for this clear truth about the development of Nigeria is not plausible given the massive multi-sectoral scope of Nigerian economic activities in both the public and private sectors. For government national progress, reliable accounting information is essential. This research aims to explore the role of accounting on public sector accountability in Nigeria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0069.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Accounting, Saudi Arabia, Partners
Online: 8 May 2017 (18:07:58 CEST)
This qualitative study aims at identifying the essence of personal experiences of accounting partners in Saudi Arabia. For this phenomenology approach employs to understand the lived experience of accounting partners and how would such experience affect their career. It mainly aims to explore the different experiences of fifteen (15) Saudi partners working in various accounting companies in Saudi Arabia. The interviews conducted to explore the most important challenges and difficulties for accountants to become a partner, and the most important job skills that the partners must have. This study found that there is urgent need for a number of things, including the required number of years of experience to become a partner, and to make sure that the partners are having the right education and professionally qualified. In addition, other different skills that the partner must have include responsible leadership, professional communication, good marketing skills and excellent command of English. Moreover, this research is vital for the concerned parties to identify the current challenges in the accounting profession in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0369.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: forensic accounting; Jordan; legal background
Online: 21 November 2022 (04:23:16 CET)
This review provides an understanding of the teaching and practising of forensic accounting across the globe. It includes a review of published forensic accounting studies that conclude that forensic accounting is of benefit to both students and professionals. Despite this, there are areas of concern; namely, the insufficiency of an appropriate structure of regulation and a lack of control over the academic qualifications to enter the profession. This review of both the teaching and practising of forensic accounting provides an overview of the vital issues and concerns that must be understood in order to advance the essential application of forensic accounting. It is expected that this review will influence future policy that will advance business and limit episodes of fraud. The amount of published literature on the subject of forensic accounting is widespread and diverse. However, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding regarding the strengths and weaknesses of forensic accounting; this review will address this and provide policymakers with a thorough explanation of the subject.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0353.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Accounting; Financial Reports; Online Store.
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:44:00 CET)
This study aims to determine the cash sales accounting information system that is suitable for online store applications. Using qualitative methods with the object of research, namely the online stores. Sources of data obtained from several online stores. Data collection methods used are semi-structured interviews, observation, and document analysis. From the analysis and design of the buying and selling cycle information system in online business development, it was found that the development of information systems is a very important stage in the efficiency and effectiveness of the buying and selling cycle. By implementing a good and correct accounting information system design on an online store, it can facilitate the recording and minimize the occurrence of errors/loss of data. In addition, with a good information system design, the division of tasks between various sections becomes clear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0437.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: matrix algebra; accounting; industry 4.0
Online: 24 July 2018 (05:01:28 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to show how the mathematical basis is used for a precise treatment of double-entry bookkeeping, which was firstly developed in the nineteenth century by Sir William Rowan Hamilton. This is done by using basic notions of matrix algebra with the roots to the idea of using ordered pairs. We also reveal how the complex numbers and the rationals (fractions) developed in a mainstream of accounting science and became a leading platform for the ongoing processes within the Industry 4.0. The paper concludes with the examples on how accounting operations can be represented by matrix equations with a result of the essential report generating. The author represents a mathematical model of accounting which is independent of the specific existential forms but is capable to undertake the form of any of them and thus has the prospect of being understood and accepted by specialists globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0541.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Accounting systems integration; Accounting systems accuracy; Financial statements; Aqaba Special Economic Zone
Online: 24 May 2021 (08:47:20 CEST)
The study aims to examine the effects of artificial intelligence (AI) on the consistency and analysis of financial statements in hotels in ASEZA, Jordan. This research is an exploratory, empirical study, which uses the methodology of data collection and interpretation to draw conclusions. The researchers used the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, T-test and ANOVA test to calculate the degree of significance of the study questions. The findings of a basic linear regression study of the impact of AI implemented in Jordanian hotels on the integration of accounting information systems and the association between AI and the integration of accounting information systems (R = 59.6%) also indicate that the fixed limit value amounted to (2.060) and the value of (Beta) for T-test
