Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A View of Waste Might Decrease Relaxation: The Effects of Viewing an Open Dump in a Forest Environment on the Psychological Response of Healthy Young Adults

Version 1 : Received: 6 December 2021 / Approved: 7 December 2021 / Online: 7 December 2021 (11:30:56 CET)

How to cite: Bielinis, E.; Janeczko, E.; Takayama, N.; Zawadzka, A.; Słupska, A.; Anna, Z.; Lidia, B. A View of Waste Might Decrease Relaxation: The Effects of Viewing an Open Dump in a Forest Environment on the Psychological Response of Healthy Young Adults. Preprints 2021, 2021120099 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0099.v1). Bielinis, E.; Janeczko, E.; Takayama, N.; Zawadzka, A.; Słupska, A.; Anna, Z.; Lidia, B. A View of Waste Might Decrease Relaxation: The Effects of Viewing an Open Dump in a Forest Environment on the Psychological Response of Healthy Young Adults. Preprints 2021, 2021120099 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0099.v1).

Abstract

Forest recreation can be successfully used for the psychological relaxation of respondents and can be used as a remedy for common problems with stress. The special form of forest recreation intended for restoration is forest bathing. These activities might be distracted by some factors, such as viewing buildings in the forest or using a computer in nature, which interrupt psychological relaxation. One factor that might interrupt psychological relaxation is the occurrence of an open dump in the forest during an outdoor experience. To test the hypothesis that an open dump might decrease psychological relaxation, a case study was planned that used a randomized, controlled crossover design. For this purpose, two groups of healthy young adults viewed a control forest or a forest with an open dump in reverse order and filled in psychological questionnaires after each stimulus. A pretest was used. Participants wore oblique eye patches to stop their visual stimulation before the experimental stimulation, and the physical environment was monitored. The results were analyzed using the two-way repeated measures ANOVA. The measured negative psychological indicators significantly increased after viewing the forest with waste, and the five indicators of the Profile of Mood States increased: Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion. In addition, the negative aspect of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule increased in comparison to the control and pretest. The measured positive indicators significantly decreased after viewing the forest with waste, the positive aspect of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule decreased, and the Restorative Outcome Scale and Subjective Vitality scores decreased (in comparison to the control and pretest). The occurrence of an open dump in the forest might interrupt a normal restorative experience in the forest by reducing psychological relaxation. Nevertheless, the mechanism of these relevancies is not known, and thus, it will be further investigated. In addition, in a future study, the size of the impact of these open dumps on normal everyday experiences should be investigated. It is proposed that different mechanisms might be responsible for these reactions; however, the aim of this manuscript is to only measure this reaction. The identified psychological reasons for these mechanisms can be assessed in further studies.

Keywords

forest experience; open dump; waste

Subject

EARTH SCIENCES, Environmental Sciences

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