Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

New Hope for Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia (BPSD): A Narrative Review of Clinical Studies Conducted in the Symptomatic Treatments for Agitation and Psychosis Episodes in Alzheimer’s Disease/Dementia

Version 1 : Received: 6 January 2022 / Approved: 10 January 2022 / Online: 10 January 2022 (11:12:38 CET)

How to cite: Qasim, H.S.; Simpson, M.D. New Hope for Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia (BPSD): A Narrative Review of Clinical Studies Conducted in the Symptomatic Treatments for Agitation and Psychosis Episodes in Alzheimer’s Disease/Dementia. Preprints 2022, 2022010098 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202201.0098.v1). Qasim, H.S.; Simpson, M.D. New Hope for Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms in Dementia (BPSD): A Narrative Review of Clinical Studies Conducted in the Symptomatic Treatments for Agitation and Psychosis Episodes in Alzheimer’s Disease/Dementia. Preprints 2022, 2022010098 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202201.0098.v1).

Abstract

Background: The psychomotor agitation of the BPSD is one of the common issues in aged care facilities, leading to the poor functional and medical consequences. Psychotropic interventions are the preferable choice of treatment. But which medication should be the prescribers first preference? This review aims to compare pharmacological interventions for psychomotor agitation, judging them according to their effectuality and justifiability profiles. This is to be achieved by retrieving information from RCTs and systematic reviews. Objectives: This review evaluates evidence from RCTs, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses of BPSD patients who had taken agitation treatments. Assessing the efficacy of antidepressants and antipsychotic treatments when compared to each other for the purpose of improving agitation outcomes. Methods: This narrative review includes RCTs and retrospective studies that were comparing one or more active ingredient medications with another or with a placebo, along with sys-tematic reviews comparing antidepressants with antipsychotics such as quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone. Studies extracted by searching accessing databases, such as PubMed, OVID, and Cochrane with restrictions of date from 2000 to 2021 and English language. Quality of evidence: The quality of systematic reviews was judged against AMSTAR score, and RCTs were judged according to CONSORT checklist for RCT protocols. Conclusion: There are still few studies of serotonin targeting treatment of agitation in BPSD. The SSRIs such as citalopram were associated with a reduction in symptoms of agitation, and lower risk of adverse effects compared to antipsychotics. This review also illustrates brexpiprazole as a target of multimodal neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine; and dextromethorphan, OR dextromethorphan associated with bupropion or quinidine as a blockade of NMDA receptors. The outcome of this review suggests that further studies involving more dementia/Alzheimer’s participants should be conducted. Future studies are required also to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of SSRI, brexpiprazole, dextromethorphan treatments for agitation in BPSD.

Keywords

BPSD; Alzheimer’s dementia; agitation; psychosis; SSRIs; antipsychotics; brexpiprazole; dextromethorphan

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Behavioral Neuroscience

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