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0057.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: multiclass classification; text mining; accounting control system
Online: 5 October 2020 (09:05:53 CEST)
Electronic invoicing has become mandatory for Italian companies since January 2019. Invoices are structured in a predefined xml template where the information reported can be easily extracted and analyzed. The main aim of this paper is to exploit the information structured in electronic invoices to build an intelligent system which can facilitate accountants work. More precisely, this contribution shows how it is possible to automate part of the accounting process: all sent or received invoices of a company are classified into specific codes which represent the economic nature of the the financial transactions. In order to classify data contained in the invoices a machine learning multiclass classification problem is proposed using as input variables the information of the invoices to predict two different target variables, account codes and the VAT codes, which composes a general ledger entry. Different approaches are compared in terms of prediction accuracy. The best performance is achieved considering the hierarchical structure of the account codes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0269.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: information and accounting support; accounts receivable; management; business
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:32:41 CEST)
The article explores the subject of information and accounting solutions for accounts receivable management that include appropriate accounting solutions and analytical techniques. The study focuses on the statutory framework for accounting for accounts receivable under the Russian Accounting Standards (RAP), International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The analytical techniques are described in the context of the authors' view on the essence of accounts receivable management that implies analysis, the establishment of a credit policy and of a discount policy. The article places emphasis on the use of available information technology for accounts payable management, such as blockchain-based smart contracts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0255.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Fagus sylvatica; emergy accounting; natural capital; ecosystem functions
Online: 9 March 2021 (10:07:16 CET)
Forest ecosystems are important providers of ecosystem functions and services belonging to four categories: supporting, provisioning, regulating, and cultural ecosystem services. Forest management, generally focused on timber production, has consequences on the ability of the system to keep providing services. Silviculture, in fact, may affect ecological structures and processes from which services arise. In particular, the removal of biomass causes a radical change in the stocks and flows of energy characterizing the system. Aiming at the assessment of differences in stored natural capital and ecosystem functions and services provision, three differently managed temperate forests of common beech (Fagus sylvatica) were considered: (1) a forest in semi-natural condition, (2) a forest carefully managed to get timber in a sustainable way and (3) a forest exploited without management. Natural capital and ecosystem functions and services are here accounted in biophysical terms. Specifically, all the resources used up to create the biomass (stock) and maintain the production (flow) of the different components of the forest system were calculated. Both stored emergy and empower decrease at increasing human pressure on the forest, resulting in a loss of natural capital and a diminished ability of the natural system to contribute to human well-being in terms of ecosystem services provision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0161.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Total factor productivity; growth accounting; economic growth; Zambia.
Online: 20 March 2017 (16:03:06 CET)
Most empirical work on sources of economic growth for different countries lack country-specific empirical evidence to guide policy choices in individual developing countries and previous studies of factor productivity tend to focus on the entire economy or a single sector. In this study, we use the recently developed growth accounting tools to explicitly determine the sources of economic growth at both national and sectoral levels in Zambia between 1970 and 2013. We use data from World Development Indicators and Zambia’s Central Statistical Office. On average, total factor productivity (TFP) contributes about 5.7% to economic growth. Sectoral analysis shows that agriculture contributes the least to GDP and that within each sector; factors that contribute to growth differ. Structural transformation has been slow and contributed to the observed inefficiency. We outline the implications of the observed growth and provide recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0250.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Garment firms; Lean; Lean accounting; Lean manufacture; Lean production
Online: 12 April 2023 (07:26:05 CEST)
