Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Satellite and in situ Sampling Mismatches: Consequences for the Estimate of Satellite Sea Surface Salinity Uncertainties

Version 1 : Received: 14 February 2022 / Approved: 22 February 2022 / Online: 22 February 2022 (02:44:05 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Thouvenin-Masson, C.; Boutin, J.; Vergely, J.-L.; Reverdin, G.; Martin, A.C.H.; Guimbard, S.; Reul, N.; Sabia, R.; Catany, R.; Hembise Fanton-d’Andon, O. Satellite and In Situ Sampling Mismatches: Consequences for the Estimation of Satellite Sea Surface Salinity Uncertainties. Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 1878. Thouvenin-Masson, C.; Boutin, J.; Vergely, J.-L.; Reverdin, G.; Martin, A.C.H.; Guimbard, S.; Reul, N.; Sabia, R.; Catany, R.; Hembise Fanton-d’Andon, O. Satellite and In Situ Sampling Mismatches: Consequences for the Estimation of Satellite Sea Surface Salinity Uncertainties. Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 1878.

Journal reference: Remote Sens. 2022, 14, 1878
DOI: 10.3390/rs14081878

Abstract

Validation of satellite sea surface salinity (SSS) products is typically based on comparisons with in-situ measurements at a few meters depth, that are mostly done at a single location and time. The difference in term of spatio-temporal resolution between the in-situ near-surface salinity and the two-dimensional satellite SSS results in a sampling mismatch uncertainty. The Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project has merged SSS from three satellite missions. Using an optimal interpolation, weekly and monthly SSS and their uncertainties are estimated at a 50 km spatial resolution over the global ocean. Over the 2016-2018 period the mean uncertainty on weekly CCI SSS is 0.13, whereas the standard deviation of weekly CCI minus in-situ Argo salinities is 0.24. Using high resolution SSS simulations, we estimate the expected uncertainty due to the CCI versus Argo sampling mismatch. Most of the largest spatial variability of the satellite minus Argo salinity are observed in regions with large mismatch. A quantitative validation is performed by considering the statistical distribution of the CCI minus Argo salinity normalized by the sampling and retrieval uncertainties. This quantity should follow a Gaussian distribution with a standard deviation of 1, if all uncertainty contributions are properly considered. We find that 1) the sampling mismatch can explain most of the observed differences between Argo and CCI data, especially for monthly products and in dynamical regions (river plumes, fronts), 2) overall, the uncertainties are well estimated in CCI version 3, much better compared to CCI version 2. There are a few dynamical regions where discrepancies remain, and where the satellite SSS, their associated uncertainties and the sampling mismatch estimates should be further validated.

Keywords

sea surface salinity; sampling mismatch; sub footprint variability; uncertainty; validation

Subject

EARTH SCIENCES, Oceanography

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