REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0064.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: primary headache; migraine; trigeminal system; neuropeptides; neurogenic inflammation; animal model; inflammatory soup; dura mater; immune system; migraine treatment
Online: 3 November 2021 (08:30:58 CET)
Migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by unilateral throbbing, pulsing headache, which lasts for hours to days, and the pain can interfere with daily activities. It exhibits various symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, sound, and odors and physical activity consistently contributes to worsening pain. Despite the intensive research, little is still known about the pathomechanism of migraine. It is widely accepted that migraine involves activation and sensitization of the trigeminovascular system. It leads to the release of several pro-inflammatory neuropeptides and neurotransmitters and causes a cascade of inflammatory tissue responses including vasodilation, plasma extravasation secondary to capillary leakage, edema, and mast cell degranulation. Convincing evidence obtained in rodent models suggests that neurogenic inflammation is assumed to contribute to the development of a migraine attack. Chemical stimulation of the dura mater triggers activation and sensitization of the trigeminal system and causes numerous molecular and behavioral changes; therefore, this is a relevant animal model of acute migraine. This review article discusses the emerging evidence supporting the involvement of neurogenic inflammation and neuropeptides in the pathophysiology of migraine, presenting the most recent advances in preclinical research and the novel therapeutic approaches to the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chronic inflammation; low grade inflammation; immune tolerance; inflammatory factor; kynurenine; kynurenic acid; depression; bipolar disorder; substance use disorder; post-traumatic stress disorder; schizophrenia; autism spectrum disorder
Online: 14 June 2021 (10:06:50 CEST)
The tryptophan (TRP)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic pathway is a main player of TRP metabolism through which more than 95% of TRP is catabolized. The pathway is activated by acute and chronic immune responses leading to a wide range of illnesses including cancer, immune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and psychiatric disorders. The TRP-KYN pathway synthesizes multifarious metabolites including oxidants, antioxidants, neurotoxins, neuroprotectants, and immunomodulators. The immunomodulators are known to facilitate the immune system towards a tolerogenic state, resulting in chronic low-grade inflammation (LGI) that is commonly present in obesity, poor nutrition, exposer to chemicals or allergens, prodromal stage of various illnesses, and chronic diseases. KYN, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, and cinnabarinic acid are aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands that serve as immunomodulators. Furthermore, TRP-KYN pathway enzymes are known to be activated by the stress hormone cortisol and inflammatory cytokines, and genotypic variants were observed to contribute to inflammation and thus various diseases. The tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, the indoleamine 2, 3-oxygenases, and the kynurenine-3-monooxygenase are main enzymes in the pathway. This review article discusses the TRP-KYN pathway with special emphasis on its interaction with the immune system and the tolerogenic shift towards chronic LGI and overviews the major symptoms, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and toxic and protective KYNs to explore the linkage between chronic LGI, KYNs, and major psychiatric, including depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, substance use disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: migraine; neuropathic pain; calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP); kynurenine; glia; cytokines; neuroinflammation; transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels; endocannabinoids
Online: 4 January 2023 (01:53:45 CET)
Migraine and neuropathic pain (NP) are evocative of painful, disabling, chronic conditions which exhibit resembling symptoms and thus considered to share a common etiology. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has gained credit as a target for migraine management; nevertheless, the efficacy and the applicability of CGRP modifiers warrant search for more effective therapeutic targets for pain management. This scoping review overviews human studies of common pathogenic factors in migraine and NP to explore potential novel therapeutic targets. CGRP causes inflammation in the meninges; monoclonal antibodies and inhibitors target CGRP. Gluta-mate-induced hyperexcitability and subsequent sensitization are closely linked to an alteration of the tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic system; the Trp-KYN system may serve as a potential target. Microglial overaction is observed in migraine and NP; modifying the microglial activity may be a possible approach. Cytokine-induced inflammation is a leading hypothesis of the pathogenesis of the conditions; alleviating neuroinflammation may complement a pain-relieving armamentarium. Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels evoke the release of several substances; TRP ion channels may potentially emerge as new targets. The endocannabinoid system plays a major role in the pain trafficking pathway; modification of the system may open a new path toward discovery of new analgesics. Here we highlight the mechanism of those common pathogenic factors to explore therapeutic targets for innovative pain management in migraine and NP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Keywords: mitochondria; stress resilience; plasticity; stress; kynurenine; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative; depression; anxiety; psychiatric
Online: 8 July 2022 (03:56:36 CEST)
Nearly half a century has passed since the discovery of cytoplasmic inheritance of human chloramphenicol resistance. The inheritance was then revealed to take place maternally by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Later, a number of mutations in mtDNA were identified as a cause of severe inheritable metabolic diseases with neurological manifestation, and the impairment of mitochondrial functions has been probed in the pathogenesis of a wide range of illnesses including neurodegenerative diseases. Recently growing number of preclinical studies has revealed that animal behaviors are influenced by the impairment of mitochondrial functions and possibly by the loss of mitochondrial stress resilience. Indeed, as high as 54% of patients with one of the most common primary mitochondrial diseases, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, present psychiatric symptoms including cognitive impairment, mood disorder, anxiety, and psychosis. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles which produce cellular energy and play a major role in other cellular functions including homeostasis, cellular signaling, and gene expression, among other. Mitochondrial functions are observed to be compromised and to become less resilient under continuous stress. Meanwhile, stress and inflammation have been linked to the activation of the tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic system, which observably contributes to development of pathological conditions including neurological and psychiatric disorders. This narrative review discusses the functions of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system, the interaction of the Trp-KYN system with mitochondria, and the current understanding of the involvement of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system in preclinical and clinical studies of major neurological and psychiatric diseases.