Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Tutorial on Bayesian Optimization

Version 1 : Received: 15 March 2023 / Approved: 16 March 2023 / Online: 16 March 2023 (01:36:11 CET)

How to cite: Nguyen, L. Tutorial on Bayesian Optimization. Preprints 2023, 2023030292. Nguyen, L. Tutorial on Bayesian Optimization. Preprints 2023, 2023030292.


Machine learning forks into three main branches such as supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning where reinforcement learning is much potential to artificial intelligence (AI) applications because it solves real problems by progressive process in which possible solutions are improved and finetuned continuously. The progressive approach, which reflects ability of adaptation, is appropriate to the real world where most events occur and change continuously and unexpectedly. Moreover, data is getting too huge for supervised learning and unsupervised learning to draw valuable knowledge from such huge data at one time. Bayesian optimization (BO) models an optimization problem as a probabilistic form called surrogate model and then directly maximizes an acquisition function created from such surrogate model in order to maximize implicitly and indirectly the target function for finding out solution of the optimization problem. A popular surrogate model is Gaussian process regression model. The process of maximizing acquisition function is based on updating posterior probability of surrogate model repeatedly, which is improved after every iteration. Taking advantages of acquisition function or utility function is also common in decision theory but the semantic meaning behind BO is that BO solves problems by progressive and adaptive approach via updating surrogate model from a small piece of data at each time, according to ideology of reinforcement learning. Undoubtedly, BO is a reinforcement learning algorithm with many potential applications and thus it is surveyed in this research with attention to its mathematical ideas. Moreover, the solution of optimization problem is important to not only applied mathematics but also AI.


Bayesian optimization; Gaussian process regression; acquisition function; machine learning; reinforcement learning


Computer Science and Mathematics, Mathematics

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