Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Elastic Laminar Reorganization Occurs with Outward Diameter Expansion during Collateral Artery Growth and Requires Lysyl Oxidase for Stabilization

Version 1 : Received: 15 November 2021 / Approved: 18 November 2021 / Online: 18 November 2021 (10:59:12 CET)

How to cite: McEnaney, R.M.; McCreary, D.D.; Skirtich, N.; Andraska, E.; Sachdev, U.; Tzeng, E. Elastic Laminar Reorganization Occurs with Outward Diameter Expansion during Collateral Artery Growth and Requires Lysyl Oxidase for Stabilization. Preprints 2021, 2021110320 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0320.v1). McEnaney, R.M.; McCreary, D.D.; Skirtich, N.; Andraska, E.; Sachdev, U.; Tzeng, E. Elastic Laminar Reorganization Occurs with Outward Diameter Expansion during Collateral Artery Growth and Requires Lysyl Oxidase for Stabilization. Preprints 2021, 2021110320 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0320.v1).

Abstract

When a large artery becomes occluded, hemodynamic changes stimulate remodeling of arterial networks to form collateral arteries in a process termed arteriogenesis. However, the structural changes necessary for collateral remodeling have not been defined. We hypothesize that decon-struction of the extracellular matrix is essential to the remodeling of smaller arteries into effective collaterals. Using multiphoton microscopy, we analyzed collagen and elastin structure in maturing collateral arteries isolated from ischemic rat hindlimbs. Collateral arteries harvested at different timepoints showed progressive diameter expansion associated with striking rearrangement of in-ternal elastic lamina (IEL) into a loose fibrous mesh, a pattern persisting at 8 weeks. Despite a 2.5-fold increase in luminal diameter, total elastin content remained unchanged in collaterals compared with control arteries. Among the collateral midzones, baseline elastic fiber content is low. Outward remodeling of these vessels with a 10-20 fold diameter increase was associated with fractures of the elastic fibers and evidence of increased wall tension as demonstrated by straight-ening of the adventitial collagen. Inhibition of lysyl oxidase (LOX) function with β-aminopropionitrile resulted in severe fragmentation or complete loss of continuity of the IEL in developing collaterals. Collateral artery development is associated with permanent redistribution of existing elastic fibers to accommodate diameter growth. We found no evidence of new elastic fiber formation. Stabilization of the arterial wall during outward remodeling is necessary and dependent on LOX activity.

Keywords

Arteriogenesis; Arterial structure; extracellular matrix; peripheral arterial disease; collateral circulation

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Other

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