Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Nanotechnology as a Versatile Tool for 19F-MRI Agent’s Formulation: A Glimpse into the Use of Perfluorinated and Fluorinated Compounds in Nanoparticles

Version 1 : Received: 7 December 2021 / Approved: 8 December 2021 / Online: 8 December 2021 (12:18:26 CET)

How to cite: Joseph, J.M.; Gigliobianco, M.R.; Firouzabadi, B.M.; Censi, R.; Di Martino, P. Nanotechnology as a Versatile Tool for 19F-MRI Agent’s Formulation: A Glimpse into the Use of Perfluorinated and Fluorinated Compounds in Nanoparticles. Preprints 2021, 2021120124 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0124.v1). Joseph, J.M.; Gigliobianco, M.R.; Firouzabadi, B.M.; Censi, R.; Di Martino, P. Nanotechnology as a Versatile Tool for 19F-MRI Agent’s Formulation: A Glimpse into the Use of Perfluorinated and Fluorinated Compounds in Nanoparticles. Preprints 2021, 2021120124 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0124.v1).

Abstract

Simultaneously being a non-radiative and non-invasive technique makes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) one of the highly sought imaging techniques for the early diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Despite more than four decades of research on finding a suitable imaging agent from fluorine for clinical applications, it still lingers as a challenge to get the regulatory approval compared to its hydrogen counterpart. The pertinent hurdle is the simultaneous intrinsic hydrophobicity and lipophobicity of fluorine and its derivatives that make them insoluble in any liquids, strongly limiting their application in areas such as targeted delivery. A blossoming technique to circumvent the unfavorable physicochemical characteristics of perfluorocarbon compounds (PFCs) and guarantee a high local concentration of fluorine in the desired body part is to encapsulate them in nanosystems. In this review, we will be emphasizing different types of nanocarrier systems studied to encapsulate various PFCs and fluorinated compounds, headway to be applied as a contrast agent (CA) in fluorine-19 MRI (19F MRI). We would also scrutinize the different types of PFCs and their specific applications and limitations concerning the nanoparticle (NP) system used to encapsulate them studied over the last decade. A critical evaluation for future opportunities would be speculated.

Keywords

Magnetic resonance imaging; perfluorocarbons; imaging agent; nanosystems; nanoparticles; fluorine

Subject

CHEMISTRY, Physical Chemistry

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