Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Inclination Estimates from Off-Axis GRB Afterglow Modelling

Version 1 : Received: 30 July 2021 / Approved: 2 August 2021 / Online: 2 August 2021 (12:40:42 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Lamb, G.P.; Fernández, J.J.; Hayes, F.; Kong, A.K.H.; Lin, E.-T.; Tanvir, N.R.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I.S.; Saha, S.; Veitch, J. Inclination Estimates from Off-Axis GRB Afterglow Modelling. Universe 2021, 7, 329. Lamb, G.P.; Fernández, J.J.; Hayes, F.; Kong, A.K.H.; Lin, E.-T.; Tanvir, N.R.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I.S.; Saha, S.; Veitch, J. Inclination Estimates from Off-Axis GRB Afterglow Modelling. Universe 2021, 7, 329.

Journal reference: Universe 2021, 7, 329
DOI: 10.3390/universe7090329

Abstract

For gravitational wave (GW) detected neutron star mergers, one of the leading candidates for electromagnetic (EM) counterparts is the afterglow from an ultra-relativistic jet. Where this afterglow is observed, it will likely be viewed off-axis, such as the afterglow following GW170817/GRB 170817A. The temporal behaviour of an off-axis observed GRB afterglow can be used to reveal the lateral jet structure, and statistical model fits can put constraints on the various model free-parameters. Amongst these parameters is the inclination of the system to the line of sight. Along with the GW detection, the afterglow modelling provides the best constraint on the inclination to the line-of-sight and can improve the estimates of cosmological parameters e.g. the Hubble constant, from GW-EM events. However, modelling of the afterglow depends on the assumed jet structure and, often overlooked, the effects of lateral spreading. Here we show how the inclusion of lateral spreading in the afterglow models can affect the estimated inclination of GW-EM events.

Keywords

GW-EM counterparts; GRB afterglows; GW170817/GRB 170817A

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