Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

EconLedger: A Proof-of-ENF Consensus based Lightweight Distributed Ledger for IoVT Networks

Version 1 : Received: 7 September 2021 / Approved: 8 September 2021 / Online: 8 September 2021 (20:42:34 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Xu, R.; Nagothu, D.; Chen, Y. EconLedger: A Proof-of-ENF Consensus Based Lightweight Distributed Ledger for IoVT Networks. Future Internet 2021, 13, 248. Xu, R.; Nagothu, D.; Chen, Y. EconLedger: A Proof-of-ENF Consensus Based Lightweight Distributed Ledger for IoVT Networks. Future Internet 2021, 13, 248.

Journal reference: Future Internet 2021, 13, 248
DOI: 10.3390/fi13100248

Abstract

The rapid advancement in artificial intelligence (AI) and wide deployment of Internet of Video Things (IoVT) enable situation awareness (SAW). Robustness and security of the IoVT systems are essential to a sustainable urban environment. While blockchain technology has shown great potentials to enable trust-free and decentralized security mechanisms, directly embedding crypto-currency oriented blockchain schemes into resource-constrained Internet of Video Things (IoVT) networks at the edge is not feasible. Leveraging Electrical Network Frequency (ENF) signals extracted from multimedia recordings as region-of-recording proofs, this paper proposes EconLedger, an ENF-based consensus mechanism that enables secure and lightweight distributed ledgers for small scale IoVT edge networks. The proposed consensus mechanism relies on a novel Proof-of-ENF (PoENF) algorithm where a validator is qualified to generate a new block if and only if a proper ENF-containing multimedia signal proof is produced within the current round. Decentralized database (DDB) is adopted to guarantee efficiency and resilience of raw ENF proofs on the off-chain storage. A proof-of-concept prototype is developed and tested in a physical IoVT network environment. The experimental results validated the feasibility of the proposed EconLedger to provide a trust-free and partially decentralized security infrastructure for IoVT edge networks.

Keywords

Electrical Network Frequency (ENF); Proof-of-ENF (PoENF); Consensus; Blockchain; Security; Internet of Video Things (IoVT)

Subject

MATHEMATICS & COMPUTER SCIENCE, Information Technology & Data Management

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