Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Pattern-Multiplicative Average of Nonnegative Matrices Revisited: Eigenvalue Approximation Is the Best of Versatile Optimization Tools

Version 1 : Received: 5 June 2023 / Approved: 6 June 2023 / Online: 6 June 2023 (05:44:29 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Logofet, D.O. Pattern-Multiplicative Average of Nonnegative Matrices Revisited: Eigenvalue Approximation Is the Best of Versatile Optimization Tools. Mathematics 2023, 11, 3237. Logofet, D.O. Pattern-Multiplicative Average of Nonnegative Matrices Revisited: Eigenvalue Approximation Is the Best of Versatile Optimization Tools. Mathematics 2023, 11, 3237.

Abstract

Given several nonnegative matrices with a single pattern of allocation among their zero/nonzero elements, the average matrix should have the same pattern, too. This is the first tenet of the pattern-multiplicative average (PMA) concept, while the second one suggests the multiplicative (or geometric) nature of averaging. The original concept of PMA was motivated by the practice of matrix population models as a tool to assess the population viability from long-term monitoring data. The task has reduced to searching for an approximate solution to an overdetermined system of polynomial equations for unknown elements of the average matrix (G), hence to a nonlinear constrained minimization problem for the matrix norm. Former practical solutions faced certain technical problems, which required sophisticated algorithms but returned acceptable estimates. Fresh idea to use the eigenvalue approximation ensues also from the basic equation of averaging, which determines the exact value of λ1(G), the dominant eigenvalue of matrix G, too, and the corre-sponding eigenvector. These are bound by the well-known linear equations, which reduce the task to a standard problem of linear programing (LP). The LP approach is realized for 13 fixed-pattern matrices gained in a case study of Androsace albana, an alpine short-lived perennial, monitored on permanent plots during 14 years. A standard software routine reveals the unique exact solution, rather than an approximate one, to the PMA problem, which turns the LP approach into ‘’the best of versatile optimization tools”. The exact solution turns out to be peculiar in reaching zero bounds for certain nonnegative entries of G, which deserves a modified problem formulation separating the lower bounds from zero.

Keywords

matrix population model; Androsace albana; life cycle graph; population projection matrix; matrix average; constrained optimization; linear programming; exact solution

Subject

Computer Science and Mathematics, Applied Mathematics