Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Roles of the Virome in Cancer

Version 1 : Received: 31 October 2021 / Approved: 3 November 2021 / Online: 3 November 2021 (14:30:14 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Broecker, F.; Moelling, K. The Roles of the Virome in Cancer. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 2538. Broecker, F.; Moelling, K. The Roles of the Virome in Cancer. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 2538.


Viral infections as well as changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and virome have been linked to cancer. Moreover, the success of cancer immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors has been correlated with the intestinal microbial composition of patients. The transfer of feces – which contains mainly bacteria and their viruses (phages) – from immunotherapy responders to non-responders, known as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), has been shown to be able convert some non-responders to responders. Since phages may also increase the response to immunotherapy, for example by inducing T cells cross-reacting with cancer antigens, modulating phage populations may provide a new avenue to improve immunotherapy responsiveness. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the human virome and its links to cancer, and discuss the potential utility of bacteriophages in increasing the responder rate for cancer immunotherapy.


virome; microbiota; cancer; bacteriophages; fecal microbiota transplantation; checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy


Biology and Life Sciences, Virology

Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
* All users must log in before leaving a comment
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.