The shift towards lean production is gradually replacing traditional mass production, and lean accounting is also being mentioned to evaluate operational efficiency based on the lean philosophy, eliminating waste, and simplifying direct cost aggregation along the value stream to improve productivity, distribution, quality, and service. This study aims to evaluate the impact of various factors on the adoption of lean accounting in Vietnamese garment firms, based on data collected from 242 survey questionnaires completed by managers and accountants of Vietnamese garment firms. Through Cronbach's Alpha test, EFA test, and multiple regression analysis to verify and forecast information, eight determinants affecting the adoption of Lean Accounting in Vietnamese garment firms are arranged in descending order of influence, including Leadership, Size, Cost of implementation, Resources, Accounting department, Education and training, Culture, and Competitive pressure. Based on the findings, recommendations are proposed to management businesses and agencies to address shortcomings in the process of applying lean accounting, contributing to making it one of the most effective tools in promoting product development and continuous improvement, enhancing quality and production efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0083.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Ratios; Financial Crisis; Covid-19; Big Data; Accounting Data
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:42:06 CEST)
The effects of the 2008 financial crisis undoubtedly caused problems not only to the banking sector but also to the real economy of the developed and the developing countries in almost all around the globe. Besides, as is widely known, every banking crisis entails the corresponding cost to the economy of each country affected by it, which results from the shakeout and the restructuring of its financial system. The purpose of this research is to investigate the consequences of the financial crisis and the COVID-19 health crisis and how these affected the course of the four systemic banks (Eurobank, Alpha Bank, National Bank, Piraeus Bank) through the analysis of ratios for the period of 2015-2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0402.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: MEFCA, Cost method; Turbine blade manufacturing; Environmental management accounting
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:06:43 CET)
It is often difficult to extract data on material and energy wates and related costs in the value chain of conventional production units. Many organizations are not fully aware of the actual cost of material and energy waste. For this purpose, advanced costing methods should be used. This study uses material and energy flow cost accounting to determine material costs, losses, and waste management. The case study of this research is the construction of turbine blades in Iran Power Plant Company. In this study, using the extracted data, the construction costs of turbine blades have been studied. The conventional method of making a turbine blade is the machining method, which we will see has a huge amount of wastes of materials and energy. By studying different methods, we will find that there is an alternative method called forging, which reduces losses and costs. Finally, the costs of the two methods are compared. Engineering economics techniques have also been used to compare two methods on a long-term planning horizon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0027.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental accounting; LCIA method; local government; OECD; statistical information
Online: 4 March 2019 (09:50:41 CET)
Environmental accounting should be performed by both private companies and local governments. However, it may be difficult for government agencies to objectively measure their current environmental impact, and there is currently no internationally standardized methodology of environmental accounting for local governments. This study therefore attempts to incorporate life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) into the calculation of environmental loads for administrative divisions. In LCIA, environmental loads for several impact categories, such as “Climate change” and “Land use,” are integrated into a simple indicator expressed in terms of monetary units. This study leverages the LIME-3 assessment theory, one of the endpoint-type and global-scale LCIA methods. Annual environmental loads for administrative divisions in 42 countries were measured in a tentative assessment. Results showed that the annual damages for the 42 countries to be USD 10.5 trillion. Assessment results are shown on the world map to highlight the regionality of the damages in the 42 countries’ administrative divisions. This study seeks to provide new knowledge that local governments around the world can use in environmental accounting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0303.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: transparency; accounting; internal control system; financial management; disbursement; a student organization
Online: 13 December 2020 (21:36:22 CET)
: A strong financialtransaction is an important factor in organizational triumph and sustainability, and it is elucidated in the revised student handbook of the University that can be found on page 96 rules 1 to 5. This study assessed the registered students organizations' profile in terms of its type, registration, years of establishment, functions, and designations of student leaders and advisers. The financial practices or internal control system manages their organizational finances and the problems encountered by the student organizations and eventually proposed a manual of operation for students and youth organization's internal control system. This research used the descriptive design with the aid of questionnaire; data gathering through quota sampling from 57 student leaders and advisers of different student organizations of NEUST. Findings showed that most organizations had their constitution and by-laws but kept only as files and renewal requirements. Some provisions were not known to the officers, mostly were registered more than five years in operation; however, in terms of functions of officers and advisers, the results showed that some functions were not done by the officers who supposed to do it like the auditors who serve as treasurers also, the PRO as the record keeper and the presidents who handled finances and collections and as well as disbursements of funds. Generally, the organizations' financial activities were deemed to be "good", especially budgeting and cash receipt, due to the implementation of "no collection and no tuition fee policy". The researchers concluded that the absence of the proper internal control systems and manual of operation and lack of proper transfer of financial records from the previous sets of officers were the serious problems that should be addressed. Moreover, the student organizations' internal control system could still be improved if there is proper training and supervision in accounting operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0080.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: LCIA method; local government; statistical information; gross regional product; environmental accounting
