Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A New Stacking Based Ensemble Predictive Model to Predict the Mortality after Heart Surgery on a Highly Imbalanced Dataset

Version 1 : Received: 29 August 2021 / Approved: 10 September 2021 / Online: 10 September 2021 (10:53:35 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Journal reference: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization 2022
DOI: 10.1080/21681163.2022.2063189


Nowadays, according to spectacular improvement in health care and biomedical level, a tremendous amount of data is recorded by hospitals. In addition, the most effective approach to reduce disease mortality is to diagnose it as soon as possible. As a result, data mining by applying machine learning in the field of diseases provides good opportunities to examine the hidden patterns of this collection. An exact forecast of the mortality after heart surgery will cause Successful medical treatment and fewer costs. This research wants to recommend a new stacking predictive model after utilizing the random forest feature importance method to foresee the mortality after heart surgery on a highly unbalanced dataset by using the most practical features. To solve the unbalanced data problem, a combination of the SVM-SMOTE over-sampling algorithm and the Edited-Nearest-Neighbor under-sampling algorithm is used. This research compares the introduced model with some other machine learning classifiers to ensure efficiency through shuffle hold-out and 10-fold cross-validation strategies. In order to validate the performance of the implemented machine learning methods in this research, both shuffle hold-out, and 10-fold cross-validation results indicated that our model had the highest efficiency compared to the other models. Furthermore, the Friedman statistical test is applied to survey the differences between models. The result demonstrates that the introduced stacking model reached the most accurate predicting performance after Logistic Regression.


Classification; stacking ensemble method; heart surgery; unbalanced data problem; hybrid predictive model; machine learning in healthcare; resampling method; Edited-Nearest-Neighbor; nonparametric test.

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