Online: 12 June 2019 (05:54:02 CEST)
It is important for enterprises to decide their environmental policies after carefully examining their future paths based on the relationship between the environment and the economy. This study focused on Japanese minimum administrative divisions (municipalities) and attempted to quantify the annual environmental efficiency of production activities within each division according to the theory of life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA). This study leverages the assessment theory LIME2, which is an endpoint-type LCIA method developed in 2010 that integrates environmental loads for certain impact categories, such as global warming and land use into a simple indicator by monetary unit. First, annual environmental impact assessments were conducted for all Japanese municipalities based on statistical information that was reliable, verifiable, and comparable. Next, the environmental efficiency of productivity for each division was conceptualized by dividing the gross domestic product by the environmental damage amounts as calculated above. Assessment results for each municipality were placed on a map of Japan in order to visualize the regionality of each indicator. The findings revealed in this study will aid public administrators in their decision-making process with respect to environmental policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0021.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: social and environmental risks disclosure, sustainability reporting, G4 GRI, management accounting
Online: 4 April 2017 (10:18:54 CEST)
Recent policies’ changes in sustainability reporting, such as the ones related to the new European Directive on non-financial disclosure, the standards issued by the American Sustainability Accounting Standard Board (SASB), the G4 guidelines issued by the Global Sustainability Standard Board (GSSB-GRI) and the framework of the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) are stressing about the importance of extending the disclosure of ethical, social and environmental risks within social and environmental reporting. Institutional pressure has notably increased among organizations, in setting-up risk management tools to understand sustainability risks within managerial and reporting practices. Given such institutional pressure, the corporate reaction in providing additional sustainability risk disclosure call for attention and scrutiny. Therefore, this study aims at addressing such issues from an exploratory perspective. We based our analysis on a sample of organizations that issued sustainability disclosure in accordance with the GRI G4 guidelines, and we tested the relationship between risk disclosure and other relevant variables. Consistently with the literature, we found that “experienced” sustainable reporters provide a significant volume of disclosure, and that disclosure quality on risk is positively influenced by their international presence and reporting experience. However, when accounting for specific risk-related areas of disclosure, only few of them seems to adopt a management accounting perspective linking strategy, risk metrics and disclosure.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: corporate sustainability reporting; environmental accounting and reporting; public universities; sustainability reporting; CSR
Online: 23 March 2020 (01:10:51 CET)
Corporate sustainability reporting, also known as Triple-bottom-line reporting, involves reporting nonfinancial and financial information to a broader set of stakeholders than just shareholders and seek to fortify an organization’s ability to manage key risks. The current case is that, the quality, rigor, and utility of sustainability reporting remains contentious with concerns about the suitability of the criteria or standards used to prepare the reports. Despite the rapid increase in the number of companies around the world adopting Global Reporting Initiative standards, little is known about the extent of practice of corporate sustainability reporting in public universities in Kenya. The study selected five universities that had their 2017-18 audited financial reports available online for the readers, which served as the main source of secondary data. The guidelines on corporate sustainability reporting was derived from literature review, which provided key indicators upon which the data from each university was evaluated. It was observed that almost all the institutions recognize the critical role of both internal and external independent audit of financial statements. In conclusion, financial reporting sustainability is guided by strict compliance to the factors of sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0258.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: accounting profession; women; gender; inequality; glass ceiling; gendered organizations; diversity management strategies
Online: 22 November 2019 (07:54:39 CET)
Considering the increasing number of women entering the accounting profession; it is timely to explore inequalities that still exist; and consider what policy processes continue to forge inequalities between men and women. Through a SLR of accounting and management journals during the period 1994-2017 we assess the different dynamics that have shaped inequalities between men and women, presenting both employee and employer perspectives of professional enhancement. The study is framed around conceptualizations of gendered organizations and highlights how cultural and social practices impact men and women differently. Our study finds there are still arrays of organization practices that have profound gendered effects. Our study shows that there are commonalities in research which include HR practices of recruitment, selection, and advancement; perceptions of women's visibility and invisibility at work; motherhood and childcare responsibilities; and discourses of the glass ceiling that constitute barriers to women's progression. Most importantly we reveal that constraints nowadays are similar to those identified in the 90s. We explored these gendered constructions and suggest relevant HR strategies that can aid women's advancement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0508.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: craft brewery, greenhouse gas accounting, carbon regulation, carbon footprint, cap and trade, institutional theory
Online: 22 October 2018 (15:40:11 CEST)
A growing number of companies in the brewery industry have made commitments to measure and reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, many brewers, particularly craft brewers with relatively low rates of production, have struggled to meet these commitments. The purpose of this research was to investigate the challenges and benefits of measuring and reducing GHG emissions in the craft brewery industry. The research was conducted in Ontario, Canada, which has seen strong recent growth in the craft brewery industry. A case study and semi-structured interviews among Ontario Craft Brewers were conducted. The case study found that indirect (scope 3 emissions under the WBCSD & WRI GHG Protocol) GHG sources accounted for 46.4% of total GHGs, with major sources from barley agriculture, malted barley transportation, and bottle production. Direct emissions (scope 1) accounted for only 14.9% of GHGs, while scope 2 emissions, comprised mainly of energy consumption, accounted for 38.7% of GHGs. The case study and interviews found that the main challenges in calculating brewery GHGs are secondary data availability, technical knowledge, and finances. The study also found that the main benefits for Ontario breweries to measure their GHGs include sustainability marketing and preserving the environment. The interviews also found a poor understanding of carbon regulation among Ontario Craft Brewers, which is interesting considering that Ontario implemented a provincial cap and trade program in 2017.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0058.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water rights; robustness; water governance; water scarcity; water allocation; water accounting; water trading; water sharing
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:43:15 CET)
A framework for the review of existing water management systems and their transformation into robust water sharing systems is offered. The framework focuses on the need to develop efficient and equitable ways to manage water scarcity and plan to deal with the tensions scarcity imposes on any community. The framework identifies a way to bring together traditional community-managed systems with those typically used to allocate water to large water users and more commonly found in developed countries. So that use can be kept within sustainable limits while optimizing use, the framework includes mechanisms that enable the reallocation of water as demand and supply conditions change. Non-consumptive uses are recognized and environmental objectives can be delivered efficiently. Compliance with well-established accounting and hydro-logical concepts. Ways to increase the value of existing entitlements, encourage innovation and protect investments are included as options. It is recognized that the governance and legal arrangements necessary to underpin successful implantation are context specific.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0025.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sustainability reporting; non-financial information; corporate social responsibility; accounting regulation; directive 2014/95; oil & gas
Online: 12 July 2017 (08:50:58 CEST)
The Directive 2014/95, in force in 2017, is the first European step that requires mandatory non-financial information to undertakings (all “public interest entities” with more than 500 employees). The regulation is concerning sustainability information as environmental, social and employee, human rights and anti-corruption and bribery matters and disclosure of diversity policy for board members. The study, in the strand of the regulation of accounting, part of the broader field of research into accounting regulation, contributes to the debate on the quality of regulation, in this specific case referred to sustainability disclosure. The regulation of sustainability matters is studied in literature broadly in a post-implementation phase and at national level. This research, instead, aims to analyse, through the causal chain of regulatory policy, in the ex-ante stage, the quality of the regulation and, at least, the usefulness of the normative pressure. The Oil & Gas sector is chosen as sample of the study, because it is one of the most advanced sectors in sustainability disclosure. The examination of the law, in terms of content requirements (what) and location of information (where), is the basis to apply the disclosure-scoring system, a partial form of content analysis, to the reports of the sample. The findings reveal a good level of completeness of non-financial information, however, there are some areas that have to be improved to reach the requests of the Directive. Results show also the presence of overlap between financial reports and sustainability ones. In conclusion, the regulation is useful to prompt undertakings to reflect on their reporting and so doing improve their sustainability approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0049.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: mental accounting; agricultural water fee; behavioral economics; decision making; information processing; representativeness; negative psychological externalities
Online: 25 August 2016 (10:12:08 CEST)
To better understand farmers’ refusal and corresponding negative emotions to pay agricultural water fee under current policy in rural China, this paper applies mental accounting, a behavioral economics framework, to explore how the governmental policies of reform of rural taxes and fees, direct agricultural subsidy programs and agricultural water fee individually influence farmers’ decisions in paying agricultural water fee. Using fieldwork data from 577 farmers and 20 water managers in Sichuan, we explore farmers’ information processing regarding paying agricultural water fee via three sequential mental accounting processes, with the associated underlying principles and measures behind each process. We find that the information processing in three mental accounting scenarios related to the agricultural water fee elucidates farmers’ observed behaviors in rural China. Generally, in the three mental accounting scenarios, two conditional intuitive expectations and nine conditional intuitive preferences are formed, however, the conditions of those expectations or preferences cannot be matched with the facts due to the reform of rural taxes and fees, the direct agricultural subsidy programs and the internal attributes of agricultural water fee, which interpret those negative behaviors in rural China. Additionally, this paper offers a view into how previous policies create negative psychological externalities (such as farmers’ psychological dependence on the government) through mental accounting to negatively influence agents’ subsequent decision making; it highlights the significance of underlying mental factors and information processing of negative behaviors in policymaking for managing or conserving common pool resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1214.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Lean Accounting; Lean Production; Just In Time; Ethical Standard; Cost Reduction; Sustainable Manufacturing; Backflush Costing, & Value Stream
Online: 17 May 2023 (09:40:53 CEST)
This article purposed to examine the impact of integration between Lean accounting (LA) tools & Just in Time (JIT) technique on Cost Reduction (CR) in modern manufacturing environment in Saudi establishments, these two variable moderated by Ethical Standards (ESs). A quantitative methodology was used for realizing the study objectives and answering study questions, the main tool exercised for producing the incipient data was a fully-structured questionnaire with closed ended questions, which was designed and passed around online among a selected sample of (109) managers and accountants in Saudi manufacturing firms. Descriptive and deductive statistics adopted to derive the findings, wherefore the compiled responses analyzed by SPSS & AMOS and the results showed that there is direct and indirect effect of LA tools & JIT technique on CR in Saudi industrial companies, especially when using ESs. These findings could provide decision makers in Saudi manufacturing companies with the acuity of adopting both methods in a combined way to maximize the profits of these firms. The results of this study also suggest that the application of LA tools & JIT technique has a positive effect on the promotion of sustainable manufacture and consequent achievement of high sustainable performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0336.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Environmental Accounting; Life Cycle Assessment; Marine Ecosystem Service; Indicators; Cost Benefit Analysis; Porto Cesareo Marine Protected Area; CICES
Online: 22 July 2022 (11:43:53 CEST)
The article focuses on the integrated environmental accounting model called 'eValue', developed for protected areas and applied in the research programme coordinated by the Italian Ministry of the Environment and aimed at implementing an environmental accounting system for Italian Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). eValue adopts a cost-benefit analysis approach. Financial accounting based on costs and revenues is integrated with environmental accounting, which reflects environmental costs and environmental revenues, i.e. environmental benefits. The environ-mental costs assess the impacts related to human activities in the MPA expressed by calculating the carbon footprint and the environmental benefits of the marine ecosystem services calculated by applying monetary valuation techniques. The values thus estimated flow into the annual flow account, where the value produced (or consumed) by the MPA is estimated by difference. The eValue model was applied to the Porto Cesareo MPA (Italy). eValue showed that the annual benefit-cost ratio reaches a value of 3.4. Furthermore, the ratio of net benefit to public funding is 3.7, completely covering the amount of public transfers and thus summarizing the MPA overall value for money.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0401.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Islamic accounting; mudarabah investment deposit; financial reporting of Islamic banks; profit equalization reserve; risk management for Islamic banks
Online: 27 February 2020 (11:22:54 CET)
The aim of this cross-country research is to examine how the profit and loss sharing mudarabah investment deposits are classified and disclosed in the financial statement of Islamic banks. The cross-country study examined the financial statements of fifty-one fully-fledged Islamic banks. The results of the data analysis show that Islamic banks disclose the mudarabah investment account in different ways. The absence of standardized disclosure for mudarabah investment deposit confuses the stakeholders. This research suggests to the regulators to fully or partially adopt the AAOIFI standards specifically for Islamic financial institutions.